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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 109, 2015


IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 109, 2015

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Fruit Crops, Subgroup Soft Fruits".
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Integrated Soft Fruit Production at Vigalzano di Pergine Valsugana (Italy), 26th - 28th May, 2014.
Edited by Ch. Linder, A. Grassi, D. Prodorutti & C. Ioriatti.
ISBN 978-92-9067-291-3 [XIV + 237 pp.]


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A new bacterial disease of strawberry in the Netherlands caused by Erwinia pyrifoliae
M. Wenneker, M. Bergsma-Vlami

Abstract: During the late spring in 2013 strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta) showing an intense blackening of their immature fruits, their fruit calyxes and the attached stems were found at several locations (greenhouses) in the Netherlands. The isolates differed biochemically from E. amylovora and they were closely related to biochemical profiles of the Erwinia pyrifoliae reference strain LMG 25888. The isolates were further identified as E. pyrifoliae based on the real time PCR assay. Pathogenicity of several isolates was tested and confirmed on potted strawberry plants (cv. Elsanta).


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Integrated control of Botrytis cinerea in blackcurrants
A. Berrie, K. Lower, T. Passey, R. Saville

Abstract: In 2012 the efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Serenade and Prestop was compared for control of botrytis fruit rot on blackcurrant cultivars Ben Hope and Ben Tirran to the fungicides Signum and UKA386a and an untreated control. Programmes based on the fungicides for the first three sprays followed by one, two or no sprays of Serenade were also included. The incidence of botrytis fruit rot pre-harvest on bushes was negligible. In post-harvest tests the incidence of botrytis rot on Ben Hope was significantly reduced by both Signum and UKA386a. Three sprays of UKA386a were as effective as four sprays with no additional benefit from late sprays of Serenade. The incidence of botrytis in post-harvest tests was higher in Ben Tirran (34% in untreated fruit compared to 11% in Ben Hope). Only UKA386a was effective in reducing botrytis. None of the BCAs were effective in reducing botrytis in either cultivar. In 2013 the efficacy of the elicitors Pretect, potassium phosphite and experimental A was compared for control of botrytis fruit rot on blackcurrant cultivars Ben Hope and Ben Tirran to a standard fungicide programme, UKA386a and an untreated control. In post-harvest tests the incidence of botrytis fruit rot on Ben Hope was negligible. On Ben Tirran, the best control of botrytis was achieved by UKA386a. However, elicitor A was as effective in reducing botrytis fruit rot as the standard fungicide programme. The economics of using fungicides, BCAs and elicitors for botrytis control in blackcurrants is discussed.


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Physical mode of action of fungicides and fungicide alternatives used against strawberry powdery mildew
B. Asalf, D. M. Gadoury, A. Stensvand

Abstract: As production of strawberry has shifted towards growth in polyethylene tunnels during the recent two decades, the severity of epidemics of powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) has also increased. Current powdery mildew control relies on intensive use of fungicides. The mechanisms by which fungicides interfere with vital physiological functions of fungi, and sites of action, have been described for many fungicides. Fungicides or fungicide alternatives differ in their efficacy against different stages in the pathogen life cycle. Some are only effective as protectants, some also as curatives, while others may have an additional eradicant activity. The physical mode of action of the fungicides or fungicide alternatives used against P. aphanis is unclear in many instances. We conducted laboratory experiments with detached leaflets of strawberry cv. Korona to describe the efficacy and physical mode of action of fungicides and fungicide alternatives applied before and after infection, and after disease had appeared, thus revealing preventive, curative or eradicative effects. Treatments were: (i) water treated control, (ii) kresoxim-methyl (Candit), (iii) penconazole (Topas 100 EC), (iv) sulphur (Thiovit Jet), (v) rape seed oil (Odelia), (vi) mineral oil (JMS stylet oil), and (vii) polyether modified trisiloxane (Silwet Gold). The recommended rates of the above products were applied as follows: (i) preventive, detached leaflets were sprayed with each compound and then inoculated with fresh powdery mildew conidia; (ii) curative, detached leaflets were inoculated and incubated for 48 hours followed by application of the different compounds; (iii) eradicative, leaflets were inoculated and incubated for one week followed by applications. There were significant differences among treatments on germination of conidia, sporulation, and disease severity when applied as preventive, curative, or eradicative. Conventional fungicidal spray programs for the control of powdery mildew are often applied late in the course of the epidemics, after powdery mildew has been observed on the plant. Our results indicate that some fungicides or fungicide alternatives have little or no effect on established infections and subsequent development of the pathogen. The knowledge on physical mode of action of fungicides or their alternatives as protectant, post-infection, or eradicative is useful for the effective management of the disease and for their most efficient use.


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Reducing chemical inputs for sustainable protection of strawberry
D. Prodorutti, D. Profaizer, S. Conci, A. Grassi, T. Pantezzi, G. Angeli

Abstract: Starting from 2013, experimental trials with the aim to reduce chemical treatments on strawberry have been carried out in Trentino region. In particular, semi-field and field trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of potassium bicarbonate against powdery mildew on strawberry. In the semi-field trials, potted plants were kept in a glasshouse and inoculated by shaking infected leaves over the plants. Treatments were: potassium bicarbonate, sulphur, bupirimate and untreated control. In the field trial (high tunnel and soilless cultivation) a conventional spray program was compared with bicarbonate applications and the untreated control. In the glasshouse trials, spray applications with potassium bicarbonate significantly reduced the incidence and severity of powdery mildew compared with untreated control. In the field trial, the untreated plots showed a high incidence of the disease while a very low incidence was observed both in conventional and bicarbonate treatments. Repeated applications of potassium bicarbonate were effective against powdery mildew, therefore this active ingredient can be included in IPM programs of strawberry, allowing a reduction of pesticide residues.


