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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 99, 2014

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 99, 2014

Working Group "Pheromones and other semiochemicals in integrated production".
Proceedings of the meeting on "Semiochemicals: the essence of green pest control", Bursa, Turkey, 01 - 05 October, 2012.
Editors: Marco Tasin and Orkun Baris Kovanci.
ISBN 978-92-9067-279-1 [VIII + 229 pp.]

 

25.00 €

 

 

 

 

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EPPO standards on pheromones: present situation and future work
Vlasta Zlof

No abstract

3-5

5.00 €

 

Successes with area-wide mating disruption: Moving from crisis management to sustainable pheromone-based pest management
Don Thomson and Jack Jenkins

Abstract: Forty years have past since the first publication demonstrating the potential of deploying sex pheromones for insect pest control (Gaston et al., 1967). The first mating disruption product for control of an insect pest Pectinophora gossypiella was registered by the US EPA in 1978. More than 30 years later, mating disruption is now used worldwide to control many insect pests in agriculture and forestry. Decisions by end-users to deploy mating disruption have often been precipitated by the onset of a crisis, for example, the loss of control of key pests due to insecticide resistance, outbreaks of secondary pests due to the overuse of insecticides to control key pests, regulations restricting or banning insecticides and outbreaks of invasive species. The incorporation of area-wide mating disruption into pest management systems has been instrumental in the resolution of these crises.

9-11

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Novel mating disruption technologies and strategies for managing codling moth
L. Gut, J. Brunner, M. Reinke, J. Huang, P. McGhee, M. Haas and J. Miller

No abstract

13-15

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Assessing the efficacy of reduced rates of codlemone released by aerosol emitters for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apple orchards
Peter S. McGhee, Larry Gut and Mike Haas

No abstract

17-19

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Six pests at once: field evaluation of a new multipurpose dispenser for mating disruption of codling moth and leafrollers
Marco Tasin, Mario Porcel, Patrick Sjöberg, Weronika Swiergiel and Birgitta Rämert

Abstract: A new mating disruption formulation, containing codling moth Cydia pomonella and leafrollers (including eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana) pheromone components was tested in apple orchards during 2012. Parameters such as communication disruption in field cages, monitoring trap shutdown and damage at harvest were considered as efficacy indicators. The new product significantly reduced the rate of communication disruption for a tested leafroller (Adoxophyes orana) and for the codling moth. The permeation of the orchards with the test formulation significantly decreased the number of catches in monitoring traps, both for leafrollers and codling moth. The level of damage caused by leafrollers was significantly lowered in pheromone-treated compared to untreated plots. Due to very low population levels in 2012, no significant effect on codling moth damage could be detected. Additional field experiments are needed to assess the efficacy of this blend on the target pests.

21-23

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Puffer®-CM Dispensers for mating disruption of codling moth: Area of influence and impacts on trap finding success by males
Daniel Casado, Frances Cave and Steve Welter

Abstract: Aerosol dispensers, Puffer®-CM, have been used successfully in mating disruption of codling moth for over 15 years, and their adoption keeps growing. However, implementation protocols have largely been modified empirically, and are likely not yet optimized. A series of trials were conducted using grids of traps baited with pheromone lures or virgin females in an effort to estimate the area of influence of a single Puffer® on codling moth. Through all our trials we found that a single Puffer® strongly reduced trap captures on several hectares of crop, and at distances over 300 m downwind. Furthermore, their impact included delay and frequency of trap finding. Our results also showed that pheromone lures capture more males than virgin females, and are more restrictive in the area of influence estimated. Finally, our results showed that reducing the concentration of pheromone released by Puffer® did not reduce the area of influence.

