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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 111, 2015

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 111, 2015

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Stored Products".
Proceedings of the Meeting at Zagreb (Croatia), June 28 - July 1, 2015.
Edited by Pasquale Trematerra and Darka Hamel.
ISBN 978-92-9067-294-4 [XLIV + 530 pp.]

 

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Chemical, physical and organic hermetic storage technology for stored-product protection in African countries
Daniel Obeng-Ofori

Abstract: A myriad of beetle and moth pests associated with durable grains and processed food cause considerable quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. Currently, there is lack of reliable and verifiable data on postharvest losses in most African countries. Many tools are available for protecting stored food against pest infestation including the use of contact insecticides and fumigants, botanicals, inert dusts, irradiation, biological control agents as well as appropriate modified atmospheres through metal silo and hermetic storage technology. This paper focuses on the advances in stored-product protection in sub-Sahara Africa with emphasis on chemical, inert dusts and organic hermetic storage technology with the view to identifying critical challenges and information gaps that need further research. Although pest management strategies are changing to meet consumer’s demand for food free of chemical residues, address concerns about safety of insecticides to humans, delay insecticide resistance development in insects and comply with stricter pesticide regulations, the use of synthetic contact insecticides will continue to be a major component of stored product pest management programmes. Selective use of contact insecticides requires a thorough understanding and evaluation of risks, costs and benefits. Inert dusts and organic hermetic storage technology may be a safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of grain preservation against pest infestation among low-resource poor farmers in developing countries who store small amounts of grains. It must be emphasized that for sustainable stored product protection, a combination of the various control options in an integrated and compatible manner is imperative. Integrated pest management (IPM) as a knowledge-based system, is rapidly providing a framework to reduce dependence on synthetic chemical pesticides. A major research priority is well-designed on-farm trials to validate the efficacy of locally available inert dusts for stored-product protection using standard procedures and formulations that can be transferred to other communities. The current knowledge of organic hermetic storage technology, its availability and adoption is limited. Appropriate knowledge transfer techniques needs to be developed and disseminated widely to encourage the uptake of the technology for grain protection in Africa.

3-27

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Toxicity of Turkish diatomaceous earth deposits against some stored-grain insects on wheat
Ali A. Işikber, Özgür Sağlam, Mehmet Kubilay Er, Hasan Tunaz, İnanç Ş. Doganay, Recep Sen

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29

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Enhancing the insecticidal efficacy of inert dusts against stored food insect pest by the combined action with essential oils
Hind Houria Bougherra-Nehaoua, Stefano Bedini, Francesca Cosci, Guido Flamini, Kamel Belhamel, Barbara Conti

Abstract: Inert dusts (IDs), as Kaolin (K) and diatomaceous earth (D) powders, and aromatic plant essential oils (EOs) are among the most appealing alternatives to traditional chemical insecticides, against stored-products and field crops pests. IDs and EOs are environmentally friendly and very low toxic to mammalian. In addition, it has been proven that insects are not able to develop resistance to IDs. Recent studies indicate that, when used in combination, aromatic plant EOs may enhance the insecticidal efficacy of IDs. Such effect could be due both to the physical action of IDs on the cuticle and the supposed neurotoxic effects of EOs.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the two aromatic plants Pistacia lentiscus and Foeniculum vulgare EOs, of K and D powders and of the IDs-EOs mix as grain protectants against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Curculionidae). The EOs were tested at 10, 40, 80 and, 100 ppm, IDs at 25, 50 and 100 ppm while the EOs + IDs at 20, 40 and 60 ppm in 330 ml pots containing 150 g of maize grains and 10 unsexed insects. Results were recorded after three, six and nine days of treatment. Orthogonal contrasts analysis shows that the action of IDs was higher when used in combination with the EOs (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the combined use of IDs and EOs could effectively enhance the insecticidal efficacy of IDs reducing the costs of the management of stored grains.

31-38

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Short exposures to phosphine in combination with low pressure: does it work?
Basilis Sotiroudas, Christos I. Rumbos, Maria Sakka, Christos G. Athanassiou

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39

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Phosphine resistance in eggs of Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella from almond storage facilities in the Central Valley of California
Sandipa Gautam, George P. Opit

Abstract: Phosphine (PH3) is heavily relied upon for stored-product pest management worldwide. Several studies have revealed high frequencies of PH3 resistance in stored-product insects in many countries including the United States. These studies focused on adults, usually the most fumigant-susceptible life stage. In this study, we established discriminating doses of PH3 for Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle, RFB) and Plodia interpunctella (Indian meal moth, IMM) eggs using laboratory susceptible strains for detection of resistance in eggs, the most fumigant-tolerant life stage. The discriminating doses for RFB and IMM eggs were established based on 3-d fumigation and were 73.6 and 109.8 ppm, respectively. Discriminating dose tests showed that eggs of four out of 11 RFB field populations collected from almond storage facilities in California had resistance frequencies (percentage survival) that ranged from 54-100%. All IMM populations tested were resistant to PH3 and resistance frequencies ranged from 4-20%. Based on 3-d fumigation, dose-response tests and probit analyses determined that LC99 (concentration required to kill 99% of the eggs) values for susceptible and the most resistant RFB
eggs were 50.8 and 653.9 ppm, respectively. Resistance frequencies and levels of resistance in different life stages of RFB and IMM and their implications for resistance management are discussed.

41-49

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Persistence and efficacy of diatomaceous earth, imidacloprid and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against three Coleopteran and psocid species of stored grains
Waqas Wakil, Thomas Schmitt

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51

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Efficacy of six dry formulations of insecticides against five major stored-product insect species
Bhadriraju Subramanyam, Xinyi E., Spencer Diveley

Abstract: Six newly developed dry insecticide formulations containing pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin were loaded onto licocene, a waxy material used as a filler, to decrease the recommended application dosages of these insecticides. Out of the six formulations, three were formulated with diatomaceous earth as an inert ingredient and three without. Formulations A, B, E, and F containing pirimiphos-methyl (0.5 ppm) and deltamethrin (0.12 or 0.24 ppm) were applied to corn, whereas formulations C and D containing only deltamethrin (0.24 ppm) were applied to both corn and wheat. Adults of the red flour beetle, sawtoothed grain beetle, rice weevil, lesser grain borer, and eggs of Indian meal moth were exposed to untreated and treated grain at 28 °C and 65% RH. All adults of the beetle species died after a 7- and 14-day exposure and no progeny were produced on insecticide-treated grain. Live larvae and adults were observed on untreated grain and no larvae or adults were found in all formulations except formulations D and E. All formulations performed well against the beetle species and the Indian meal moth, and have potential as candidate grain protectants.