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Molecular characterization of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolates from Poland
M. Cieślińska, J. Wójcik-Seliga

Abstract: In 2012 and 2013 leaf samples from 110 symptomatic and asymptomatic Rubus sp. plants were collected and analysed by DAS-ELISA to asses the presence of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) in Poland. The presence of RBDV was confirmed only in eight samples of Rubus. Five isolates were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) as well as by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of RNA-2. The RFLP patterns of the RNA-2 amplicons resulted in significant variability of the RBDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Polish isolates of RBDV grouped together and formed well supported group with raspberry strains. ELISA and RT-PCR were useful methods for detection of the virus from May to October. The isolates induced different symptoms on Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor, mechanically inoculated with sap of RBDV-infected Rubus sp. plants.


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Biennial cropping – the answer to improved IPM in raspberry?
N. Trandem, A. Stensvand, A. Sønsteby, D. H. Christensen, S. Huseby, J. Haslestad

Abstract: In a biennial cropping system of red raspberry, primocanes and floricanes are grown in separate rows. This separation, including the removal of all canes in a row after harvest, disrupts the life cycle of most pests and diseases. Growing primocanes and floricanes in different parts of the farm would further impede the build-up of pests and pathogens. The potential of this growing system in reducing pest and disease problems in summer raspberry as compared to the traditional system with growing primocanes and floricanes in the same rows should be investigated further. Other advantages are reduced labour costs and more berries produced per floricane. For biennial cropping to become more popular, these advantages must be shown to outweigh the loss of yield per ha of raspberry which is likely to occur when each row is only harvested every second year.


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Foliar deposition of electrostatic charged spray applied by a cannon sprayer on high tunnel strawberry
D. Bondesan, C. Rizzi, G. Ganarin, L. Marchel, S. Bertoldi

Abstract: The cannon sprayer is one of the equipments widely in use for high tunnel strawberries in Trentino. In that context an experiment was carried out using a cannon sprayer equipped with an electrostatic device. Sample analysis showed that the use of the electrostatic charge seems to increase the tracer deposit in the outer part of the vegetation, close to the openings of the tunnel. This effect seems having an influence also on the deposits of the inner leaves closer to the front of the tunnel, reducing the retrievements. In the inner part of the vegetation no deposition increase was found using the electrostatic charge. Even in the central part of the tunnel the effect was no more appreciable. Further investigations appear suitable to determine the effect of this application technique on earliest and more representative development stages for strawberry plants and fruits.


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Investigating alternative residual herbicides for annual weed control in raspberry
J. Atwood, J. Allen, H. Roberts

Abstract: Efficient and cost effective weed control is important in raspberries; A three year project, funded by the Horticultural Development Company was designed to test a range of new residual herbicides, for weed control efficacy and crop safety in raspberry. In year one nine actives were tested for their crop safety and weedcontrol efficacy and in years two and three the most promising herbicides were taken forward as tank mixes in combination with industry standard herbicides to enhance the spectrum of weeds controlled and to further assess crop safety. Flazasulfuron stood out as the most effective herbicide, and when used in combination with pendimethalin the weed control was comprehensive and more persistent than any of the other treatments. Tank mixes with pendimethalin + dimethenamid-p, clomazone and flufenacet + metribuzin were less persistent but are worth developing for raspberries if extensions of approval can be obtained. No effects on yield were recorded and no residues were detected above MRLs.


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Field validation of digital insect traps for monitoring lepidopteran pests in orchards
G. Krawczyk, B. L. Lehman, J. Park, L. A. Hull

Abstract: Automation of insect trapping and monitoring has the potential to significantly reduce associated manual labor costs needed for traps maintenance. During last few seasons we evaluated an automated pest detection system using bio-impedance-based electronic sex pheromone prototype traps (Z-Trap) to monitor various lepidopteran pests in fruit orchards. The evaluations were aimed at determining the accuracy and reliability of traps, wireless communication system and the functionality of a web-based user interface program. Each Z-Trap was deployed with a corresponding standard large plastic delta (LPD) trap placed nearby to compare the numbers of captured moths. All traps were rotated on a weekly basis to eliminate location related variability of moth captures. Regular pheromone traps generally captured higher cumulative numbers of moths than the Z-Traps. However, the overall capture trends between both types of traps were reasonably consistent throughout the season. Unfortunately for some Z-traps, the reported detections were considerably higher than the actual moth captures observed in the collection containers (false positive).


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Control of Botrytis cinerea in strawberries with Gliocladium catenulatum vectored by bumblebees
T. Van Delm, S. Van Beneden, V. Mommaerts, P. Melis, K. Stoffels, F. Wäckers, W. Baets

Abstract: Grey mould Botrytis cinerea is the most common fruit rot disease in strawberries and shelf-life is often limited because of Botrytis infections. To control this disease, bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) were used as vector to transport the antagonistic fungus Gliocladium catenulatum J1446 (Verdera B4) to the flowers using the Flying Doctors® system (Biobest). This system consists of a bumblebee hive with an integrated product dispenser. Bumblebees leaving the hive walk through the dispenser filled with Verdera B4 and become loaded with the microbial product. The following treatments were compared to test the impact of G. catenulatum vectored by bumblebees: untreated control, conventional chemical spray scheme, conventional spray application together with
G. catenulatum. In addition, it was investigated whether the efficacy of Verdera B4 (vectored) could be improved by combined spraying with G. catenulatum (1x) or Teldor (1x). Botrytis infection pre- and post harvest, and yield were evaluated. This greenhouse trial demonstrated that G. catenulatum vectored by bumblebees reduced Botrytis infection and improved shelf-life of strawberries, comparable with a conventional chemical treatment scheme. This resulted in a more sustainable control with healthier strawberries with fewer residues.