25-31

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Comparing mating disruption of codling moth with standard and meso dispensers loaded with pear ester and codlemone
Esteban Basoalto, Rick Hilton and Alan Knight

Abstract: Studies were conducted with hand-applied combo dispensers loaded with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), and the pear volatile, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in apple, Malus domestica Bordkhausen during 2012. Two types of combo dispensers were tested. CM Combo was loaded with 75 and 55 mg of codlemone and pear ester, respectively; and was applied at 800 dispensers ha-1. CM Meso Combo dispensers were applied at 80 dispensers ha-1 and were loaded with 10X rates of each component in the same ratio. Combo dispensers were compared with CM Meso dispensers loaded with 750 mg codlemone and applied at 80 ha-1. No significant differences were found among the three treatments in the mean levels of fruit injury, the virginity of trapped females, and total and female moth catches in traps baited with codlemone and pear ester combo lures and an acetic acid co-lure in the second half of the field season. However, during the first moth flight period blocks treated with the CM Meso dispensers had significantly higher levels of female virginity and had significantly lower levels of fruit injury than the other two dispenser treatments. In addition, combo lures loaded with either pear ester or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and used with acetic acid co-lures caught similar numbers of total and female moths in blocks treated with either combo dispenser.

33-37

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Comparison of two methods to measure the mean release rate of Shin-Etsu products: gas chromatography and residual weighing
Stefano Caruso, Fabio Franceschelli, Andrea Iodice and Marco Ardizzoni

Abstract: Gas chromatographic analysis is the best methodology to control the release performance of pheromone products for mating disruption. However this analysis requires accredited laboratories, is not quick and has high cost/sample. Here, gravimetry is proposed as proper technique for an accurate, quick and feasible evaluation of the release of Shin-Etsu dispensers. In this work, Emilia-Romagna region official data are compared with CBC internal ones for Isomate® OFM rosso and Isonet® L. Correlation between GC and gravimetry is also verified. Results permit to validate gravimetric analysis as alternative and reliable method to predict the GC release by weighing for Shin-Etsu dispenser.

39-44

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The successful use of sex pheromones to monitor and disrupt mating of Lobesia botrana in California
Andrea Lucchi, Bruno Bagnoli, Monica Cooper, Claudio Ioriatti, Lucia Varela

Abstract: Following the first detection of Lobesia botrana, European grapevine moth (EGVM), in North America (California, USA), sex pheromone-baited traps were deployed to determine the extent of the infestation. In 2010 traps were deployed at densities of 6 to 10 traps per km2 in commercial vineyards throughout California and at 2 traps per km2 in select urban areas. From 2011 onward detection trapping inside the quarantine area was 10 traps per km2 in both commercial vineyards and urban areas. In March 2010 a state interior quarantine was established encompassing areas within an 8 km radius of where EGVM had been detected to date. The original quarantine area was 420 km2 increasing to 5,416 km2 by the end of 2010 and 6,045 km2 by 2011. These quarantine areas included 9,281, 52,600 and 58,664 vineyard ha, respectively. In 2011 portions of 10 counties were under quarantine. At the end of 2011, 4 counties met deregulation requirements and the regulated areas in the remaining 6 counties were reduced from 8 to 5 km buffer around sites of any EGVM finds, reducing the total area under regulation to 3,372 km2 which included 38,377 vineyard ha. By the end of 2012, 5 more counties met deregulation requirements further decreasing the regulated area to 1,779 km2 which includes approximately 21,452 vineyard ha. In 2010, 100,831 moth were caught in Napa County and 128 moths in 9 other counties. In 2011, 113 moths were caught in Napa County and 33 moths in 4 other counties. In 2012, 77 moths were caught only in Napa County. Mating disruption was an integral part of the management and eradication stategy in conjunction with insecticides (cultivated areas) and flower/fruit removal (non-cultivated areas).

45-48

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Do we need host plant material inside CIRCE cages for mating disruption tests?
Martin Trautmann, Eric Doye and Uwe T. Koch

Abstract: CIRCE cage tests have been widely applied to assess the effectiveness of various mating disruption systems. Studies were conducted to assess whether the presence or absence of plants inside these cages affects the outcome of such tests. Results from cage experiments with Cydia pomonella in apple demonstrate that the presence of the host plant has a significant effect on the level of male-female moth communication disruption measured. These results suggest that future use of CIRCE should include host plants within the cage.