53-59

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Establishing discriminating doses of phosphine for adults of three psocid (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) species
Charles E. Konemann, George P. Opit, Sandipa Gautam

Abstract: Psocids are now recognized as stored-product pests of substance worldwide. Lack of information exists on resistance of psocids to phosphine (PH3) in the USA. In this study we determined discriminating doses of PH3 for adults of three psocid (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) species, namely, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, L. paeta Pearman, and L. decolor (Pearman). Protocols used were modified from the FAO Method No. 16, to determine lethal doses that caused 99% mortality and their 95% confidence intervals for the laboratory susceptible strain of each species. Dose-response studies were conducted by exposing adults of all species to different concentrations of PH3 for 20 hours. Mortality was assessed 24 hours after exposure. Discriminating doses for L. bostrychophila, L. paeta, and L. decolor adults were 46.7, 122.2, and 187.8 ppm, respectively. These data show that the three Liposcelis species responded differently to PH3. The discriminating doses from this study will be used in future research to determine resistance frequencies of field populations of these species.

61-65

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Large-scale applications of nitrogen against stored-product insects in commercial facilities
Christos G. Athanassiou, Antonia Chiou, Christos I. Rumbos, Maria Sakka, Basilis Sotiroudas, Vaios Karathanos

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67

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Survival and development of stored product insects' eggs in baby food exposed to low oxygen
Hagit Navarro, Shlomo Navarro

Abstract: Food industry has been increasingly using modified atmospheres for the protection of the packaged commodities from potential insect contamination in the product. This is especially so for foods which are sensitive to insect contamination like baby foods where packaging is carried out under nitrogen (N2). Canned packages were sealed and treated using N2 to achieve an initial concentration of 1% oxygen (O2). This concentration was shown to increase to 2.5% due to desorption of O2 from the commodity. The increase in customer complaints on presence of stored product insects in baby food formula led the manufacturer to the questions (1) whether adult insects can lay eggs in milk powder formula after its packaging at 1% O2; and (2) whether the eggs can develop at such low oxygen concentration. To answer those questions two sets of trials were made; (a) testing the egg stage of Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella and Oryzaephilus surinamensis exposed to 2.5% and 6% O2 on baby food, containing mainly milk powder, that had equilibrium relative humidity of 46.6%, and (b) testing the survival of the adults of same insects and their ability to lay eggs at 2.5% and 6% O2. For the test purpose, adults of L. serricorne, P. interpunctella and O. surinamensis were reared at ambient air at 29 ± 1 °C and 65% ± 5 RH. Results show that eggs of the tested three species continued to develop after they were exposed to 6% O2. However, larvae could not survive the same oxygen concentration and no pupae neither adult's stage were observed in the treated media. In an atmosphere containing 2.5% O2, eggs of L. serricorne and P. interpunctella failed to develop, but only O. surinamensis eggs hatched. The ability of adults of P. interpunctella to lay eggs was much higher than L. serricorne, in the same atmosphere. Whereas, adults of O. surinamensis failed to lay eggs in both O2 concentrations tested.

69-76

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The entomocidal and growth inhibitory impact of three formulations of diatomaceous earth in combination with essential oils of Allium sativum and Azadirachta indica against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul-Hasan, Muhammad Sajid Qureshi, Sidra Tul Muntaha, Sehrish Kanwal, Qurban Ali, Kazam Ali, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan

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77

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Insecticidal effect of various insecticides for the control of the khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Col.: Dermestidae) on concrete
Christos G. Athanassiou, Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Maria C. Boukouvala, Marios Mavroforos, Dimitrios C. Kontodimas, Myrto S. Barda

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78

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Heat treatment in food industries: efficacy for the insects and prospect for a microbiological reduction
Paolo Guerra

Abstract: This paper presents the results achieved at the end of a mill treatment carried out in 2014. Temperature and humidity were regularly monitored in the treated premises; the effectiveness of the treatment was checked by means of biological tests. The data collected show that, keeping the average temperature of 52.8 °C, with no side effects for machineries and milling structures, the mortality rate reached 100% for all the stages of Ephestia kuehniella, Sitophilus granarius and Tribolium confusum. Some microbial analysis have been carried out before and after the treatment, showing a decrease up to 60% in the microbial load e.g. moulds and airborne bacteria.

79-84

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Optimising the delivery of pesticide to grain using Entostat® to reduce the amount required for effective control
Freya Scoates, Adam Nunn, Charlotte Elston

Abstract: There is significant pressure to reduce the use of chemical pesticides in stored grains and other dried commodities for operator safety and because residues can lead to consumer rejection. However, growers are keen to keep pesticides as one of a suite of tools under an IPM approach. Optimising the delivery of the pesticide can reduce the amount required for effective control. Entostat® is an electrostatic micro-powder formulated using blends of waxes and polymers, which can have an active ingredient dispersed within its matrix. It adheres to insect
cuticles and grain kernels and thus can be used to effectively target storage pest species, increasing the exposure of the insect to the pesticide and evenly distributing in grain during admixture. Deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl were formulated in Entostat, without the synergist PBO, at rates ≤ half that of a conventional deltamethrin-based formulation. In a series of studies control of four significant grain pests: Sitophilus granarius (L.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), was achieved equivalent to the conventional formulation. We demonstrated that by improving the delivery, using a carrier such as Entostat, it is possible to apply chemical pesticides at much lower concentrations than are currently used, while achieving equivalent levels of control. This indicates that there is significant potential for chemical pesticides to continue as an important component in storage IPM.

85-94

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Application of the fumigant methyl isothiocyanate to wheat: fumigant toxicity, sorption dynamics, germination effects and residues after storage
Özgür Sağlam, Michael J. Aikins, Thomas W. Phillips

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95

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Effectiveness of Profume® gas fumigant (sulfuryl fluoride) for the control of phosphine-resistant grain insects infesting stored wheat
George P. Opit, Ellen Thoms, Thomas W. Phillips

Abstract: Highly phosphine-resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have been found in Oklahoma grain storage facilities. The phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum populations found are up to 1,519 and 119 times, respectively, more resistant than their susceptible counterparts. These findings call for development of phosphine resistance management strategies to ensure continued effective use of phosphine. Eliminating highly phosphine-resistant insects using an alternative fumigant such as Profume® gas (sulfuryl fluoride or SF) can be a component of phosphine resistance management. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in eight 13.6-MT steel bins to determine the efficacy of SF to control phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum infesting stored wheat. Based on our data, SF was highly effective in controlling all stages of phosphine resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum. The effectiveness of SF to control phosphine-resistant insects and implications of this for resistance management are discussed.