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Reducing residues in strawberries through integrated pest and disease management in commercial UK production systems
T. O’Neill, J. Allen, E. Wedgwood, H. Roberts, J. Cross, J. Fitzgerald, A. Berrie, C. Jay, R. Saville

Abstract: This five year UK government and industry funded project developed alternative, sustainable, methods for managing Botrytis, powdery mildew, aphids, blossom weevil and capsid bugs in strawberry so reducing (by > 50%) chemical pesticide use and eliminating the occurrence of reportable pesticide residues on harvested fruit. Methods were developed for the individual pests and diseases in the first three years of the project and were combined with existing non-chemical methods for other pests and diseases in an overall Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPDM) system in the final two years. The refined IPDM system tested over five sites in tunnel crops of June bearer and everbearer crops showed that yield and fruit quality could be maintained under low to moderated pest and disease pressure and pesticide residues could be reduced by between 50 and 100%.


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Valuing the economic impact of D. suzukii on soft fruit industry in Trentino (Italy)
G. De Ros, S. Conci, T. Pantezzi, G. Savini

Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the pest’s economic impact on soft fruit industry in Trentino, North East of Italy, one of the most relevant production areas in Europe. The evaluation takes into account both the growers’ potential revenue losses and the pest’s management costs in two scenarios: before and after the implementation of an integrated control strategy for D. suzukii. In summary, before the adoption of an integrated management strategy, the revenue losses could amount to about 13% of industry’s output. The adopted integrated strategy seems effective in mitigating this impact to about 7%.


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Berries germplasm and breeding programs: pest and disease management while selecting
L. Giongo, P. Poncetta, M. Grisenti, M. Ajelli, P. Loretti, P. Martinatti, M. Fontanari, L. Zoratti, A. Grassi, V. Mazzoni, F. Costa, D. J. Sargent

Abstract: In berries breeding programs and berries germplasm proper management of pests and diseases is a priority and represents a constant key process during progenies development and selection. The constant field monitoring for pests and diseases is a priority, with particular regard to fungi, viruses and insects like Drosophila suzukii in order to find potential sources of resistance but also to isolate sources of infection or damage. The impact of pests and diseases is highly variable when different crops are present at the same time and in the same fields, and it is necessary to deal with different developmental stages of the plants from seed to postharvest. Even within the germplasm collection – due to the high diversity present – the different genotypes have to be carefully monitored and they represent a valuable source of traits in particular when phenotyped for tolerance or resistance to specific pests and diseases. Field based phenotyping for quality, and resistance together with the application of genomic tools, offer valuable analytical methods in berries breeding and germplasm characterization. The results of these phases that are applied to germplasm and breeding at Fondazione Edmund Mach are here reported.


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Summer fruiting raspberry variety trial
J. Allen, H. Roberts, C. Dyer

Abstract: For many years three summer fruiting varieties, Glen Ample, Tulameen and Octavia have dominated the UK raspberry industry and have enabled growers to produce quality fruit in the open field and using various types of protective covering from May – late July. A four year project funded by the Horticultural Development Company was carried out in order to identify new varieties and advanced selections of summer fruiting raspberries to replace current industry standard cultivars.


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Resistance and off-odour variation in strawberry cultivars infected by Phytophthora cactorum
H. Eikemo, J. E. Haugen, F. Lundby, A. Stensvand

Abstract: Crown rot and leather rot of strawberry are both caused by Phytophthora cactorum, but there is little or no information about possible correlation in cultivar resistance to the two diseases. Screening of 10 selections from a Norwegian strawberry breeding program and 3 cultivars for resistance showed a high degree of variation, but no correlation in resistance between leather rot and crown rot resistance. The major problem with leather rot is that infected berries develop a very unpleasant taste and smell. Results from a sensory panel showed a significant difference in off-odour between the cultivars, and there was a high correlation between off-odour and the amount of aroma components. This indicates that high amounts of aroma components may contribute in masking the bad smell of leather rot.


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Different behavioral responses in specialist and generalist natural enemy interactions (predators and fungi) in a strawberry-mite pest system
S. Jacobsen, J. Eilenberg, I. Klingen, L. Sigsgaard