49-53

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The potential of sex pheromones analogs for the control of Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Lepdoptera: Pyralidae), an exotic pest in South America
Carolina Sellanes and Andrés González

Abstract: Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a primary vineyard pest in South America and secondary fruit pest in the Mediterranean basin. The sex pheromone of C. gnidiella, a 1:1 mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-13-octadecenal, is suitable for population monitoring, but chemically unstable for population control by mating disruption. The formate analogues of the pheromone components are behavioral antagonists that prevent the normal response of males to both natural and synthetic female sex pheromone. We here evaluate the pheromone analogues as mating disruptants within a commercial vineyard. We treated 0.7 Ha planted with Gewürztraminer with 10 g of (Z)-9-tetradecenyl formate and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl formate (1:1), deployed from 1000 point sources. As a result, grape damage by C. gnidiella and male captures in pheromone traps were significantly reduced in the treated area. The number of larvae, the percent of attacked grape clusters, and the number of larvae per cluster, were all lower in comparison with an untreated control area. Our results show that air permeation with the formate sex pheromone analogues has potential for mating disruption of C. gnidiella in vineyards. Specifically, the decreased male captures in pheromone traps within the treated area suggest that male response to the female sex pheromone is partially inhibited, hence resulting in lower mating success and fewer larvae.

55-60

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Organic electrospun nanofibers as novel pheromone dispensers for Integrated Pest Management
Hans E. Hummel, Detlef F. Hein, Arno Deuker, Michael Breuer, Günter Leithold

Abstract: Conventional insecticide for plant protection require uniform distribution of toxicants in space. Traditionally, this requirement has been quite well fulfilled by liquid spray equipment available in a number of sophisticated varieties. Pheromones, on the other hand, represent the non-toxicological, "green" approach to integrated pest management (IPM) by influencing very specifically the behavioural reactions rather than the cellular physiology of their target. Unfortunately, there is today no generally agreed best way for applying insect pheromones. A large variety of pheromone traps are on the market, equipped with a multitude of different release substrates. The same applies to communication disruption schemes (without the use of traps but) with a number of high-tech pheromone release substrates. None completely satisfies all requirements. Responding to suggestions from practicing vineyard managers, organic electrospun nanofibers have recently been invented and added to the dispenser options suitable for IPM. The communication disruption effect achieved so far with organic polymer nanofibers made from Ecoflex® lasted for 7 weeks (equal to about one flight period of Lobesia botrana. Under the influence of synthetic female sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate released from nanofibers, male L. botrana were unable to locate virgin females. The effect was proven and quantified by the Doye field enclosure technique. In areas of the vineyard disrupted by artificial pheromone, both commercially available Isonet LE (positive control) and novel nanofiber dispensers (treatment) reduced pheromone communication to a level of 3-7% compared to untreated control sections, in which an observed recapture rate was arbitrarily set at a standardized 100% level. The resulting calculated disruption effect is highly significant and is quite acceptable to vineyard managers. As a distinctive feature, electrospun nanofiber dispensers, unlike commercially available ISONET LE ("spaghetti") and chamber dispensers, are fully biodegradable within half a year. Recollecting of spent dispenser material at the end of the growing season is unnecessary, which saves expensive manual labour. In addition, the nanofiber-pheromone combination is environmentally unobjectionable as proven by independent eco-toxicological testing with standard terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The electrospinning of nanofibers and their distribution can be accomplished in a variety of ways. One successful procedure consisted in the electrospinning of fibers under controlled conditions in the lab onto a sturdy carrier like hail protection netting. This was then cut to size and hung into the vineyards at a certain density. The aim is to exceed the critical disruptive level per hectare. Alternatively, the electrospinning can also be accomplished directly in the vineyard from a prototype mobile spinning platform which still needs further mechanical development. Both application modes are protected by patents granted under European and US patent regulations.

