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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 100, 2014


IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 100, 2014

Working Group "Landscape Management for Functional Biodiversity".
Proceedings of the meeting at Poznan, Poland, 21 - 23 May, 2014.
Editors: John Holland, Bärbel Gerowitt, Felix Bianchi, Andrzej Kędziora, Daniela Lupi, Maarten van Helden, Camilla Moonen and Paul van Rijn.
ISBN 978-92-9067-280-7 [V + 158 pp.]


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Quantifying movement of the predator carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius in arable land
Bas Allema, Walter Rossing, Wopke van der Werf, Lia Hemerik, Jeroen Groot, Eveliene Steingröver, Joop van Lenteren

Abstract: Current knowledge on entomophagous arthropod distribution and movement patterns, in particular for soil-dwelling predators, is insufficient to provide advice on how a production landscape should be re-arranged to maximally benefit from biological pest control. Movement has mainly been measured in single habitats rather than in habitat mosaics, and little information is available on behaviour at the border between two habitats, i.e. a habitat interface. In this paper we summarize results of a meta-analysis on motility μ (L2 T−1), a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time, of carabids in arable land and on the quantification of dispersal behaviour of the predator carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius in arable land. Movement of this species was measured using video equipment in experimental arenas and at much larger scale in the field using mark-recapture. Interpretation of the results was supported by diffusion models that accounted for habitat specific motility, preference behaviour at habitat interfaces and beetle losses. We found distinct differences in motility of this species between habitat types and preferential movement behaviour at habitat interfaces. Especially the crop-margin interface resulted in a strong bias in movement directed towards the crop, indicating that semi-natural elements act as barriers for movement of P. melanarius during the growing season. Based on the parameter values obtained in this study we expect little redistribution of beetles between fields during summer, especially when fields are separated by semi-natural elements.


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The effects of mulching as habitat manipulation on the biodiversity of spiders (Araneae) on potato fields in Hungary
Gergely Ambrus, Péter Dudás & Ferenc Tóth

Abstract: Mulching is an effective method to preserve soil fertility in arable and horticultural cropping systems, but it can also have an effect on plant protection.
Several studies have demonstrated the potential of mulching to suppress weeds and to retain soil humidity in the dry and warm season. According to a study on spiders found in agricultural habitats, mulching can change the distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods as well. Since spiders may play a role in pest control in the crop growing season in 2012 our team studied the effect of mulching on the spider fauna of potato at eight locations in Hungary.


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Potential of different species of winter cress (Brassicaceae) as dead-end trap crops for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
Francisco R. Badenes-Perez, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, David G. Heckel

Abstract: Dead-end trap crops are a particular type of trap crops that are highly attractive to the target insect pest, but do not allow its survival. Different Barbarea spp. (Brassicaceae) were compared to study their potential as dead-end trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Barbarea plants were assessed based on the content of glucosinolates, which can stimulate oviposition in P. xylostella; and the content of saponins, which are detrimental to P. xylostella larvae. All Barbarea plants tested were preferred over cabbage and broccoli by ovipositing P. xylostella. Among Barbarea plants, few significant differences in oviposition preference by P. xylostella were found. Despite containing a lower content of saponins than other Barbarea plants tested, B. verna did not allow survival of P. xylostella larvae. Our study shows that, except for B. rupicola, which allowed survival of P. xylostella larvae, all Barbarea plants tested have potential as dead-end trap crops for P. xylostella when used with a crop of broccoli or cabbage.


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Impact of drought and regulated deficit irrigation on attractiveness of Diplotaxis tenuifolia (Brassicaceae) to bees and hoverflies
Jelena Barbir, José Dorado, César Fernández-Quintanilla, Tijana Blanusa, Cedo Maksimovic, Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

Abstract: Wild rocket, Diplotaxis tenuifolia (Brassicaceae), is one of the three commercially cultivated rocket species, which demand and production has recently increased in Mediterranean countries. Besides its use as a crop, it has been recommended as a beneficial insectary plant in habitat management of agro-ecosystems due to its long flowering duration and its attractiveness to pollinators (bees and hoverflies) in Central Spain. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of different regimes of drought, moderate deficit irrigation (MDI) and severe deficit irrigation (SDI) on attractiveness of D. tenuifolia to pollinators. The results showed that in late spring-summer conditions, potted D. tenuifolia can cope with drought of 4 days without having any consequences on neither number of flowers or attractiveness of D. tenuifolia to pollinators. However, a drought period of 8 days or longer, reduced the number of flowers and their attractiveness to pollinators. Additionally, the study showed that regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) can improve the water use efficiency without affecting the floral development and attractiveness of D. tenuifolia to bees and hoverflies.