Abstract: Natural enemies like arthropods and entomopathogenic fungi contribute to the natural regulation of pests in many crops. Arthropod natural enemies are a part of a complex multitrophic system and they exist alongside species of entomopathogenic fungi. Their regulation of prey will depend not only of their direct interactions but also of their interactions with each other. For example some of these entomopathogenic fungi may actually also be a potential threat to arthropod natural enemies. Both arthropod predators and entomopathogenic fungi are important biological control agents of the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae in strawberry. Previous studies on the interactions between these two types of natural enemies show variable results in regards to synergistic/antagonistic effects. We speculated if the degree of specialization of the predator or the fungus could affect the response. Therefore a behavioral study was conducted to investigate the behavior of predators (two species tested) in the presence of entomopathogenic fungal spores (two species tested). The predator species used in this study were the generalist predatory bug, Orius majusculus and the specialist predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis. The entomopathogenic fungal species used was the generalist Metarhizium brunneum and the specialist Neozygites floridana. Predator behavior was recorded by observations in an experimental setup where the predator was given a choice between two strawberry leaf discs; one with entomopathogenic fungal spores and one without, and both with healthy T. urticae. Results suggest that searching and feeding times of both predator species was affected by the presence of entomopathogenic fungal spores and varied depending on the level of specialization of both the predator and the fungal species. Searching time was lower on leaf discs with presence of M. brunneum spores compared to no fungal spores and higher on leaf discs with presence of N. floridana spores compared to no fungal spores. Results indicate that the degree of specialization of the beneficial organisms plays a role in the interaction between arthropods and entomopathogenic fungi. Such interactions are important to consider when biological control using several biological control agents is developed.


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Using semiochemical traps to study the occurrence of strawberry blossom weevil in strawberry and raspberry – what did we learn?
N. Trandem, C. Baroffio, M. T. Fountain, B. Ralle, P. Rendina, P. Richoz, L. Sigsgaard, A.-K. Borg-Karlson, D. Hall, J. Cross, A. Wibe

Extended abstract


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The potential for mass trapping Lygus rugulipennis and Anthonomus rubi; trap design and efficacy
M. T. Fountain, B. Shaw, N. Trandem, S. Storberget, C. Baroffio, B. Ralle, P. Rendina, P. Richoz, L. Sigsgaard, A.-K. Borg-Karlson, D. Hall, J. V. Cross, A. Wibe

Extended abstract


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Improved understanding of vine weevil movement within strawberry crops
T. Pope, E. Gundalai, G. Hough, H. Roberts, A. Wood, J. Bennison, G. Prince, D. Chandler

Abstract: This study investigated the potential of a novel strategy for controlling adult vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus). The approach uses artificial vine weevil refuges containing spores of an entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) and exploits vine weevil aggregation and dispersal behaviour to disseminate the pathogen throughout weevil populations. Using passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags it was possible to record the movement of vine weevil adults within a strawberry crop over a period of 35 days. Weevils were found to disperse up to 1.41 m in a 24 hour period and to move both along and between rows of strawberry grow-bags. In a second experiment, fluorescent powders were used to record the use of artificial refuges by vine weevil adults in a naturally infested commercial strawberry crop. Two days after placing these traps within the strawberry crop 17% of weevils recorded in a nighttime assessment had come into contact with the fluorescent powder.
These results will be used to determine how effectively adult vine weevil may disseminate an EPF from artificial refuges throughout the crop and the weevil population.


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Biological control of vine weevil larvae on protected strawberry
G. Hough, J. Bennison, A. Wood, K. Maulden

Abstract: In both soft fruit and nursery stock industries, vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) remains one of the main pests, causing serious economic problems. Control methods can be targeted against both the larvae which feed on the roots and the adult weevils within the crop which cause leaf notching. Biological control of vine weevil is preferable to the use of insecticides in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes. Current options for biological control of vine weevil larvae include various entomopathogenic nematode species (in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Met52). As several nematode products are now commercially available, growers are unsure of which product to use, and how control by nematodes might compare with that given by using Met52 in the substrate. In an experiment in 2013 on a poly-tunnel strawberry crop, Nemasys® L (Steinernema kraussei) was compared with three Heterorhabditis bacteriophora products in a coir substrate, and with Met52 in both coir and peat substrates. Efficacy of Met52 combined with each of the nematode products was also determined in coir. All the nematode products and Met52 significantly reduced the numbers of live vine weevil larvae in the coir substrate when compared with untreated controls. Combining nematodes with Met52 in the coir substrate did not significantly improve the control of vine weevil larvae compared with using nematodes alone.


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Fresaprotect and Berryprotect: mixes of parasitoids to control all common aphid species on protected soft fruit crops. Product development and case studies from three years of experience
N. Dassonville, T. Thielemans, V. Gosset

No abstract


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Sexual communication in Tephritidae: a focus on species infesting soft fruits
G. Benelli, G. Giunti, A. Canale, R. H. Messing

Abstract: Tephritidae, also known as the true fruit flies, comprise a huge number of key agricultural pests, causing both quantitative and qualitative crop losses. Investigating mating sequences of these flies could help to unveil mate choice dynamics, adding information to improve behaviour-based control tools. Here we critically review knowledge about sexual communication and related behaviours in Tephritidae, with a special focus on agricultural pests of soft fruits. We examine features and the role of male-male combat in lek sites, cues affecting mating dynamics, and some fitness-promoting female behaviours [mainly female-female aggressive interactions on fruits and oviposition marking pheromones (OMPs)] that occur at oviposition sites. We outline future perspectives arising from knowledge about sexual communication for Integrated Pest Management programs for Tephritidae pests infesting soft fruits. Sexually selected traits are frequently good indicators of male fitness and knowledge of sexual selection processes may contribute to the improvement of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. Furthermore, males’ exposure to parapheromones can enhance the mating success of sterile flies used in SIT programs. Lastly, the development of IPM strategies based on OMP application could help to improve eco-friendly control approaches against Tephritidae infesting soft fruits.