61-67

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Applications of sex pheromones for pest control: the use of mating disruption technique in Greece from 1986 to 2011
Stefanos S. Andreadis, Panagiotis G. Milonas and A. Michaelakis

Abstract: Mating disruption is a worldwide commercially viable pest management technique. In the past 20 years numerous pheromone-mediated mating disruption studies have been applied in Greece, targeting, mainly for lepidopteran pests. The major limitation for the further adoption of mating disruption in Greece is the typical small plot size of agricultural fields, which is less than 5 ha in average. Herein, we review the status of knowledge about mating disruption studies in Greece, based on literature, during a 25-year period (1986-2011). Our data concerns mainly research since commercial use of MD is not published. According to our knowledge, commercial use of mating disruption is applied only by a minority of farmers, who act individually without any obligation either to publish research results or to make the data available to others

69-73

5.00 €

 

Current status of mating disruption in Turkey: Where are we at?
Orkun Baris Kovanci

Abstract: Mating disruption, which involves the use of synthetic sex pheromones to disrupt insect sexual orientation, is an alternative control method that may lead to worldwide transition from insecticide-based management alone to integrated pest management (IPM). In this paper, an historical perspective on the incorporation of mating disruption into IPM programs in Turkey is provided. Examples are taken from apple, apricot, cotton, peach and grape.

75-77

5.00 €

 

Pheromone mating disruption technique for protection against stored product pyralids – laboratory test on progeny reduction
Cornel Adler and Sandra Beier

No abstract

79-81

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Use of pheromones for managing stored-product insects
Pasquale Trematerra

Abstract: In integrated pest management programmes of stored-product protection, the use of pheromones can lead to a reduction in chemical treatments, with economic advantages and the improvement of food-product quality. In this article, I report some promising results offering efficient detection and control of stored-product pests based on pheromones and line up a number of remaining questions to be answered to improve the reliability and competitiveness of the methods used.

83-91

5.00 €

 

Playing pranks on pests with plant perfumes
Toby J. A. Bruce, Gudbjorg I. Aradottir, Michael A. Birkett, Zeyaur R. Khan, Charles A. O. Midega, John A. Pickett, Lesley E. Smart and Christine M. Woodcock

Abstract: The demand for alternative approaches to crop protection is growing, especially in Europe where pesticide use is becoming more restricted. To meet this demand sophisticated approaches including the use of semiochemicals need to be devised. Semiochemicals influence insect behaviour and thus have potential to disrupt pest colonisation of crops and also to attract their natural enemies. My talk gives examples of approaches used at Rothamsted to develop plant semiochemicals for IPM systems. Semiochemicals are volatile and challenging to formulate for sustained release over large areas and so we have been experimenting with delivery though the plant 1) via companion planting in push-pull systems 2) via plant activators that alter volatile emission and 3) via crop genetics. Two examples of the latter are described: plants genetically engineered to emit the aphid alarm pheromone and maize landrace lines that respond to pest oviposition by emitting volatiles that attract natural enemies. Some more fundamental considerations regarding insect recognition of host and non-host odours are discussed. Host odour recognition depends on perception of particular mixtures of volatiles as blends. Our behavioural studies have shown that responses to blends cannot be explained by responses to individual components. Furthermore the timing of exposure and background odours can influence insect responses. These complications mean that field deployment of plant semiochemicals is very challenging.

95-101

5.00 €

 

Pea flower volatiles to control the pea moth? First results from wind tunnel and field experiments
Gunda Thöming, Hans Ragnar Norli, Helmut Saucke and Geir K. Knudsen

No abstract

103-105

5.00 €

 

Field application of kairomones for monitoring and mass trapping of apple fruit moth
Geir K. Knudsen, Marco Tasin and Hans Ragnar Norli

No abstract

107-109

5.00 €

 

Volatiles released from the fruit and leaves of olive tree may influence the attractiveness of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)
Ricardo Malheiro, Susana Casal, Catarina Petisca, Sara Cunha, Paula Baptista, Albino Bento and José Alberto Pereira

No abstract

111-115

5.00 €

 

New traps, baits & lures for tree fruit IPM
Alan Knight

Abstract: Studies to develop new monitoring tools for key pests of tree fruits in the western United States are reviewed. Effective, low-cost monitoring of pests is an important component of developing integrated programs using action thresholds and semiochemicals, which can minimize risk. Precision management allows these assessment tools to be used in a careful process to assess pest densities, estimate risk of infestation, and select control tactics in order to minimize the use of insecticides that can disrupt biological control of secondary pest problems, and environmental externalities. New traps and lures have been developed for key pests of tree fruits in the U.S.A. Review of these new tools developed at the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Research Laboratory in Wapato, WA is detailed.