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Wildflowers that serve as food supply for the parasitoid Microplitis mediator improve the effectiveness of biological control in a cabbage field
Guendalina Barloggio, Mathias Kölliker, Henryk Luka and Oliver Balmer

Abstract: Agricultural landscapes are a very suitable environment for crop herbivore pests, providing them an almost unlimited food source. On the other hand these fields are poor environments for the nectar feeding parasitic wasps, like Microplitis mediator (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In the light of natural pest management it is therefore important to make the crop field more attractive for pests’ natural enemies, for example by adding wildflowers along or inside the crop field. Experiments identifying attractive and beneficial wildflowers were all conducted under laboratory conditions. However, it is important to test their attractiveness also under field conditions, in order to understand their suitability to biological control. We tested the distance-dependent attractiveness of a wildflower strip placed along a cabbage field using a Y-tube field olfactometer. Simultaneously we collected air samples that we analysed in the laboratory to link the behavioural response to the volatile profile of the air. We demonstrate that the selected wildflowers are attractive for M. mediator also under field conditions, supporting the usefulness of these flowers in biological pest control.


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Pollinator community response to vegetation of semi-natural habitats around arable fields
Agustín M. Bartual, Anna-Camilla Moonen

Abstract: Semi-natural habitats (SNH) might develop a role in agricultural landscapes supporting pollinators in some or all of their life stages. Six types of SNH were assessed regarding their floral composition and pollinator’s presence. Woody linear elements attracted most of the Bombus species while herbaceous ones hosted most of the wild/solitary bees. Hoverflies and butterflies were widely present in both types of SNH. Alfalfa fields seemed to play a role as periodic feed resources for Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris.


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Field margins for biocontrol and biodiversity across crop rotations: Overview of the aims and approaches of Defra project IF01122
Jason Baverstock, Judith. K. Pell, Jonathan Storkey, Martin T. Torrance, Samantha M. Cook

Abstract: Managed field margins that deliver multiple services and take account of agronomic practicality in their management are essential for the delivery of environmental benefits through agri-environment schemes. Whilst the primary driver in field margin design has been to provide resources for birds and pollinators, recent projects have demonstrated the value of field margins containing winter bird seed cover and floristically enhanced grassland in supporting a high abundance and diversity of natural enemies of crop pests and increased natural pest suppression on farms with these margins. The aim of the project described here is to improve existing biennial and perennial field margins by (i) evaluating how the season over which resources are available for natural enemies of pests can be extended, (ii) developing techniques to ensure natural enemies move from margins and into the crop and (iii) further understanding the influence of habitat manipulation on interactions between natural enemies of pests.


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Constraints for studying the management of cereal moth borers with a landscape approach: a case study in North Benin
Robin Drieu, Pierre Silvie, Philippe Menozzi, Cyrille Adda, Joel Huat, Sandrine Auzoux, Valérie Soti, Régis Goebel

Abstract: Landscape ecology is a discipline that has shown an increasing interest to understand certain pest problems and their control by natural enemies in temperate climate. In Benin, in a very different climatic, social and economic context compared to Europe, this approach was carried out in two lowland rice cropping systems during the rainy season, with a specific focus on stem and cob borers. The landscape was mapped and studied regarding its composition and structure and pest species were identified. A high variability of infestation was observed in a context of relatively low pest pressure. This paper presents the preliminary results which still need to be analyzed thoroughly.


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Field margin vegetation as a bridge for predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) migration into raspberry plantations
Jakub Garnis, Zbigniew T. Dąbrowski

Abstract: In the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons in middle-eastern Poland seven plantations and their margins were selected for detailed studies on the plant species role as the resource plants for predatory mites, the natural enemies of spider mites. Occurrence of the predatory mites (Phytoseiidae family) was regularly monitored during the growing season on plants growing in the close vicinity (a field verge) of a plantation and on its boundary. Two season observation confirmed that the effective reservoir for predatory mites were rather herbaceous plants than the trees and shrubs growing on the plantation edge. Numerous plant species surrounding raspberry plantations in Poland harbor predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family. Plant species as: Corylus avellana, Geum urbanum and Urtica dioica were identified as a good reservoir of predatory mites. Their presence in the vicinity of plantations can potentially increase abundance of the Phytoseiidae mites on raspberry plantations. The highest population of the predatory mites was recorded on Rubus idaeus but not all recorded Phytoseiidae species are equally effective as natural enemies of spider mites. The herbaceous plants probably serve as “a bridge” between the permanent vegetation growing on the field margin and the raspberry plants.