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Comparison of biological control of the raspberry leaf and bud mite on two raspberry varieties
T. Tuovinen, I. Lindqvist

Abstract: The raspberry leaf and bud mite, Phyllocoptes gracilis, has become increasingly important as a vector of Raspberry Leaf Blotch Virus with the growing popularity of the raspberry variety Glen Ample. Simultaneously, expanding use of polythene tunnels for raspberry cultivation has increased the importance of spider mite infestations. Biological control of P. gracilis is desirable but has rarely been tested. Consequently a field experiment was arranged under tunnel and open field conditions to establish if predatory mites could limit the extensive damage caused by eriophyid and spider mites. In addition to Glen Ample, a local raspberry variety, Maurin Makea, was included in the experiment. Predatory mites were released several times during the season and leaf samples were collected for mite counts at two or three week intervals. The releases of Neoseiulus cucumeris reduced the numbers of P. gracilis on cv. Glen Ample by about 50% both in the tunnel and open field. On cv. Maurin Makea the effect was the same in the tunnel whereas in the open field the population remained low also on the untreated plants. The effect of a naturally occurring phytoseiid species Phytoseius macropilis and cecidomyiid predatory larvae was significant, especially on untreated Glen Ample grown in a tunnel.


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Acarological diversity on blackberry crop and neighbouring vegetation in Southwestern Portugal
M. D. A. Ferreira, S. Pina, I. Calha

Abstract: Natural vegetation management can be an important component of conservation biological control strategies and its interest as potential reservoir of beneficial organisms is increasing in integrated pest management. Acarological surveys on blackberry plantations (open field and greenhouse) and nearby weeds were carried out fortnightly from March to June 2011, in order to study species diversity and population interaction. The research was conducted in Odemira (Southwestern Portugal) and was performed on three blackberry cultivars: ‘Apache’, ‘Ouachita’ and ‘Karaka Black’. The importance of natural vegetation on crop mite populations and its potential contribution to enhance biological control of mite pests were evaluated.
The redberry mite Acalitus essigi (Hassan) was the most noxious mite, causing severe damage in protected crop. The late maturing Ouachita cultivar was the most attacked by this eriophyid mite. The most common predacious mites on blackberries were the stigmaeid Agistemus longisetus Gonzalez and the phytoseiids Amblyseius stipulatus Athias-Henriot and Typhlodromus recki Wainstein. These predacious mite species were also the predominant mites on weeds, as well as other mites that may also contribute for biological control as they constitute alternative prey for predators, in particular Orthotydeus californicus (Banks).
The results obtained showed the influence of the neighbouring vegetation on the occurrence of predacious mites on blackberry plantations. From acarological point of view, safeguarding the competition relatively to some vegetal species, spontaneous vegetation can be an important component of conservation biological control in blackberry crop, because host weeds of mites are mostly repositories of predacious species.


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Looking at weeds to protect crops - a case study for thrips in strawberry
C. Mateus, L. Gomes, I. M. Calha, E. Figueiredo

Abstract: Preliminary data are presented about thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) presence in strawberry crop and in the boundary vegetation, with the objective of contributing to the knowledge of the interaction crop-weeds, aiming a more efficient and sustainable crop protection. The predators Aeolothrips spp. were especially abundant in the crop, followed by the phytophagous Thrips angusticeps Uzel. Lupinus luteus L. was found to be a potential source of those predators to the crop. In relation to T. angusticeps, specimens were more abundant in the weeds Andryala integrifolia L., Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr. and Ranunculus trilobus Desf. Considerations about other thrips species/genera in relation to the crop and weeds are also presented.


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Oviposition performance of Drosophila suzukii females across different yeast species
N. Bellutti, H. Gruber, F. Zerulla, S. Schmidt, G. Innerebner, R. Zelger

Abstract: Yeasts are known to play an important role in nutrition physiology and host attraction of many Drosophila species. Among other saprophagous Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen shows high attraction to Saccharomyces cerevisiae for oviposition. Predominant associations of yeasts to Drosophila suzukii were detected to be similar on different cultivated host plants. In our study we observed the egg-laying behaviour of spotted-wing drosophila on fruits artificially associated with various yeast species. To record oviposition behaviour on a natural substrate, ripe cherry fruits were inoculated with selected yeast species. The behaviour of two populations of D. suzukii females, one population maintained in the laboratory for several generations on artificial diet and another population obtained from infested cherry fruits and reared for one generation in the laboratory on cherry fruits, was studied in this experimental trail. To allow sexual maturing and egg production and to detect posteclosional nutrition influences, the respective yeast species were provided as the only protein source to adult flies between eclosion and experimental start. The comparison of the selected yeast species shows significantly highest number of eggs from females of both populations when fed with Candida sp. on inoculated cherry fruits. Additionally high numbers of eggs were detected on S. cerevisiae for the wild population. Possible reasons for this behavioural distinction between the selected yeast species are discussed with focus on nutritional quality and odour mediated attraction.


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About the overwintering ability of Drosophila suzukii in South Tyrol
F. Zerulla, S. Schmidt, M. Streitberger, C. P. W. Zebitz, R. Zelger

Abstract: As D. suzukii is known to be thermo sensitive, we investigated its ability to overwinter in the climatic conditions of the South Tyrolean area. The monitoring of the fly activity using Droski-drink baited traps allowed to detect an overwintering locality in the Adige valley at 300 m a.s.l. We determined the reproductive condition of all females trapped weekly in the period from August 2012 until September 2013 by dissecting their abdomen. In order to find a correlation between overwintering localities, reproductive status and climatic conditions, microclimatic data (air temperature and RH at 50-100 cm ground level, and temperature under the forest mulch) were registered. The results showed that the microclimatic conditions of single localities are of great impact for the overwintering and suggest that the adults aggregate in most favourable overwintering sites. In such sites a high part of the female population is able to survive, however in spring some of them show degenerated reproductive organs. Dissection of abdomens revealed a reproductive diapause in winter, which appears to be affected by the winter climatic conditions, the nutritional status and food availability.