119-122

5.00 €

 

When to spray? Examples on incorporation of time-series of pheromone trap captures into plant protection technology
Gábor Szőcs

Abstract: In order to measure the lenght of the optimal time periods between the date of peak flight, as indicated by seasonal flight curves plotted by pheromone trap captures, and the date when pesticides can be applied most effectively, several pilot studies for selected pests were conducted in Hungary. In selecting pests, representatives of the extremes in the number of flights per season were chosen: those having three or four flights compared to that of having one flight only. Seasonal flight pattern of pests were monitored by pheromone traps. In all cases when large-capacity funnel type of traps were available on the market, this type was used. Captures obtained at recordings in course of the season provided time-series No. 1. The appearence of either newly hatched larvae of the subsequent generation, or new damage caused by these larvae was also regularly tracked in course of the season. These data sets provided time-series No. 2.
In order to determine the length of time elapsed from peak flight to egglaying and hatching of larvae, synchrony between times-series No. 1 and No. 2 was statistically analysed by cross-correlation in the core-trial for Helicoverpa armigera. The date of egglaying was chosen as an indicator of optimal timing of pesticide application.
Results showed that different strategies in timing of application of pesticides should be recommended for these groups of pests. Pests having three flights can effectively be controlled at peak flight (Helicoverpa armigera, Leucoptera malifoliella and Dasineura gleditchiae), or even earlier, at the sharply ascendent phase of the flight curve (Cameraria ohridella). In contrast to this, monitoring had little help in timing of control measures against Synanthedon vespiformis, which has one prolonged flight period.

123-128

5.00 €

 

Monitoring the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) on hops (Humulus lupulus L.) with sex pheromone traps in Slovenia
Magda Rak Cizej, Anja Cilenšek and Jolanda Persolja

Abstract: In Slovenia, the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) is the most important pest of corn (Zea mays L.) and hops (Humulus lupulus L.), and also can cause significant damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and pepper crops, and to some ornamental plant species. Over the last 10 years, ECB pest status has increased significantly in areas of Slovenia. The Slovenian Institute of Hop Research and Brewing has been trapping ECB in hop garden, on location Žalec, with a light trap for over 35 years, which has proven to be a very effective way of monitoring the population of ECB. Beginning in 2010, we started using pheromone-baited traps to monitor ECB moths. Before this date we did not know exactly which strain of ECB has in the Savinja Valley. In Savinja Valley, which is on the central part of Slovenia, only the E-sex pheromone strain of ECB is present on hops and on corn. During 2010 no moths were caught in sex pheromone-baited delta sticky traps. In 2011 we started monitoring ECB with wire mesh cone traps. Surprisingly this method was not successful during 2012. During both 2011 and 2012 we also used phenylacetaldehyde as an attractant to capture ECB female moths, with this we did not successful.

129-132

5.00 €

 

Establishment of a trap network in the east border of the dispersal of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Col.: Curculionidae) in Crete (Greece)
Kyriakos Aggelakopoulos, Aggeliki Karataraki, Vasiliki Gkounti, Antonios Michaelakis, Filitsa Karamaouna and Dimitris Kontodimas

Abstract: The red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus was recorded for the first time in Crete Island in Heraklion Prefecture during November 2005. Later the pest has spread in neighboring areas infesting and destroying hundred of palm trees. In autumn 2008 it became a serious threat for the native Cretan palm Phoenix theophrasti in the Lasithi Prefecture. A network of 44 pheromone traps was established in the infested areas to monitor the pest.Six different types of commercially available traps were tested, reveling significant differences in captures. A total of 4843 adults of R. ferrugineus were captured with a significant female domination. The majority of these insects were caught between September and January, showing that a seasonal distribution of flight activity occurs. The high number of captured adults in combination with the high proportion of females proves the need for constructing a denser network of traps for mass trapping of the pest.