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Flowering crops as nutritional resources for Ascogaster quadridentata (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and other beneficials in agroecosystems
Annette Herz and Gudrun Eder

Abstract: Various flowering crops (buckwheat, Phacelia, mustard, parsnip, flax, Viper’s bugloss) were evaluated for their potential to support natural enemies and pollinators in small scale field trials. Potential impact of these plants on survival and parasitism capacity of the braconid Ascogaster quadridentata, a key natural enemy of several tortricid pests, was assessed. Furthermore, flower visitors (natural enemies, pollinators) were documented during the peak flowering period of these plants. A. quadridentata survived better and parasitized more hosts when provided with parsnip and flax. Parasitoid wasps were more attracted to water traps placed in mustard, Phacelia and buckwheat, whereas honeybees were significantly more captured in water traps placed in Viper’s bugloss and Phacelia. Syrphids, but also wild bees (Bombus, Halictus), were better documented as flower visitors by direct visual observation.


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Composition and diversity of the weed flora influenced by arable management in a large-scaled agricultural landscape in North-East Germany
Ines Heyer, Bärbel Gerowitt

Abstract: Species richness and species composition of weed vegetation were surveyed in a large-scaled agricultural region in north-eastern Germany. Species numbers and coverage was determined in 100 m² plots not treated with herbicides in 156 arable fields. Farmers were interviewed about their management strategies. Linear and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the impact of selected management factors on species richness. We found significant positive correlations between species richness and the crop type as well as crop type in the previous year. If set-aside was included in the previous years, species numbers were reduced. Multivariate analysis showed the influence of crop type on the species composition. In conclusion, crop type was the most influential management factor in our study.


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The QuESSA Project: Quantification of Ecological Services for Sustainable Agriculture
John Holland, Philippe Jeanneret, Felix Herzog, Anna-Camilla Moonen, Walter Rossing, Wopke van der Werf, Jozsef Kiss, Maarten van Helden, Maria Luisa Paracchini, James Cresswell, Philippe Pointereau, Bart Heijne, Eve Veromann, Daniele Antichi, Martin Entling, Bálint Balázs

Abstract: The vegetation in semi-natural habitats supports ecosystem services (ES) essential for the development of sustainable farming systems. QuESSA aims to quantify some of the key ES (e.g. pollination and biocontrol) derived from semi-natural habitats (SNH) for the main European cropping and farming systems. This will be achieved by identifying key SNH according to their potential to support selected ES based upon vegetation traits. The ES delivery will then be verified through field studies in 16 case studies covering the predominant European cropping systems. A case study is defined by a unique combination of region, crop species, and service. Data will parameterise spatially explicit models to determine how vegetation composition, management, shape, area, and placement of SNH in agricultural landscapes affect the distribution of ES from farm to landscape levels. To investigate synergies and trade-offs in ES, multi-criteria analysis will be developed to combine a suite of modules in an integrative modelling framework. The project will produce guidelines, make recommendations to local, national and EU stakeholders and provide a web-based tool for farmers to enhance exploitation of semi-natural habitats for ES provision.


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Diversified habitat as reservoir for ground-dwelling arthropods (Col., Carabidae) – preliminary results
Michał Hurej, Jacek Twardowski, Witold Łykowski

Abstract: Within intensive, agricultural landscape habitat diversification can result in reduced pest populations through enhancement of the activity of natural enemies. Numerous studies have examined the responses of pests and beneficial arthropods to plant diversification in ephemeral
cropping habitats. In our preliminary study, possible attractiveness of a mixture of flowering plants for ground-dwelling beetles from the family Carabidae was compared to adjacent maize field. The research was carried out in 2013, in the experimental fields belonging to the Chemical Company BASF and located in Pągów, SW Poland. In our study a slightly more ground beetles were collected by pitfall trapping in the mixture than in the maize field. Also, in that more diverse area more beetle species were present providing further evidence that such diversified habitat can positvely affect beneficial organisms. However, further research is needed to confirm the results.