97-103

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Novel insecticide formulations using Entostat powder technology: effects on stored product beetles and on the commodity
Christos G. Athanassiou, Thomas N. Vassilakos, Anna-Cristina Dutton, Nick Jessop, David Sherwood, Garry Pease, Andreja Brglez, Clare Storm, Stanislav Trdan

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105

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The potential of Croatian diatomaceous earths as grain protectant against three stored-product insects
Anita Liška, Vlatka Rozman, Zlatko Korunić, Josip Halamić, Ines Galović, Pavo Lucić, Renata Baličević

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the potential insecticide efficacy of several Croatian diatomite samples (as inert dusts) against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) adults and to compare their efficacy with the efficacy of the USA standard diatomaceous earth (DE) Celatom Mn 51. DE Mn 51 belongs to a group of DE with medium to increased efficacy for stored agricultural products insects. Six Croatian samples from three different locations (MA-4, MR-10, MR-10B, OP-4, OP-4A and PD-1) were selected and prepared for testing with fractions of particles ≤ 45 μm and applied at 500 mg/kg. Insect mortality was recorded after 7 and 14 days. The highest lethal effect after 7 and 14 days showed Croatian sample MA-4 with 97% and 100% mortality, respectively, for S. oryzae, 61.5% and 99% mortality, respectively, for T. castaneum and 26.5% and 34%, respectively, for R. dominica. In all treatments the efficacy of MA-4 was in the same range with the efficacy of the standard DE Mn 51. The other five tested samples had significant lower efficacy regarding to MA-4, although after 14 days mortality was 85.7-98% for S. oryzae, 5-47% for T. castaneum and 2-5% for R. dominica depending on a different DE sample. These results show that Croatia has potential diatomite deposits with good and promising efficiency for tested insects.

107-113

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Immediate lethal dose of gamma radiation to Callosobruchus maculatus adults
Fabrício Ca. Reis, Marcos Roberto Potenza, Valter Arthur

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115

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Effect of microwave on different stages of dates moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored dates
Mohammed Z. Khalaf, Falah H. Naher, Hussain F. Alrubeai

Abstract: Dates moth (fig moth), Ephestia cautella (Walker) is a major pest in storage and dates on the market. Eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of date moth E. cautella were exposed to three levels of microwave power (600, 800 and 1000 watts) at different exposure time (0, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 seconds). The results showed that microwave had high ability to kill different stages of date moth. The effect increased by increasing of microwave power and exposure time. The percentage of egg mortality was 100% at 600 and 800 W, and 14 sec exposure time. Similarly, eggs mortality was also high at 1000 W, but in less than 12 sec. The highest mortality of larvae was 90% at 600 W and 96.7% at 800 W, when the exposure time was 10 sec The mortality was 100% at 1000 W and exposure time was 10 sec Male and female pupal mortality rate was 100% at 800 W, and 20 or 18 sec respectively. The range of lethal time of 50% and 95% (LT50, LT95) at 600-1000 W were 5.01-9.9 and 15.7-34.2, 3.0-7.5 and 9.0-50.0 and 3.2-4.8 and 7.9-39.1 for egg, larvae and pupae respectively. The results showed that all treatments of adults significantly affected longevity and emergence of adult male and female. The longevity of emerged males and females did not exceeded 4.3 and 5.3 days, respectively at 600 W and 6 sec whereas emerging of adults stopped at 800 W and 14 and 16 sec, for male and female pupae, respectively. The results of this investigation indicated the feasibility of microwave technique and could be used as alternative to methyl bromide in stored dates.

117-123

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Effectiveness of wheat-applied contact insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Marijana Pražić Golić, Petar Kljajić, Goran Andrić

Abstract: The effectiveness of several contact insecticides: malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin+piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist, bifenthrin, thiamethoxam, spinosad and abamectin against a laboratory population of Sitophilus oryzae in treated wheat, was examined. Adult mortality was determined after 2, 7 and 14 days of exposure, while minimum effective doses (MED) were determined based on F1 and F2 offspring production after 8 and 14 weeks, respectively. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (LD50 = 0.36 mg/kg) and pirimiphos-methyl (LD50 = 0.43 mg/kg) were the most effective contact insecticides after 2 days of exposure, while abamectin was the least effective (LD50 = 23.53 mg/kg). Chlorpyrifos-methyl (LD50 = 0.13 mg/kg) had the highest effectiveness after 7 days of exposure, and malation the lowest (LD50 = 1.26 mg/kg), while abamectin (LD50 = 0.07 mg/kg) was the most effective insecticide after 14 days, and malathion the least (LD50 = 1.11 mg/kg). Chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin had the lowest MEDs (> 0.5 and 0.6 mg/kg, respectively) in F1 generation, and deltamethrin and bifenthrin (0.4 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively) in F2 generation, while spinosad showed the highest MED both in F1 and F2 with > 20 and 10 mg/kg, respectively.

125-132

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The effect of diatomaceous earth treatment combined with 50 °C temperature on Sitophilus oryzae (L.) in wheat grain
Marijana Pražić Golić, Petar Kljajić, Goran Andrić

Abstract: Diatomaceous earth (DE) and extreme temperatures (high or low) used in mutually independent treatments make effective alternatives to residual insecticides but many limiting factors prevent their wider use. To minimize such negative effects, we have examined the influence of a treatment with DE originating from Serbia in combination with 50 °C temperature on a laboratory and a field (Novi Pazar) population of S. oryzae. Wheat grain was treated with DE (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 g/kg) before S. oryzae adults were added to grain in plastic cups and placed in a temperature chamber set to 50 °C for periods of 65 and 75 min. After each exposure period, the plastic cups were transferred to 24 °C in the laboratory, and lethal effects were checked after 1, 2, 7 and 14 days, while offspring insects were counted after 8 weeks. For comparison, the effects of DE on weevils at 24 °C, and effects of exposure to 50 °C temperature were recorded in separate bioassays. Adults of both populations in plastic cups not exposed to 50 °C temperature reached mortality of > 95% after 14 days in wheat grain treated with 0.5 and 0.75 g/kg DE. Regarding both weevil populations exposed to 50 °C temperature for 65 min, total mortality and 100% offspring reduction were found after 7 days of contact with 0.25-0.5 g/kg DE. The results of the present study reveal that a combination of DE and 50 °C temperature may be preferable to their independent use.

133-138

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Toxicity of gaseous ozone at high concentrations against Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) and Ephestia cautella (Walker) in in-shell hazelnuts
Ali A. Işikber, Christos G. Athanassiou, K. Sinan Dayisoylu, M. Serdar Öztekin, Ahmet D. Duman, Melek Özdemir

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139

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The efficacy of controlled atmosphere on Oryzaephilus surinamensis under various temperature regimes
Radek Aulicky, Jan Plachy, Vlastimil Kolar, Vaclav Stejskal

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140

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Research on insecticidal efficacy of different inert dusts against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera, Curculionidae) adults
Stanislav Trdan, Aleksander Horvat, Tanja Bohinc

Abstract: In the search for an effective and sustainable control method against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky), an important insect pest affecting stored grain, different inert dusts were tested under laboratory conditions. We treated wheat grains with quartz sand, zeolites, and diatomeaceous earth. Inert dusts of different origins were used, namely diatomaceous earth from Slovenia and SilicoSec, quartz sands from two locations from Slovenia, and three different zeolites (two types of natural zeolite from location in Slovenia, and synthetic zeolite Asorbio®). Untreated winter wheat grains served as control treatment. The substances were tested at three different temperatures (15, 20 and 25 °C) and two different relative humidity levels (55 and 75%). Mortality was measured 7th, 14th and 21st day after exposure. Inert dusts were applied at two different concentrations, 450 and 900 ppm. The analysis of pooled results provoked significantly the highest mortality of beetles in treatments with SilicoSec® (52.31 ± 2.07%), and in treatment with one type of Slovenian zeolite (31.48 ± 1.42%). The lowest mortality was recorded in treatments with quartz sands from both Slovenian locations, Moravče (18.84 ± 1.31%), and Raka (9.12 ± 0.66%). Mortality of S. zeamais was significantly the highest in treatments exposed to 25 °C (28.32 ± 1.16%), and in treatments exposed to higher concentrations (900 ppm) of inert dusts (27.30 ± 0.87%). The use of diatomaceous earth is well established in stored products pest management, however the knowledge on the efficacy of zeolites is very week and offers a lot of opportunities for future researchers.