133-137

5.00 €

 

Relations between olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), captures with sex pheromones in yellow sticky traps and infestation rates in different olive cultivars from the Northeast of Portugal
Nuno Rodrigues, Ricardo Malheiro, Luís Mota, Albino Bento and José Alberto Pereira

No abstract

139-141

5.00 €

 

New possibilities for monitoring the flight phenology of raspberry cane midge Resseliella theobaldi Barnes by pheromone traps in Serbia
Snežana Tanasković, Siniša Ranđić, Uroš Pešović, Dušan Marković and Slobodan Milenković

No abstract

143-147

5.00 €

 

Development of an innovative monitoring pheromone dispenser
José Silva and Carlos Frescata

Abstract: For insect pest population monitoring it’s indispensable to use a pheromone release system with the longest possible duration and more importantly, a constant release over time. The aim of this project was to create an innovative dispenser for monitoring purposes that performs superiorly to those already available in the market. The dispensers were built using innovative ceramic and polymeric materials, either together or separately. These dispensers were characterized by gas chromatography (GC), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

149-151

5.00 €

 

Assessment of delta traps performance by numerical simulation
S. Couto, C. Frescata & T. S. Mayor

Abstract: Trap geometry and dispenser position can have a major impact on the characteristics of the pheromone plume exiting the trap which can, in turn, have a strong effect in the attraction and capture of moths. The aim of this study was to assess numerically the influence of changes in the geometry of a delta trap, as well as of the pheromone dispenser position inside the trap, in order to identify ways to improve its performance in terms of pheromone release.

153-155

5.00 €

 

Controlling oil palm bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) by mass trapping of moths and in combination with Bacillus thuringiensis in Perak, Malaysia
Norman Kamarudin, Siti Ramlah A. Ali, Mohd Najib Ahmad, Mazmira Mohamed and Othman Arshad

Abstract: The bagworms, Metisa plana Walker and Pteroma pendula Joannis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) are two of the most common bagworm species occurring in oil palm plantations in Malaysia. The outbreaks of these two species are recurring in several locations, particularly in the northern state of Perak (West coast) and southern state of Johor, of Peninsular Malaysia. Serious damage to the palms can reduce yields up to 43% for subsequent two years. Between 2006-2008, pheromone traps which consisted of sticky vanes baited with live receptive females were utilized quite effectively for mass trapping of the male moths of the bagworm, Metisa plana for controlling its subsequent population. Between 2011-2012, pheromone traps have also been utilized prior and between the aerial application of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to control the bagworm Pteroma pendula. The use of live virgin females as bait requires critical timing and identification of the receptive stage. Trapping was conducted at an average of 30 traps per hectare in locations of high pest density. Mass trapping of male bagworm moths was able to reduce the subsequent population of larvae by reducing the chances of mating. The pheromone traps had shown complementary effect to the Bt application. Whereby traps captured the male moths, Bt controlled the live, active feeding larval stages.

159-163

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Mass trapping of Ceratitis capitata using attract and kill technique
Samera A. Khlaywi and Hussain F. Alrubeai

Abstract: The mass trapping technique to control medfly, Ceratitis capitata, based on the use of the MagnetTM MED trap impregnated with ammonium bicarbonate was compared with the standard use of McPhail and delta traps both baited with trimedlure, in mixed citrus groves in central Iraq against during 2009-2010. The useof the MagnetTM MED trap reduced captures to 19.8 and 46.4 males/trap for the 1st and 2nd groves, respectively, compared to 112 males/trap in untreated plots. Fly captures in similar plots using the McPhail or delta trap for mass trapping showed that McPhail trap was significantly more efficient than delta trap. Fruit damage assessment at harvest showed that using the MagnetTM MED trap reduced fruits injury to 2-8% compared with 32% for the control. In comparison, using the McPhail or delta trap resulted in 17% or 19% infested fruits respectively. Thus, MagnetTM MED trap could be involved in the ongoing national control program as an appropriate and effective method for the control of medfly.

165-168

5.00 €

 

New advances in the improvement of the mass trapping technique of Ceratitis capitata W.
Patricia Acín, Lídia Roura, Gäel Du Fretay, Ana Gálvez, Jaume Palència

Abstract: Since the achievement of a suitable attractant for Ceratitis capitata W. (Diptera: Tephritidae), many efforts have been performed in order to develop an environmentally friendly control method for this species, as well as respectful for the well-being of the growers and the final consumers. One of the most outstanding progresses carried out has been the incorporation of a contact insecticide, instead of dichlorvos, which use has been lately prohibited in agriculture. Trials conducted in different crops and various countries have shown a high effectiveness of deltamethrin in traps. A new device was tested to reduce both the cost of this technique and the time of application in the field.