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Evaluation of some organic products for spotted wing Drosophila control
E. Gargani, F. Tarchi, R. Frosinini, G. Mazza, R. Lazzeri, R. Matteo, S. Simoni

Abstract: In recent years the potential economic loss associated with Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), is significantly increased. The timely control of the insect represents a challenge for research, due to the insect’s fast generation time, the wide range of host fruits continuously available throughout the summer season and the zero tolerance for marketing fruits. Currently, control efforts of D. suzukii rely heavily on the use of chemicals; this implies, as the fast SWD generation succession, many interventions at the fruit ripening by increasing risk of insecticide residues in fruits and promoting insect resistance. In accordance with EU indications, providing for the reduction of chemicals, laboratory tests were carried out in 2013 (see Gargani et al., 2013) to evaluate/screen direct and residual toxicity of different organic labelled products. In 2014, on the basis of the acquired evidences, further investigation was performed to evaluate different dosages of these substances. Among the products tested the most interesting results were those obtained using biological insecticides based on Beauveria bassiana.


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A fixed-spray system for spotted wing Drosophila management in high tunnel raspberries
A. Agnello, A. Landers, G. Loeb

Abstract: Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) is widely distributed in New York State, with raspberries being especially vulnerable. Raspberries grow well in high tunnels and produce exceptionally high quality fruit over an extended growing season. The invasion of SWD has forced berry growers to dramatically increase insecticide applications to produce marketable fruit, a significant logistical challenge for high tunnel production. A spray system fixed into the tunnel structure was used to apply pesticide sprays to control SWD in research and commercial bramble plantings from July-Sept, 2013. All sprays were applied through a system of microsprinkler nozzles attached to polyethylene tubing running along the top of the tunnel and supplied by a central tank/pumping station. Identical applications were made in check tunnels using backpack sprayers. SWD traps were deployed in both treatments to check for adult presence, and weekly fruit samples were collected and held to rear out any larvae infesting the berries. Results were variable depending on site, ranging from equal low levels of infestation for fixed vs. control at the commercial raspberry site (mean: 10 SWD/50 raspberries over the season) to 4X higher infestations in the fixed sprayer blackberry planting vs. the control (78 SWD/sample vs. 20, respectively). Fixed sprayer systems may be particularly cost-effective in high tunnels since the scaffolding for the fixed lines is already present.


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Screening products for control of Drosophila suzukii in the UK
A. G. S. Cuthbertson., D. A. Collins, L. F. Blackburn, N. Audsley, H. A. Bell

Abstract: The first recording of Drosophila suzukii in the UK occurred in the south of England in 2012. Since then sticky traps have continued to record the presence of individuals. Several products (both chemical and biological) were investigated for their efficacy against different life-stages of the pest. Both direct and indirect exposure to control products was assessed. Spinosad along with chlorantraniliprole and an experimental product (coded: TA2674) showed excellent potential as control agents when used as either a pre or post-dipping treatment with mortalities of 100, 93 and 98% mortality, respectively, being achieved. Direct spray application of all products tested had limited impact upon adult flies. Highest mortality (68%) was achieved following direct application of TA2674. Entomopathogenic agents (nematodes and fungi) tested appeared to reduce fly population development (ranges of 34-44% mortality obtained) but would seem unable to eradicate outbreaks. The potential of the products to control D. suzukii is discussed.


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Field collection and laboratory efficacy of parasitoids adapted to Drosophila suzukii in newly invaded areas of Trentino, Italy
M. V. Rossi Stacconi, M’b. Ouantar, A. Grassi, N. Baser, A. Loni, V. V. Walton, C. Ioriatti, G. Anfora

Abstract: A two-year field survey (2012-2013) of parasitoids of the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), was carried out at four locations of Trento province (Italy). The aim was to determine the status of local biological control agents utilizing SWD as a host. Three hymenopteran species were found attacking the drosophilids: one larval parasitoid and two pupal parasitoids. After setting up rearing of these species, parasitization experiments were performed in order to assess the effectiveness of each parasitoid against D. suzukii, in laboratory conditions. The results confirmed the ability of two species.


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Exclusion net to control spotted wing Drosophila in blueberry fields
D. Cormier, J. Veilleux, A. Firlej

Abstract: In 2012, the populations of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, caused high levels of damage in soft fruit production in Quebec, Canada. In an organic blueberry field, we tested exclusion nets as a physical control method against D. suzukii adults. Exclusion nets were compared with insecticide treatments and control. Baited traps were placed to catch D. suzukii adults and blueberries were harvested regularly to evaluate different parameters. No D. suzukii adults were collected from traps and blueberries of the exclusion net treatment. However, adults were caught in traps and infested blueberries outside the nets. Nets had no significant effect on sugar content, yield and damage from other pests. Blueberries harvested inside the nets were significantly larger than blueberries from control plots. The results for this first year demonstrate the effectiveness of exclusion nets to protect blueberry plants from D. suzukii infestations.