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Changes of insect diversity and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in agricultural landscape
Jerzy Karg, Stanisław Bałazy

Abstract: The most numerous basic groups of entomopathogenic fungi are entomophthorales of the genera Entomophaga, Entomophthora, Pandora, Zoophthora, Furia, Tarichium (durable forms) and not so numerous Neozygites and Eryniopsis, and about the same number of ascomycetous anamorphs belonging to the order Hypocreales, though their teleomorphs known mostly under the names Cordyceps, Torrubiella and some others appear rather seldom in the European climatic zone. The epizootic abilities were observed in about a quarter of them but a considerable number of species show potential for Integrated Pest Management. About 20 species new to science were described within the authors’ studies.


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Weed composition and diversity of three organic farms in Hungary
Zsuzsanna Keresztes, Zita Dorner, Mihály Zalai

Abstract: A study was carried out on the weed composition of three different organic farms in Hungary between 2012 and 2013. The aim was to explore the dominance of weed species (based on % cover) in the fields. Weeds were assessed in 1 m² sample quadrates randomly placed within the fields. The cover of weeds species was directly recorded by visual estimation twice in each year.
The highest weed cover was found in Jászdózsa in the summer of 2012. Most of the dominant weeds, such as Setaria viridis (4.09%), Ambrosia artemisiifolia (3.20%) and Fallopia convolvulus (2.30%), were present. Some interesting and uncommon species were also found e.g. Symphytum officinale, Chorispora tenella, and Potentilla supina.
In the second year the most dominant weed was the Phacelia tanacetifolia that was the previous crop in fields of Kishantos farm. The cover of monocotyledons decreased between 2012 and 2013, in the spring and the summer survey, too. Ambrosia artemisiifolia was the dominant weed in all examined areas. The relative dominance of each species changed between years, but the number of new species was very low. We found some interesting and uncommon species in these areas especially in Jászdózsa, but generally speaking, the weed flora of the investigated areas was similar.


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The impact of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow on insect diversity
Joanna Krzymińska, Katarzyna Nijak

Abstract: This paper analyses the potential value of SRW plantations as habitat useful for improving invertebrate biodiversity. A three-year study (2008-2010) showed the abundance and diversity of insects (both predators and herbivores) populating a plantation in Field Experimental Station Winna Góra, Poland. 2561 insects belonging to 7 orders and 27 families were recorded. The most abundant taxa were Coleoptera and Diptera. The study highlighted the importance of SRW plantations as suitable habitats to enhance insect diversity.


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Attractiveness of individual plant species in “a flowering meadow” mixture for selected groups of pollinators
Małgorzata Lis, Hanna Legutowska, Michał Reut and Zbigniew T. Dąbrowski

Abstract: The objective of reported experiment was to evaluate attractiveness of individual plant species for selected groups of pollinators and to test suitability of various plant species in the “seed mixture” to the local conditions. Flowers of eight plant species attracted a higher number of insects that other species growing in the mixture. Chrysanthemum segetum and Phacelia tanacetifolia with 33.1% and 25.9% of the total number of observed insects were the most attractive flowering plant species, with a Phacelia attracting 15.7% of the honey bees and 8.7% of the bumblebees. The other attractive species were in decreasing order: Helianthus annuus, Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyanus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Papaver rhoeas and Borago officinalis.


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Are higher taxa level assemblages suited to discriminate different habitats? A case study using Braconid subfamilies in three Tuscan vineyards
Augusto Loni, Andrea Lucchi

Abstract: In this study we investigated the communities of Braconid subfamilies in three different Tuscan vineyards (Italy). Vineyards are permanent crops which allow a long-term development of species community and resulted particularly suited in performing biodiversity studies.
By the comparison of the abundance and the community composition of Braconid subfamilies across vineyards and over time, we focused on the possibility to ecologically distinguish the three vineyards.