169-170

5.00 €

 

Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones
Joachim Offenberg

Abstract: Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini-review shows that four out of five tested ant species deposit pheromones that repel herbivorous prey from their host plants.

173-176

5.00 €

 

Do the deposits left by weaver ants on developing mango fruits repel fruit flies, thereby reducing egg-laying into the fruits?
Nina Kirkegaard, Samuel Nyalala and Brian Grout

No abstract

177-181

5.00 €

 

Pheromones for pest management and eradication of invasive species
David M. Suckling

Abstract: Surveillance is a key component to pest management and biosecurity and the availability of attractants for certain insects has revolutionised our ability to intervene against them. In fact, the improvement in success of eradication when attractants are available is more than 20-fold, according to a recent global study. Populations of such invasive species with urticating hairs and a wide host range as tussock moths or processionary moths can be controlled or eradicated when these tools are available for delimitation and suppression, and in New Zealand several eradication programs have been operated successfully. Examples are white-spotted tussock moth (Lymantriidae), painted apple moth (Lymantriidae), fall webworm (Arctiidae), Hokkaido gypsy moth (Lymantriidae). In other cases, it has not been possible to eradicate the organism, such as the defoliating gum leaf skeletoniser (Nolidae), an outbreak species in Australia and now widely dispersed in New Zealand. The identification and deployment of this insect illustrates the surveillance paradigm well. Beyond applications in surveillance, it is also possible to consider aerial application of mating disruption with various formulations, such as those recently compared in a New Zealand study on a tortricid (microencapsulations, SPLAT and a bioflake) with the ground application of a polyethylene tubing dispesnser. Pheromones can also be envisaged to be developed in other new ways, from mobile mating disruption to ant trail pheromone disruption. New trapping and surveillance tools and new concepts for biosecurity from can widen the tool kit we need to combat invasive species. A deep knowledge of chemical ecology is needed to face this challenge.

185-190

5.00 €

 

Half a century of pheromone science in the quest for green pest control
Hans E. Hummel, Marie-Therese Eisinger, Simone Langner, Erich Hecker and Karl-Ernst Kaissling

Abstract: Chemical ecology is the science of species interaction via secondary chemical substances. Depending on their function as sex attractants, trail and territorial determinators, defensive secretions, group cohesion and caste determination substances, lures for food plant and oviposition site recognition, different terms have been invented. While contemporary biologists now take the term as well as the concept of "pheromones" for granted, it was a sensational event when the January 1959 issue of the British Nature magazine published a two page
communication by Karlson and Lüscher on "Pheromones, a new term for a class of biologically active substances". This seminal paper appeared simultaneously with the first identification of the chemical structure of any pheromone. Bombykol, (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadien-1-ol, was isolated and identified from domesticated female silk moths, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). It induces very specifically and in most minute concentrations the males of this species to perform a mating dance. This response test served as a behavioural indicator for both the presence and also the concentration of this sex pheromone. Two years later, the total synthesis of bombykol via several independent routes by Butenandt, Hecker and co-workers in 1961 concluded more than twenty years of pioneering work into uncharted territory. Immediately, the impact of this discovery for chemical communication, sensory physiology and practical plant protection was recognized. It paved the way for establishing chemical ecology as an academic but also as a practical discipline and as an important component in the pursuit of integrated pest management (IPM). Thus, bombykol served as a prototype for an entirely new class of exogenously active natural signal compounds. It spearheaded subsequent developments in chemical ecology. Therefore it did not come as a surprise when the enterprise of analytically inclined chemical ecologists boomed. It produced, within a few decades, thousands of new pheromones described within a body of twenty thousand original research articles and at least 4 dozen monographs. Today, pheromones are known from pest insects in all major food and fiber crops and from stored products. Most prominent are still insect sex attractants because of their spectacular function. Meanwhile, crop protection via pheromones is a worldwide endeavour. In IPM, pheromones and the related kairomones play a key role as lures in traps for monitoring and mass trapping, and (without traps) for mating disruption. In favourable cases like in cotton, in fruit, in vegetable pest management or in glass house cultures, pheromones can also economically compete with the non sustainable toxic pesticides which invariably provoke eco-toxicity and resistance (Georghiou & Saito, 1983).