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Evaluation of different trap types for catching the spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
C. Lethmayer, A. Egartner, S. Blümel

Abstract: In 2013 three different trap types against Drosophila suzukii were tested at two trial sites with different host plant composition in Austria to compare their economic feasibility and practicability of handling. The modified DROSO-Traps® caught the lowest numbers of D. suzukii at both trial sites, whereas the “Swiss cup traps” exhibited the highest catches at both trial sites, comparable with the Austrian “green trap” at one trial site. The results propose that the non-commercial Austrian “green trap” presents a valuable and easy handable alternative for monitoring and mass-trapping of D. suzukii to both compared commercial trap types.


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Monitoring Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in Oregon, USA sweet cherry orchards
P. W. Shearer, P. H. Brown, S. P. Castagnoli, D. H. Cha, P. J. Landolt

Abstract: Drosophila suzukii rapidly became a significant cherry pest in the western United States after it was observed damaging cherries in 2009 in California. It has caused significant damage to ripening cherries in all major USA cherry production districts leading to increased management costs and reduced profits. Cherry producers require good tools that provide information on the need to treat with insecticides. This project presents information on recent studies on attractants and traps for D. suzukii in sweet cherries.


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Development and efficacy of Droskidrink, a food bait for trapping Drosophila suzukii
A. Grassi, G. Anfora, S. Maistri, A. Gottardello, G. Maddalena, A. De Cristofaro, G. Savini, C. Ioriatti

Abstract: Droskidrink is the name given in Trentino, Italy, to a food bait for attracting Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae). It was originally designed in 2011 by a FEM team led by Alberto Grassi. The Droskidrink consists of a mixture of apple cider vinegar (75%), red wine (25%) and 20 g/l of unrefined sugarcane. Its efficacy in comparison with other available food baits has been evaluated in different field trials (monitoring, mass trapping, attract-and-kill) during the period 2011-2014. Results of these experiments demonstrated that Droskidrink is highly effective as food attractant for D. suzukii and suggests further efforts for the development of monitoring and control methods based on Droskidrink baits.


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Monitoring of Drosophila suzukii in Emilia-Romagna region (2012-2013)
M. Boselli, R. Tiso, S. Caruso, G. Vaccari, S. Paolini, D. Dradi, M. G. Tommasini, G. Ghermandi

Abstract: In Emilia-Romagna region Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) was detected in 2011 on cherry. During 2012-2013 a monitoring of D. suzukii was extended to the whole region. The objective was to obtain information on the distribution and incidence of pest populations for the regional alert system and to investigate on biological and ethological aspects of the pest. A total of respectively 118 and 91 traps in 2012 and 2013 were installed throughout the region. The traps were applied mostly in cherry orchards but also on apricot, peach, strawberry, plum, berries, persimmon and grapevine plants. In order to improve the monitoring, a slightly different kind of trap and primer was used in 2013 than in 2012. A detailed description of the used traps is given. In general the monitoring began in the middle of April, until harvest of the late ripening varieties. The content of the traps was examined every week in laboratory to determine the number and the sex of the adults. D. suzukii was found all over the region and on all crops monitored, while damages on fruits were reported only for cherry. On average only a few adults of D. suzukii were caught per trap during the spring and summer in 2012. However no significant damage to the production was recorded throughout the region in 2012. In 2013 the catches increased progressively from late May to July. The first oviposition and damage on cherry fruits were detected in early June, while significant damage was recorded in the second decade of July. In both years a decline of adult presence was recorded in August and an increase occurred in autumn. In conclusion the data arising from the monitoring showed that the insect is widespread in the region, although in different levels depending on crops and environmental conditions.


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Comparison between different trap types for Drosophila suzukii in cherry orchards
G. Vaccari, S. Caruso, C. Nouhaud, L. Maistrello

Abstract: In 2013 an experiment was carried out to compare six types of similar size traps baited with the same food attractant (“DroskiDrink”), differing for their shape and the number of entry holes. Four of the traps are already/will be soon available on the market, two of them being marketed specifically for SWD (“Drosotrap new®” and “Drosotrap®” by BIOBEST), and two being marketed for other pests (“Taptrap®” and “Vasotrap®” by Roberto Carello). The other two traps were specifically designed and hand-made on purpose (Kartell red and Bot). The trial was performed in a cherry orchard in Vignola (Modena Province, Northern Italy), area of IGP cherries; traps were placed according to a completely randomized block design and their position was changed weekly. The number of captured Drosophila suzukii (SWD) and that of other insect taxa was recorded weekly.
After the first year, results show that the traps with the best performance in terms of early season captures and total number of SWD catches were “Drosotrap new” and “Bot”. However, the low selectivity towards other insect types and the uneasiness of use suggest the need of further research to improve the efficacy of these traps.