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Insects and globalization: sustainable control of exotic species in Italian agro-forestry ecosystems
Daniela Lupi, Umberto Bernardo, Carmelo Peter Bonsignore, Mario Colombo, Maria Luisa Dindo, Massimo Faccoli, Chiara Ferracini, Liberata Gualtieri, Rita Marullo, Luca Mazzon, Gaetano Siscaro, Pompeo Suma, Luciana Tavella, Stefano Maini

Abstract: One of the negative consequences of globalization is the increased introduction of exotic pests into new areas. Italy, in particular, is at high risk of introduction, because of its geographical position and climate, which allows the settlement of (even subtropical) exotic species. In this context, native natural enemies may play a major role in the biological control of exotic species. The mechanisms involved in adaptation processes, which are crucial in studies of biological invasions, are only partially known. A joint effort by researchers operating in Italy and abroad is needed to deeply investigate this phenomenon and to develop appropriate strategies for sustainable control of exotic species. The present work illustrates the objectives and preliminary results of the project “Insects and globalization: sustainable control of exotic species in agro-forestry ecosystems (GEISCA)” focused on control of exotic species by native entomophagous insects. The overall goal of the project is to gain, at the end of three years, useful knowledge on the development of appropriate procedures for sustainable control of target pest species.


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Ground spider variability in a dry meadow
Daniela Lupi, Anna Rocco, F. Romana Eördegh, Constanza Jucker, Paolo Pantini

Abstract: The present study is focused on the ground spider population of a dry meadow located in Brescia Prealps (Lombardy) in proximity to a crowded and industrialized city and hence subjected to strong anthropogenic impact. Preliminary results obtained from pitfall samplings from April to August 2010 are reported. More than 160 spiders have been captured and 33 taxa belonging to 12 families identified (Amaurobiidae, Corinnidae, Dysderidae, Gnaphosidae, Linyphiidae, Lycosidae, Philodromidae, Pisauridae, Salticidae, Theridiidae, Thomisidae, and Zodariidae).


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Farming intensity and field margin complexity affected post-dispersal weed seed predation by arthropods in sunflower crops
Anna-Camilla Moonen, Gonzalo A. R. Molina, Gionata Bocci and Santiago L. Poggio

Abstract: Farming intensity and complexity of field margins adjoining crop fields are expected to affect seed predation levels in annually cropped fields. The impact of both factors was determined in six sunflower fields in the Pisa Plain (Italy). Arthropod seed predation was measured above- and below-ground by comparing the seed removal of two common weeds differing in seed size (small: Amaranthus retroflexus L.; large: Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Seeds were covered with metal grids to exclude rodents, birds, from predation. Farming system intensity defined the largest difference in weed seed predation for both species. The presence of a complex, undisturbed margin adjoining fields increased seed predation only when conventionally managed. Seed predation was higher in field centres than close to field margins. In organic fields, seed predation for both weed species was lower below-ground than above-ground, whereas the opposite was observed in the other farming systems. Results showed that arthropod predation levels of weed seeds can be encouraged within cropped fields by adopting low-input or organic farming systems or by improving field margin complexity.


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Effects of reforestation with non-native species on rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)
Dávid D. Nagy and Zsuzsanna Debnár

Abstract: Rove beetle assemblages were studied in native English oak forests and three non-native plantations (black locust, Scots pine and red oak) established after clear-cutting of English oak forests in Eastern Hungary. The rove beetles were collected by litter sifter sampling. The total number of rove beetle individuals and the total number of species were significantly higher in the native forests than in the non-native plantations. There was no significant difference in the number of rove beetle individuals and species among the plantations. The number of individuals and species of the substrate-dependent rove beetles (mycetophilous, phytodetriticol, saprophilous and xylodetriticol species) were significantly higher in the native forests than in the non-native plantations. There was no significant difference in the number of substrate-dependent staphylinid individuals and species among the plantations. Our results suggest that planting non-native species had a detrimental effect on the diversity and composition of rove beetle assemblages.


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Botanical surveys as a base for the assessment of ecosystem services provided by semi-natural habitats in Hungary
Orsolya Pintér, Zita Dorner, Márk Szalai, Barbara Geiger, József Kiss

Abstract: Farming systems, particularly organic farming, are often depending on ecosystem services, such as pollination and biocontrol. These essential services are partly provided by semi-natural habitats. In order to explore their contribution to ecosystem services we investigated different types of semi-natural habitats in an agricultural landscape in Central-Hungary. Four types of semi-natural habitats were studied: woody areal, woody linear, herbaceous areal and herbaceous linear elements. The vegetation of these types was compared using different indicator values such as Simon’s nature conservation categories of the Hungarian vascular plants, Borhidi’s phytosociological classification of the Hungarian vascular plants and Borhidi’s relative ecological indicator values. We found differences in the vegetation composition between the internal and external part of the elements. More weeds were recorded in the external plots, which may indicate the degradation of these habitats. The abundance of the flowering species was also higher in the external plots.