191-197

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Culex sp. oviposition pheromone: a review on its synthesis and behavioural studies
Stefanos S. Andreadis and Antonios Michaelakis

Abstract: Mosquitoes of the genus Culex are considered as major vectors of many arboviruses that cause human diseases all over the world, such as, West Nile Virus, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, and Western equine encephalitis. Female Culex mosquitoes form a droplet at the apex of each egg, which affects the oviposition behaviour of intraspecific gravid females. The main volatile compound, present in the apical droplets of the egg rafts, is the (–)-(5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. The current review article presents the most important approaches that have been developed for the synthesis of the Culex sp. oviposition pheromone. Moreover, we focus on bioassays methods that have been employed under different conditions concerning the use of synthetic Culex sp. oviposition pheromone.

199-206

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Olfactory response of the ladybird beetle Stethorus gilvifrons to herbivore-induced plant volatiles from Tetranychus urticae infested bean, tomato and melon plants
Melis Seidi and Nimet Sema Gençer

Abstract: The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) causes severe economic losses to vegetables and deciduous fruit orchards in Turkey. The ladybird beetles belonging to the genus Stethorus, including Stethorus gilvifrons, are predators of tetranychid mites. The present study assessed whether there is a role for herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) and/or odors emitted directly from T. urticae in the aggregative response of ladybird beetles. The olfactory responses of the predator to volatiles from T. urticae infested bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. ‘Magnum’ ), tomatoe (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. ‘Rio Grande’) and melon (Cucumis melo cv. ‘Kırkağaç 637’) were investigated using a Y-tube olfactometer. Our results showed that HIPVs emitted from T. urticae infested plants significantly attracted S. gilvifrons adults to bean and tomato

207-212

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The effect of different extraction methods from seeds of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) and leaves of Myrtus communis (L.) on immature development of the cucurbit fruit fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)
A. A. Al-Taweel, E. A. Mahmood, M. A. A. Mahmood, and B. S. Hamad

Abstract: The effect of variable extraction methods of bioactive products from the seeds of Albizzia lebbeck and leaves of Myrtus communis was evaluated in developmental assays of immature cucurbit fruit fly Dacus ciliatus on a corncob powder. Extraction methods included the use of cold and hot water, hexane, and ethyl alcohol immersion of plant material. Extraction with organic solvents was more effective than aqueous extractions.

213-218

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Auto-disorientation method in combination with blocking agents of pheromone perception in male antennae of Agriotes tauricus Heyd.
E. V. Rubanova, O. M. Zelenskaya, V. A. Marinicheva, V. G. Yatsynin

Abstract: In this study, 16 biologically active substances were evaluated as blocking agents of sex pheromone perception by the mail click beetle (Agriotes tauricus Heyd.). Diallyl maleate blocked pheromone perception of 82% of the beetles tested. Beetle captures were reduced in field trials by 87% in plots treated with nine auto-disorientation devices baited with diallyl maleate and sex pheromone.

219-224

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Chemical communication of Ampedus sanguinolentus (Coleoptera, Elateridae): morphological and behavioral observations
V. N. Orlov

Abstract: In this study the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the female pheromone gland of Ampedus sanguinolentus (Schrank, 1976) are described. In addition, a field experiment was done to estimate the range of attraction of caged females to males. This trial was carried out both in a forest and in a wheat field. A broader attraction range was observed in the wheat field compared to the forest. Factors such as the density of the canopy, the pheromone absorption by the foliage, and the lower air mobility under the forest may explain this difference. In both ecosystems, the overall number of attracted males depended on the distance to caged females and could be described as an exponential relationship. A preliminary polynomial fit, describing the number of caught beetle in function of the distance from the caged females, is presented.

225-229

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