141-145

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Study of synergetic impact of dust grain protectants combined with atmospheric modifications by controlling oxygen and ozone concentrations
Dusan Losic

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147

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Combination of diatomaceous earth formulations against larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum on wheat grains
Waqas Wakil

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148

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Insecticidal effect of the combined application of diatomaceous earth and zeolite against three major stored-product insects in wheat
Christos I. Rumbos, Maria Sakka, Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Christos G. Athanassiou

Abstract: Diatomaceous earths and zeolites are both promising alternatives to chemical grain protectants for the control of post-harvest infestations in dry, durable commodities. However, there is no report on the combined application of diatomaceous earth and zeolite against stored-product insects. In the present study, the insecticidal effect of eight diatomaceous earths and two zeolites of different origins was evaluated against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) at two doses (250 and 1000 ppm) and three exposure intervals (2, 7 and 14 d). After 2 d of exposure, mortality was low for all tested species and doses, whereas after 7 d mortality ranged between 21.7 and 93.3 for S. oryzae, and 26.7 to 98.3 for O. surinamensis at 1000 ppm. Complete control (100%) was achieved only in the case of S. oryzae and O. surinamensis after 14 d of exposure in wheat treated with the high dose. Tribolium confusum was the most tolerant to diatomaceous earth and zeolite among the species tested. In a second series of bioassays, the three best performing diatomaceous earths and the most effective zeolite were evaluated against the same beetle pests alone or in combinations at 250 and 500 ppm (total concentration of either one compound alone or both compounds). In all cases, no significant synergistic effect was observed after the combined application of diatomaceous earth and zeolite.

149-156

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Modified atmospheres with high carbon dioxide in a new pneumatic chamber for the control of stored product pests
Pompeo Suma, Alessandra La Pergola, Salvatore Bella, Marco Amante, Pietro Ranno, Agatino Russo

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157

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“Redrying” procedure in stored dried tobacco for control of Lasioderma serricorne and Ephestia elutella
Smaragdi Ch. Papadopoulou, Constantinos Chryssohoides, Constantinos Th. Buchelos

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158

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Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas against five stored-product insect species
Bhadriraju Subramanyam, Xinyi E.

Abstract: In this study, the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a potential fumigant to control stored-product insects was evaluated. Adults of five species of economically important stored-product insects were exposed for varying time periods to four concentrations of chlorine dioxide gas. Mortality was observed on days 1 through 5 after exposure to record any delayed mortality effects. Phosphine susceptible laboratory strains and phosphine resistant field strains of the five species were exposed to chlorine dioxide. The five species tested included the lesser grain borer, red flour beetle, sawtoothed grain beetle, rice weevil, and maize weevil. Exposure to 0.54 g/m3 (200 ppm) of chlorine dioxide for 8 h at an average temperature of 18 °C and an average humidity of 20% only resulted in less than 40% mortality of the five species. All exposed sawtothed grain beetles died within a day when exposed for 6 h to a chlorine dioxide concentration of 1.35 g/m3 (500 ppm). Red flour beetle, rice and maize weevils, and lesser grain borer were more tolerant to this concentration, with mortality ranging between 25 and 80%. An exposure to a chlorine dioxide concentration of 2.02 g/m3 (750 ppm) for 6 h produced trends in mortality of all five species that was similar to mortality observed at 500 ppm. The mortality of phosphine-susceptible and phosphine-resistant sawtoothed grain beetle, red flour beetle, and lesser grain borer adults was 100% mortality when exposed for 7 h to a chlorine dioxide concentration of 2.70 g/m3 (1000 ppm). Only the phosphine susceptible rice weevil showed 100% mortality at this concentration. Phosphine resistant rice weevil and maize weevil had 57 and 50% mortality when exposed for 7 h to a chlorine dioxide concentration of 2.70 g/m3. At this concentration and exposure time, phosphine susceptible maize weevil showed 83% mortality one day after exposure. The post-exposure mortality increased from day 1 to day 5 suggesting delayed mortality effects after exposure to chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide may be a potential gas to control laboratory and field strains of the five species tested.

159-168

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Pest prevention during storage, transportation and handling of stored products
Vaclav Stejskal

Abstract: Cropping and storage systems are considered more resilient to pests when their inherent properties reduce pest occurrence and pressure or limit yield losses in case of pest attacks. Increased resilience of storage and food production systems includes an integration of complementary preventive tactics and techniques into two defensive lines. First defensive line (i.e. resilience of the store/production facility) represents prevention of entry to buildings. Prevention of pest entry includes exclusion of active pest introductions (invasion or penetration) and exclusion (quarantine) of passive introductions either via infested packages or with hidden infestation of raw products (“Trojan-horse infestation”). Second defensive line (i.e. resilience of commodity) represents prevention of pest multiplication in buildings and prevention of pest invasion into a raw or processed commodities and multiplication inside them. The following techniques and tactics can be employed to ensure internal security: “first-in-first-out” stock rotation, anoxic protective atmospheres, low storage temperatures, pest-proof packages, repellents and repellent packages etc. Pest prevention of multiplication inside commodity is realized via using resistant and GMO varieties, or via “immunization” commodity using low-toxic protectants such as IGRs, dusts, etc.

171-176

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Pest-proof storage structures prevent the infestation of bulk grain
Cornel S. Adler, Agnès F. Ndomo-Moualeu

Abstract: Commercial grain storage warehouses for long-term grain storage in northeastern Germany were rendered pest-proof by sealing all visible openings. The project idea was to determine the effect of this measure on the occurrence of infestation in a given grain storage. Each warehouse had a capacity of some 500 to 1900 t. Sealing doors and walls or gaps between walls and roof did not cause significant changes in grain temperatures or relative humidity. Rapid weather changes were rather moderate in better sealed structures, but differences between storage sites were much greater than between sealed and unsealed warehouses. At one site storing a total of 3000 t of wheat an infestation of the Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was observed in September 2014. Four of five warehouses were found infested with numerous moths but also with various beetles and even neuropteran species (Chrysoperla spp.). Indianmeal moths were also found in funnel traps with sex pheromones around the storage structures. Volatiles above the grain mass and in a down-wind plume outside the unsealed doors were collected with tubes containing activated charcoal and determined by GC-MS. The warehouse found un-infested was the one that had been sealed. A pressure test, however, was not successful which was attributed to remaining openings and cracks in the walls of the building. This finding seems to prove that storage pests can actively be excluded from stored grain by an insect-proof seal. Prerequisite for a sealed or hermetic storage is low grain moisture content, in wheat e.g. max. 13 per cent. Grain must also be stored in boxes remote from outside walls, and windows should be covered to avoid condensation and moisture migration, respectively.