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Assessing the use of Lobularia maritima as an insectary plant for the conservation of Orius majusculus and biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis
Lorena Pumariño, Oscar Alomar

Abstract: Flowering plants are used to conserve natural enemies in the field. However these plants may also sustain pest populations and little is known on the control of those pests so that they do not represent a major risk to the crop. Here, we evaluate the fecundity and longevity of the predatory bug Orius majusculus (Reuter) on the commonly used insectary plant Alyssum (Lobularia maritima L.) with and without prey (Ephestia kuehniella eggs), and compare these results with the fecundity and longevity obtained with green bean pods, used as a control. Additionally, we study the control of a widespread pests, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), exerted by O. majusculus on Alyssum. The results obtained in this study indicate that Alyssum can provide resource subsidies for O. majusculus during times of prey scarcity and that the control of thrips could be possible on this plant. This opens the door to alyssum for being selected as an insectary plant for Orius spp. conservation.


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Edges of natural vegetation to increase the diversity of wild bees in agricultural field margins
Juan Antonio Sanchez, Aline Carrasco, Michelangelo La-Spina, Helena Ibáñez, Germán Canomanuel, F. Javier Ortiz-Sánchez, Elena López, Alfredo Lacasa

Abstract: The transformation of natural ecosystems by the intensification of agriculture has negative effects on bee communities. “Operation Pollinator” aims to increase field diversity to enhance wild bee habitats. The assays were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in southern Spain. Edges of natural vegetation were created along margins of intensively managed vegetable fields. Edges of herbaceous and shrubby plants produced an increase in the number of most of the wild bee taxa. Revegetated edges had an impact in the structure of the bee community, increasing the number of taxa and diversity.


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Conservation biological control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella
Lene Sigsgaard

Abstract: Ecological infrastructures in apple orchards may reduce pest infestation by improving conditions for natural enemies. The present study assessed the density of overwintering codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), level of parasitism, infestation by entomopathogenic fungi and other mortality factors in five organic orchards with flower strips and five organic orchards without flower strips. In orchards with flower or grassy strips, predation on sentinel prey was assessed in different distances from the strips. No clear difference was found between infestation levels in organic orchards with and without flower strips. Within orchards with flower strips mortality of codling moth larvae collected near flower strips was higher than for larvae collected further away from strips. Likewise mortality of sentinel eggs was higher in trees near the flower strip than further way. Lack of difference between orchards with and without flower strips could be a result of high variability between orchards. Within orchards with flower strips, there was increased predation activity and increased mortality of codling moth larvae from near flower strips that could be predator induced.


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Germination characteristics of Apera spica-venti biotypes susceptible and resistant to ALS inhibitors
Marta Stankiewicz-Kosyl, Aleksander Ciepka

Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess some aspects of relative fitness of biotypes of A. spica-venti resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitors, such as dynamics and germination capacity. Seeds were germinated on Petri dishes at two temperature combinations: 15/12 °C and 25/22 °C. Seeds of both biotypes germinated better in higher temperature. In both temperature combinations the susceptible biotype had higher germination capacity than the resistant biotype. Lower temperatures delayed germination of both biotypes. No significant difference was observed between germination time of resistant and susceptible biotypes.


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Targeted flower strips effectively promote natural enemies of aphids
Matthias Tschumi, Matthias Albrecht, Martin H. Entling, Katja Jacot

Abstract: Sown wildflower strips are increasingly established within agri-environmental schemes in Europe and worldwide. Their goals include the promotion of biodiversity, pest control or pollination services. Here, we tested whether a new type of flower strip targeted to promote natural enemies controlling aphids and other wheat pests are more effective in achieving this goal than an already implemented wildflower strip type aimed at biodiversity conservation. We found two to five times higher numbers of key aphid antagonists, Syrphidae, Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla carnea (Chrysopidae), in the targeted flower strip compared to wildflower strips designed for biodiversity conservation. The targeted use of flowering plants, providing fundamental resources for natural enemies of crop pests, might significantly contribute to an efficient integrated pest management.