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Efficacy of insecticide treatment strategies against Drosophila suzukii in combination with mass trapping
D. Profaizer, A. Grassi, E. Zadra, S. Maistri

Abstract: A field trial of integrated management against D. suzukii was carried out in a blueberry orchard in Trentino region. Mass trapping with red traps containing an attractive based on apple vinegar and wine (Droskidrink) was used for the entire experimental site. Treatments were: Spada 200 EC, Laser and Boundary. Assessments were made on fruits picked every 3-7 days during all the harvest time. The insects caught in the traps were also weekly counted. The damage observed on the three treatments was always similar and low during all the harvest time, reaching high values only in the last assessment, at the end of harvesting (90% of production already harvested). A semi-field trial was carried out to verify whether the 3 protection strategies were really equally effective. Fruits were collected 7 days after the last insecticide application and kept in contact for 24 hours with D. suzukii adults reared in the laboratory. At the end of this period, oviposition and the development of adults was verified. The oviposition was not significantly different between treatments, even if the Boundary treated fruits showed a presence about twice of eggs compared with the insecticides (Spada 200 EC, Laser). The number of emerged adults showed evident differences between treatments. Spada 200 EC was the most effective, showing a lower developmental rate of adults, while Boundary was the less effective. Laser showed an intermediate efficacy. The three strategies showed a different efficacy in the semi-field trial and were similar in the field. These results could be explained with the presence of mass trapping in the orchard, which covered the differences between treatments emerged in the semi-field experiment. The arrangement of mass traps, carried out on the perimeter of a plot of limited area, has certainly enhanced their effectiveness. The efficacy demonstrated by this technique requires to consider it as a valuable tool in the management of D. suzukii on blueberry.


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Experimental studies on Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in protected strawberry crops: biology of the pest and effectiveness of a pupal parasitoid in field conditions in France
Y. Trottin, E. Paulhiac, A. Zicot, V. Baffert, J.-M. Leyre, C. Weydert, M. Poyet, N. Ris, P. Gibert

Abstract: Experimental studies have been carried out on the emerging pest Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) since 2012. Preliminary laboratory tests were done to gain a better understanding of the biology and the behaviour of the pest in controlled conditions. The different stages of D. suzukii have been observed on strawberries as well as the life cycle of the pest. Moreover, following research under laboratory conditions testing the ability of European frugivorous Drosophila parasitoids to develop on D. suzukii, the effectiveness of the pupal parasitoid Trichopria cf drosophilae in parasitizing D. suzukii, was investigated in field conditions during spring and summer 2013.


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Spotted wing Drosophila: notes on spread in Tuscany (Italy) and susceptibility of some grape varieties
E. Gargani, F. Tarchi, R. Frosinini, S. Guidi, G. Mazza, S. Simoni

Abstract: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera, Drosophilidae) was detected for the first time in Tuscany (Italy) in 2008 and officially reported for Italy in 2009. Rapidly, the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) has spread throughout the country, causing serious damages on many fruit crops. The potential of infestation rate by SWD is enormous and its host range is very wide, including both cultivated and wild plants. Throughout 2010-2013 years, the spread of the insect is further increased in almost all Italian regions. Given the economic losses that SWD can determine in central Italy and to assess the risk of spreading into new areas and new crops, in 2013 and 2014, samplings were conducted in different areas of Tuscany. Further, to better understand the relationship between SWD and wine grape, preliminary laboratory trials were carried out to test the susceptibility of three grape varieties to D. suzukii.


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Monitoring and controlling Drosophila suzukii in Switzerland
C. A. Baroffio, P. Richoz, S. Fischer, P. Kehrli, C. Linder, S. Kuske

Abstract: Drosophila suzukii is a highly polyphagous vinegar fly native to Asia, which invaded Switzerland in 2011. The monitoring survey begun in 2012 and the network consisted of about 200 traps distributed according to the importance of fruit growing areas. Drosophila suzukii was found in all regions of the country, from low altitudes to the timberline. The range of the pest’s host plants is very broad and does not only include crops, but also wild fruits. Most individuals were captured close to or within cultivated raspberry, blackberry and grapevine as well as within wild shrubs such as elderberry. Monitoring traps can reliably detect the occurrence of the pest in a region. In 2013, an intensive survey was set up in order to study the attractiveness of different host towards D. suzukii Results showed that cherry and raspberry were highly attractive throughout the season. Even when there were no more fruits on the plant, they continued to capture lager numbers of D. suzukii. Cherries and raspberry therefore seem to be good host plants for installing survey traps that monitor population dynamics over the whole season
Due to its fast reproduction rate and the infestation of fruits shortly before harvest D. suzukii is difficult to control. When D. suzukii was found in a monitoring trap in a region, sanitary measures and mass trapping were immediately set-up in the berry crops of the particular region. Sanitary measures included a shorter picking interval and the immediate destruction of all unmarketable fruits. Mass-traps were either deployed in a dense net around the crop or between hedges and a culture in order to capture D. suzukii before they attack ripe fruits. These control measures were satisfying, although economic damages differed between 2012 and 2013. Whereas fewer attacks were reported in 2012, many economic damages were reported in 2013 especially in late harvested crops such as raspberries and blackberries.


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Phenology and occurrence of spotted wing Drosophila in Germany and case studies for its control in berry crops
F. Briem, M. Breuer, K. Köppler, H. Vogt

Abstract: Since Drosophila suzukii has been first recorded in Germany in 2011, the pest has rapidly spread out and is now found in most Federal States. In 2013 we observed an immense increase in numbers of individuals and positive sites. Peak numbers of SWD were caught from September onward, resulting particularly in infestation of blackberries and late raspberries. Due to the mild winter, SWD was continuously caught from autumn 2013 to spring 2014, especially in hedges, shrubberies, forest and forest borders, at many sites in high numbers. Monitoring traps in pine tree tops in the forest caught about twice as much SWD than traps at standard height at the same site. Soil emergence traps detected SWD only rarely. With regard to SWD control, neither mass trapping nor bait sprays (a.i. 0.125% thiacloprid and 5% protein bait), both combined with sanitation measures, reduced the infestation level when applied in 0.05 to 0.2 ha raspberry and blackberry plots.


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