177-184

5.00 €

 

Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais: wheat preferences, development time and progeny production
Pasquale Trematerra, Marco Colacci

Abstract: Impact of nitrogen fertilisation on the Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky wheat-food preferences, development time, and progeny production were studied. The Italian durum wheat, Triticum turgidum L., variety “Svevo” was cultivated using three different fertiliser regimes, 0 kg/ha, 60 kg/ha, and 160 kg/ha of nitrogen. The kernel samples obtained by the three fertilisation regime-plots were compared. After bioassays were performed in cylindrical arenas, different levels of kernel susceptibility to S. zeamais infestation were observed. Results of trials indicated that the susceptibility of grains is not closely related to higher protein presence in kernels from field plots fertilised with 60 and 160 kg/ha of nitrogen compared to the kernels of unfertilised plots. These observations were consistent with the results observed in F1 and F2 progeny. The overall duration of developmental time of S. zeamais, from egg to adult, was also not influenced by the different nitrogen fertiliser regimes.

185-191

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Environmental and host seed effects on the development of Adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis
Soon-Do Bae, Hyun-Ju Kim, Bishwo Prasad Mainali, Young-Nam Yoon, In-Seok Oh, Yeong-Hoon Lee, In-Hee Park, Hang-Won Kang

Extended abstract

193-195

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A method for estimating and predicting losses caused by Sitophilus oryzae (L.) in paddy and polished rice
Baba Gana J. Kabir, Gennady A. Zakladnoy

Abstract only

197

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“Speedbox” as an effective mini gas generator for phosphine fumigation
Moshe Kostyukovsky, Elazar Quinn, Chen Sela, Anatoly Trostanetsky, Talat Hazan

Abstract: Phosphine based fumigants are mainly used today for stored product insect pest control. However, some limitations, such as low temperatures and relatively long exposure time, limit their uses. In order to overcome these difficulties, a special device, called "speedbox" was developed by Detia Degesch GmbH, Germany. The Speedbox is consigned exclusively for the use of Degesch Plates®. The Speedbox is a small waterproof aluminium box containing a heater and a ventilator that injects and recirculates the phosphine gas in and out of the fumigated space. This technology was compaered with traditional phosphine formulations, such as aluminium phosphide tablets and magnesium phosphide tablets and plates. At the rate of 4 g/m3, using the Speedbox, phosphine concentrations of 200 ppm and 830 ppm were reached 2 h and 8 h, respectively, following the fumigation, compared with 35-102 ppm and 200-520 ppm with the other technologies. The accumulative phosphine concentrations using Speedbox were much higher during 72 h of the fumigation compared with the non-speedbox technologies. As a consequence of using the Speedbox a high phosphine concentration was reached practically at the beginning of the fumigation, 100% mortality of all tested insects at all developmental stages were recorded after only 48 h treatment at the rate of 6 g/m3 or 72 h at 4 g/m3. The Speedbox enables us to control all developmental stages of the major stored product insects by shortening the time of phosphine treatment from 7-10 days to 2-3 days. The Speedbox as a mini gas generator demonstrates a high efficacy and other advantages compared with the common phosphine fumigation technologies for stored product insect pest control.

199-206

5.00 €

 

Managing strongly phosphine resistant rusty grain beetle in Australia
Hervoika Pavic, Manoj K. Nayak, Gregory J. Daglish, Patrick J. Collins, Andrew W. Ridley, Rajeswaran Jagadeesan, Ramandeep Kaur

Abstract only

207

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Interpreting customer complaints: Heat treatment inhibits melanin formation in larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)
Ewa Sady, Bogumił Wiśniewski, Stanisław Ignatowicz

Abstract: The manufacturers of food products try to interpret some customer complaints on final products that are contaminated by insect pests. Question thus arises – if this insect larva found in food has passed the processing, and was it treated by heat? To answer this question one should observe the post mortal processes that occur in insect body. Melanisation of insect body after death results from loss of control over chemical reactions leading to melanin formation. Insects employ phenoloxidase and dopachrome (decarboxylating) isomerase for melanin biosynthesis. It is suggested that heat treatment inhibits activity of these enzymes responsible for melanin formation, and thus reduces or eliminates melanisation of insect body after death. Therefore, fully-grown larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), were killed by heat (60 °C and 80 °C for 30 sec.), and observed for whole body melanisation. Control larvae rapidly melanised after freezing and thawing, whereas heat-killed larvae failed to show typical melanisation. Thus, lack of melanization could be an indicator of heat treatment of those insects that were found in the final food product. Sometimes people want to know where and when the contamination of final product occurred: at consumer house, in a shop, in distribution centre, or in the factory that produces this product. From time to time, an entomologist is asked "Can you determine if this insect was cooked?”. If it was heat treated, then contamination occurred at the factory during a processing of raw materials.

209-214

5.00 €

 

Development of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) inside finished products with low moisture content
Renata Zorko

Abstract: The possibility of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) development inside the finished products with low moisture content was investigated. The Indian meal moth population used in the study was obtained from various moth-infested commodities and maintained in laboratory conditions. The nutrient media was the salted powdered mixture which contained dried minced vegetables. The concentration of salt in the mixture was 50% minimum, and concentration of dried vegetables was 10% minimum. Maximum concentration of moisture in the food did not exceed 2%. The samples were divided in four categories in relation to different packaging materials and different quantity of packaged food. The samples were infested with 10 eggs per sample and incubated at two temperatures, 30 °C and 22 °C. Three samples of each category and from each temperature were opened monthly, during the test period of 10 months. The possibility of growth and development of Indian meal moth in the finished product of salted powdered mixture with dried minced vegetables, in both of tested temperatures, will be shown. The percentage of egg hatching varied from 72.91% to 94.61%, but the percentage of development from egg to adult were considerably lower and varied from 0% to 53.97%, depending on the quantity of packaged food and the incubation temperature. The possibility of growth and development of Indian meal moth was the highest in the samples with small quantity of nutrient media, and declined with the increase of the quantity of packaged food. Temperature of 30 °C resulted in higher percentage of found larvae and adults in food samples, compared to samples incubated in the room temperature.