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Which shrubs and trees can conserve natural enemies of aphids in spring?
Paul C. J. van Rijn

Abstract: Habitats with shrubs and trees within the agricultural landscape may contribute to the maintenance of natural enemies of pests. Aphids and flowers are important resources for beneficial natural enemies such as ladybeetles, hoverflies and lacewings. Woody plants are the most likely candidates to provide these resources in spring, as they are among the first to develop aphid colonies as well as flowers. To evaluate their possible contribution, 19 species have regularly been sampled in four consecutive springs on presence of flowers and on numbers and nature of aphids and their natural enemies. The species show large differences in flowering period and in numbers of aphids. Species that develop high numbers of aphids generally show the highest numbers of ladybeetles and hoverflies, while the number of ladybeetles is also related to the presence of flowers. Aphid species are with few exceptions identified as unharmful for agriculture. The preliminary top 5 of species recommended for planting are: sycamore maple spindle, hazel, blackthorn and grey willow, as it provides a sufficient spread in floral and prey resources for natural enemies in spring.


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Testing for the weed control potential of seed predators in agroecosystems
Paula R. Westerman, Heike Pannwitt, Christian Selig, Friederike de Mol, Bärbel Gerowitt

Abstract: Post-dispersal seed predation can cause severe seed losses in plant populations. However, it is unclear whether such losses can help to lower weed densities, as an aid in weed control in arable fields. Seed predators could be removing seeds that would have died anyway, that would never have germinated or whose seedlings would never have reached reproductive maturity. It leads back to the paradigm whether a plant population is seed or microsite limited, which can be tested by the classical seed addition experiment. If seed additions lead to higher plant densities, a population is said to be seed limited; if they do not, it is said to be microsite limited. The proportion of added seeds that germinates and gets established is indicative of the degree of seed limitation. The main objective of our research is to examine if and to what extent weeds in maize are seed limited; granivory only matters if weeds are predominantly seed limited. The fate of a single seed cohort of Echinochloa crus-galli, applied at a range of densities, in terms of seedling recruitment and establishment, in the absence and presence of granivores will be monitored in two maize fields over the course of three years. Furthermore, demographic rates of E. crus-galli will be estimated and used to parameterize a population model for the same maize system. The two approaches will be compared. The results of this study should clarify whether granivory contributes to weed control and is, thus, an ecosystem service and worthwhile promoting.


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Effects of field margins on the weed composition of organic cereals
Mihály Zalai, Zsuzsanna Keresztes, Zita Dorner

Abstract: The ever-closer connection of agricultural and landscape management raises the question of how agronomical areas and semi-natural habitats affect each other. Semi-natural habitats can provide a living space for pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests but they can also support the survival of pests and become reservoirs of weeds. Our initial hypothesis was that the botanical interaction between arable areas and woody semi natural habitats also significant, even though chances are low that woody plants appear on the fields. For our analysis we examined 20 meter-wide strips of organic cereals adjacent to woody margins to see how these margins affected weed vegetation on fields. Total weed cover and species richness were analyzed for the study. Based on both parameters we could confirm that margins did change the composition of weed vegetation of organic cereals but its degree varied from field to field.


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A remote sensing and GIS approach to the relationship between canegrub infestations and natural vegetation in the sugarcane landscape of Queensland, Australia
Peter Zellner, Camille Lelong, Valérie Soti, Annelise Tran, Nader Sallam, Andrew Robson, François-Régis Goebel

Abstract: The greyback canegrub, Dermolepida albohirtum, remains a major problem in sugarcane areas in the north Queensland, Australia, despite years of control efforts. The adult beetle spends most of its life span swarming and feeding on trees along river banks, rainforest edges and scrubs or even in cane farms, where they aggregate, mate and then return to sugarcane fields to lay eggs. Remote sensing methodologies and Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses were developed to better understand the relationship between natural vegetation bordering the sugarcane fields and damage distribution. Very high spatial resolution images were processed through an object-based classification to map the sugarcane fields and different types of surrounding vegetation, which harbor the cane beetles feeding and mating trees. Preliminary results indicate that the mean distance to the closest vegetation patch is 35 m and does not exceed 154 m and therefore suggest that the trees bordering the sugarcane fields play a major role in damage occurrence.


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