215-221

5.00 €

 

Efficacy of Ekomille® in the management of house mouse, Mus musculus Linnaeus, in wheat facilities in Southern Italy
Giuseppe Spina

Abstract: Mus musculus Linnaeus cause significant direct and indirect damages to wheat. The damages begin already in the field to continue along the food chain. Especially in non-conditioned stored facilities, rodent population density could reach very high levels. In the present study are reported field trials carried out to evaluate a non-toxic system, Ekomille® traps, in rodent management programs. Ekomille® trap is an electromechanical and ecological system for capture of mice and rats. The trap is baited with toxic-free natural foods and it is able to capture over than 80 rodents. We selected a wheat facilities situated in Altamura (Southern Italy), 20 silos, 30.000 tons stored, that presents a very high population of M. musculus. Before Ekomille® disposal, deratization was made with rodenticides in many types of formulations. However, has been recognized a large number of sightings of mice, especially under the wheat elevators and have been recorded extensive damages to the electrical systems. From the beginning of June 2011, 20 Ekomille® baited with natural foods (sunflower seeds, pine nuts and pork fat) were placed in the wheat facilities, 4 nearby elevator base, 4 nearby electrical substation, 4 in the second line of defence around silos platform and 8 in the first line of defence along the external perimeter. Traps have been checked weekly during the first month and thereafter every two weeks. From the beginning of June 2011 to the end of May 2012, 354 house mice were captured. After trap use, a drastic reduction of presence of mice and damage caused by rodent activity was observed. These positive results indicate that use of Ekomille® trap for rodents control is a valid component of an IPM-based control strategy. In IPM programs, the employ of these traps can lead to drastic reductions of chemical treatments, resulting in economic benefits and improvements for food safety and quality.

223-230

5.00 €

 

Improving of acceptability, palatability and efficacy of bromadiolone baits in controlling Norway rat and house mouse in storage facilities
Marina Vukša, Goran Jokić, Suzana Đedović, Bojan Stojnić, Tanja Šćepović

Abstract only

231

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Integrated approach of the prevention of mould spoilage risks and mycotoxin contamination of stored grain – A European perspective
Francis Fleurat-Lessard

Abstract: Stored grain moulds may grow in cereal grain with critical moisture content. The invasion of seeds by seedborne fungi can induce grain heating, off-odours and reduction of germination capacity. Some species produce harmful mycotoxins. Mycotoxin contaminations of cereal grain are a worldwide issue for public health, agro-food industry concerns, and economics. The most toxigenic storage fungi include members of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The prevention of mould growth in stored grain bulks is the single way to manage this important grain quality issue.
The integrated management of storage moulds spoilage risks is based on five pillars: i/ Prevention of mould development in keeping grain condition below the moisture threshold enabling harmful fungus species germination and growth; ii/ Accurate monitoring of activity of water (in grain) and temperature changes during storage, associated to the monitoring of telling indicators of mould respiration activity; iii/ reduction of grain bulk moistening trends by physical intervention means or by preservative additives; iv/ use of bio-competitive strains of fungi or bacteria to prevent the development of Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. toxigenic strains to install in grain bulks; v/ use of physical treatments (ozone, grain pearling or abrasion) to limit mycotoxin contamination risks in processed cereal food. Future research needs on this topic are evocated.

235-260

5.00 €

 

Current status on stored product protection in São Tomé & Principe
Idalina Paquete, Albino Bento, Maria Otilia Carvalho

Abstract: São Tomé & Principe is located in the Gulf of the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. About half of the country’s total 96,000 ha are used in agriculture. The economy of São Tomé & Príncipe is dominated by cocoa export, which represents 95% in value of the country’s revenue. Food-crop importing is essential for population subsistence. Rice consumption requires 6230 tons, with 4132 tons arriving as donation. Customs supervise the state of goods before harbouring and during storage, mainly in warehouse structures. The methodology adopted is visual inspection and absolute samples. The present work aimed at evaluating the key-pests of rice and bean from arrival, during storage until reaching the markets. From January 2004 to December 2012, 151 rice and 160 bean samples were collected and analysed at the CIAT laboratory. Samples were obtained from ships and public and private storage facilities. From all samples, collected only eight rice and 17 bean samples were infested. The year and origin were reported to identify source of infestation. On rice, the main insects’ species were Sitophilus spp. and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Sitophilus sp. was more abundant and T. castaneum occurred in all infested samples. Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Bruchus pisorum (L.) and were identified in bean samples, with 70% and 30% of occurrence respectively. On rice and bean the major fungi incidence was related with Aspergillus genera. In S. Tome and Principe, due to equatorial weather conditions, the major risk is related with fungi contamination, namely with Aspergillus spp., as mycotoxin producer. Insects can play an important role as vectors for fungi dissemination.

261-267

5.00 €

 

The use of ozone gas for the control of insects and micro-organisms in stored products
Ali A. Işikber, Christos G. Athanassiou

Abstract only

269

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Analysis of mycobiota and oviposition of Callosobruchus maculatus in beans variety Vigna angularis and Vigna unguiculata
Fabricio C. Reis, Thais L. Lima, Marcos Roberto Potenza, Simone Aquino

Abstract: Beans are an important source of protein in the diet of several societies. In inadequate storage conditions may occur insect infestations and fungal contamination. This study analysed different samples of Vigna angularis and Vigna unguiculata, purchased in retail. There were determined oviposition and viability of Callosobruchus maculatus eggs in adzuki bean (V. angularis, n = 10), cowpea (V. unguiculata, n = 16) and black-eyed (V. unguiculata, n = 13). Twenty adult insects with 1-5 days of emergency were confined in 50 grains and assessed the number of eggs in 8 days and emerged insects to 40 days, with 5 replicates per variety. C. maculatus oviposited on average 19.4 eggs in adzuki beans, but without viability. In black-eyed and cowpea egg viability was 31.40 and 13.71%, respectively. Regarding mycobiota, the direct plating method of grains on Sabouraud agar showed the predominance of Eurotium chevalieri fungus isolated in 100% of the samples adzuki. The cowpea presented the frequency of 81.2% of yeast and 12.5% of Aspergillus niger. The black-eyed presented the frequency of 100% of yeast and 61.5% of Aspergillus flavus. It was concluded that the storage conditions should be monitored in the retail market in the prevention of insect attack and fungal both varieties.

271-274

5.00 €

 

Fungal contamination and insect pests’ assessment in Angola stored maize
Laurinda Paim, Graça Barros, Ana Magro, Margarida S. M. Bastos, Arlindo Lima, António Mexia

Abstract only

275

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Control of post-harvest insect infestations and microbial contaminations of Corinth currants and sultanas with infrared radiation
Christos G. Athanassiou, Antonia Chiou, Christos I. Rumbos, Andreas Karagiannis, Eirini Nikolidaki, Eirini Panagopoulou, Antonis Kouvelas, Vaios Karathanos

Abstract only

276

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Identification and characterization of Penicillium expansum associated with blue mold of apple during storage in ULO in Croatia
Zdravka Sever, Tomislav Kos, Dario Ivić, Tihomir Miličević

Abstract: Blue mold, caused by Penicillium expansum is one of the most important postharvest diseases of apple fruit worldwide. Disease can cause significant economic losses during storage, as well as losses of processed food commodities due to the production of mycotoxin patulin. Incidence of pathogens associated with postharvest fruit rots in Croatia was surveyed during two storage seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions and conventional atmosphere (NA). Diseased fruit (cultivars Idared, Jonagold, Golden Delicious and Cripps Pink) with blue mold symptoms were collected and 36 Penicillium isolates were recovered. Identification was based on macroscopic and microscopic features on different media. Molecular identification was based on PCR with primer pair PEF/PER for specific detection of P. expansum. Based on morphological and molecular methods P. expansum was detected as causal agent of blue mold of apples in Croatia. P. expansum was the predominant pathogen of decayed fruit, accounting for averages of 39.0 and 27.9% on Idared in both seasons and 37.5% on Jonagold in 2009/2010. On the other hand, during storage in NA yield losses were higher, P. expansum was detected as minor pathogen, accounting for 2.3 and 3.7%, while brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) was prevalent disease. It can be concluded that storage conditions impact pathogens and losses they cause. Since in Croatia, only products containing fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin are registered for control of postharvest diseases of apple, new methods such as heat treatments, biological control etc. should be implemented in apple production to prevent fungal diseases and postharvest losses.

277-283

5.00 €

 

Fungal community composition on different potato cultivars during storage
Zane Vigule, Lelde Grantiņa-Leviņa, Ilze Skrabule, Olga Treikale

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the fungal community composition on different cultivars of potato during storage. The study was performed in 2013-2015 by the Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre, evaluating disease presence on seed material of potato tubers after 3 months of storage in storehouses at State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute and at several farms in different areas in Latvia. At all places conventional potato cultivation was used, with differences concerning previous crop, soil conditions and fungicide application. All isolated fungi were identified based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics using conventional PCR and sequencing a part of the translation elongation factor 1-α-gene for Fusarium species and sequencing a part of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region for other fungi. Analysis of single-conidium isolates of fungi from different cultivars of potato revealed the presence of Fusarium species causing dry rot of tubers during storage period: F. avenaceum (Fries) Saccardo, F. crookwellense (syn. F. cerealis) Burgess, Nelson & Toussoun, F. culmorum (W. G. Smith) Saccardo, F. equiseti (Corda) Saccardo, F. flocciferum Corda, F. oxysporum Schlechtendahl emend. Snyder & Hansen, F. redolens Wollenweber, F. solani (Martius) Appel & Wollenweber emend. Snyder & Hansen, Fusarium torulosum (syn. F. sambucinum, F. sambucinum var. coeruleum, F. venenatum) (Berkeley & Curtis) Nirenberg, F. tricinctum (Corda) Saccardo. Pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria solani (Ell. & Mart.) L. R. Jones, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, A. tenuissima (Kunze) Wiltshire and Phoma exigua var. foveata (Foister) Boerema were found on different potato cultivars. Isolation of Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) S. J. Hughes (syn. C. atramentarium (Brek. & Broome) Taubenhaus), which causes black dot of potato during vegetation period, confirmed a presence of seed-tuber-borne infection in potato seed material. Galactomyces candidum (syn. Geotrichum candidum) de Hoog & M. T. Sm., which causes rubbery rot of potato was isolated from the samples of affected tubers from three cultivars. Appearance of soil saprotrophic fungi Trichocladium asperum Harz., necrotrophic Plectosphaerella cucumerina (L.) Laterr., Humicola fuscoatra Traaen., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link, Volutella ciliata (Alb. & Schwein) Fr. and Microdochium bolleyi (R. Spraque) de Hoog & Herm.-Nijh. were associated with different growing conditions of potato cultivars.

285-292

5.00 €

 

Control of stored products pests by natural products
Vlatka Rozman

Abstract: The use of natural products has been emerging as one of the prime means to protect crops and their products and the environment from pesticide pollution, which is a global problem. Natural products possess a spectrum of properties including insecticidal activity, repellence to pests, antifeedancy, insect growth regulation, toxicity to mites, and other pests of the agricultural importance. Also they possess antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties against pathogens. More significant use of natural products in practice will be possible if they are compatible with the following principles: safe, low toxicity, easy for application, minimal (or nil) problems with insecticide residues on foods, high efficacy at very low concentrations against stored grain insects, adult pests and their progeny, wide spectrum of efficacy against stored grain insect pests and field pests, low adverse effects on grain handling and quality properties, and acceptable in terms of price. Pronounced and multiple synergic modes of action substantially reduce or remove the need for synthetic chemical active ingredients, which reduces application and incidental exposure to these chemicals. Demonstrably safer natural products have advantage in the market where there is a growing aversion to conventional chemical products. In Croatia there is ongoing research on the development of new formulations of natural insecticides based on inert dusts and botanical insecticides and their combinations.

295-299

5.00 €

 

IPM approaches for stored date protection in Tunisia: Emphasis on alternative control methods against the date moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa

Abstract: In Tunisia, dates are an important and valuable export commodity, 16% of the total value of agricultural exports coming from the date industry. Moreover, dates presented 6.6% of the total value of agricultural production. Stored dates are subjected to high infestation rates by pyralid moth pests, mainly the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller). This devastating pest induced significant economic losses during storage. It caused loss of weight and downgrading of the commercial value of dates. It infested 20% of the harvestable date crop annually. Current available methods for postharvest control are based on fumigation using synthetic fumigants mainly phosphine. However, harmful effects of these chemicals on human health and their side effects on environment, lead to the search of safer and effective alternatives. This paper reported results of several trials conducted using some natural pesticides derived from plants (essential oils), microorganisms (Spinosad) and inert dust (Diatomaceous earth) for the control of different developmental stages of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. Results indicated that these alternatives exhibited ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potentialities against Ectomyelois ceratoniae. The four Eucalyptus essential oils tested (E. camaldulensis, E. leucoxylon, E. dumosa and E. transcontinentalis) displayed strong toxicity against adults and all larval stages. E. transcontinentalis accomplished 100% mortality of Ectomyelois ceratoniae adults after 2 h of exposure at the concentration 143 μl/l air. Additionally, E. leucoxylon oil achieved 100% mortality of fifth instars after 48 h of exposure at the dose 132 μl/l air. On the other hand, spinosad showed an interesting ovicidal activity against Ectomyelois ceratoniae eggs. At the concentration 1ppm, 85% of egg mortality was obtained. Additionally, the use of diatomaceous earth exhibited promising results. No closed eggs were obtained after treating eggs with Protect-It® at the dose of 10 g/kg of dates.

301-308

5.00 €

 

The beer brewing waste spent hops (Humulus lupulus L.) as a valuable source of repellents useful to ward off insect attacks to stored food
Francesca Cosci, Stefano Bedini, Guido Flamini, Barbara Conti

Abstract: Hop, Humulus lupulus L., is an aromatic plant largely utilized in the brewing industry to add flavour and bitterness to beer. As a consequence, a large amount of residual material, named “spent hops”, is produced by the brewing industry. Since only about 15% of the hop constituents end up in the beer, spent hops should be further valorised as a low-cost source of bioactive substances.
In this study, hops and spent hops were evaluated as a source of essential oil (EO) with repellent activity against two of the main stored food insect pests. Hops and spent hops EO yields were about 2.4% and 0.1%, respectively. The main components of both the EOs were the terpenes myrcene, α-humulene, and β-caryophyllene. The main chemical difference between hops and spent hops was the myrcene percentage. Area preference method bioassays showed that spent hops EO exerted a strong repellency against the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Bostrichidae) and the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Curculionidae). RD50 values indicated that R. dominica was about 20 time more susceptible to spent hops EO than S. granarius. Among the EO components, myrcene was the strongest repellent against R. dominica while limonene was the most effective compound against S. granarius. However, overall, for its much higher content, myrcene can be considered the compound that mostly contributes to the repellent activity of spent hops EO. These results show that spent hops could be an excellent, virtually costless, source of EO to be utilized as eco-friendly repellent in the protection of stored food from insect pests.

309-315

5.00 €

 

Neem seed oil – iodized salt mixtures as protectant against Dermestes maculatus De Geer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) infesting stored African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell
Samuel A. Babarinde, Timothy A. Adebayo, Lamidi A. Usman, Oloduowo M. Ameen, Adeyemi O. Akinyemi, Olamide T. Onajole, Olusegun Olusigo

Abstract only

317

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Insecticidal activity of plant methanolic extracts for the control of Sitophilus oryzae, a stored products’ insect
Yasmine Dane, Fazia Mouhouche

Abstract only

318

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Insect growth regulatory bioactivities of essential oils of four medicinal plants towards different strains of stored grain insect pests
Mansoor ul Hasan, Shahzad Saleem, Imran Faraz

Abstract only

319

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Biocontrol of Callosobruchus maculatus using plant metabolites
Faiza Gueribis, Fabiana Avolio, Nadjia Zermane, Antonio Evidente, Maurizio Vurro

Abstract only

320

0.00 €

 

Essential oils composition of four Myrtaceae of Tunisia origin and their biological activity against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F., 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Vigna unguiculata seeds
Mariam Hedjal Chebheb, Abdellah Kellouche, Larbi Khouja Mohamed

Abstract: Leguminous plants play a prime role in African populations food supply due to their high content in proteins and good preservation of the harvests is vital. Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is one of the most serious pests of leguminous seeds such as cowpea seed. In several African countries, during storage, many generations thrive and cause losses varying between 90 and 100%. Our work focuses on the identification of essential oils active elements of aromatic plants from Tunisia, and their biological activity against cowpea weevil. The results of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry showed that monoterpene components predominate over sesquiterpene compounds. Their retention time is shorter compared to sesquiterpenes. The major component is the eucalyptol. The results of the biological activity of four essential oils on C. maculatus showed that the application at the dose of 25 μl /50 g of E. lehmani, E. astringens, E. maidenii and E. cinerea gave 100% mortality within 24 h, with no survival embryonic and post- embryonic. However, these treatments did not affect the seeds germination of V. unguiculata.

321-328

5.00 €

 

Valorisation of the repellent potential of two Tunisian Artemisia essential oils for the management of the sawtoothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae)
Olfa Bachrouch, Soumaya Haouel, Nadhem Ferjani, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa

Abstract: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the repellent potential of two Tunisian Artemisia essential oils namely desert wormwood Artemisia herba-alba and wormwood Artemisia absinthium against adults of the sawtoothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis). Repellency was assessed using filter paper test method. Four doses were tested: 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 μl. These doses were calculated to give equivalent repellent concentrations of 0.09, 0.19, 0.29 and 0.39 μl/cm2. Repellency was recorded after 1, 3, 5 and 24 h of exposure.
Results revealed that both essential oils showed repellent potential against adults of this pest. However, A. absinthium essential oil repellent potential was greater than A. herba-alba essential oil. In fact, at the lowest concentration 0.09 μl/cm2, the percentages of repellency were 75% and 60% respectively with A. absinthium and A. herba-alba after 5 h of exposure. Significant differences were observed between the two oils for all concentrations and exposure durations.
Based on these results, wormwood and desert wormwood essential oils have potential for use as repellents against stored pests in an Integrated Pest Management program in stored commodities.

329-332

5.00 €

 


Claudia Sotgia, Elisabetta Schiavon, Alessia Berzolla, Elisabetta Chiappini

Abstract only

333

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Evaluation of natural compounds for insect repellent packaging: laboratory and semi-field experiments with pests of cereal products
Sara Bortolini, Lara Maistrello

Abstract: This work aimed at identifying natural substances with a repellent effect on insect pests of cereal products, to be used in repellent packaging in semi-field experiments simulating insect attacks in storage rooms. Initially, the repellence of different concentrations of selected natural compounds was evaluated on groups of 10 adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica, Stegobium paniceum, and 5 larvae of Plodia interpunctella, using Petri dishes with treated/untreated cardboard disks halves. Then, the performance of repellent cardboard boxes subjected to repeated mixed insects attacks was evaluated in storage room conditions. The boxes, obtained by applying paints with microcapsules of essential oils of garlic and/or rosemary (the most repellent after the first test), were handmade simulating commercial pasta packages and were filled with 500 g pasta. The boxes were placed in couples (with different combinations that included untreated control) inside fenestrated plastic containers with groups of 20 insects (5 adults of S. oryzae, R. dominica, Lasioderma serricorne; 5 larvae of Ephestia spp.). Every month, insect mortality inside the containers was checked and new groups of insects were introduced. After 3 months all the cardboard packages were opened and the number of insects inside and outside the boxes was recorded. The best results were obtained in presence of garlic essential oil. The criticalities emerged in the view of practical applications are discussed.

335-340

5.00 €

 

Effects of bergamot, lavender and thyme essential oils on the attractiveness of cereal-based baits to house mice
Goran Jokić, Marina Vukša, Suzana Đedović, Rada Đurović-Pejčev, Bojan Stojnić, Tanja Šćepović, Saša Vasilev

Abstract only

341

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Recent advances in the commercial application of beneficials against stored-product and cultural heritage pests
Matthias Schöller

Abstract: The fields of commercial application of beneficials against stored-product pests, i.e. the combination of a certain product, pest and beneficial are analysed. Seventy fields of application against stored-product and cultural property pests were identified. Applications include empty room, bulk storage, packaged products, and materials like textiles and artefacts. The Indian meal moth received moth applications, followed by clothing moth and Sitophilus spp. weevils. Concerning the natural enemies, the largest number of applications was with T. evanescens, followed by Lariophagus distinguendus/Anisopteromalus calandrae and Habrobracon hebetor. Almost the same number of fields of applications was in organic and conventional stored products. Reasons for these focuses are discussed.

345-348

5.00 €

 

Parasitism by Venturia canescens and Habrobracon hebetor on mono- and heterospecific populations of pyralid moths located in laboratory and experimental store houses
Cristina Castañé, Jordi Riudavets, Eric Lucas

Abstract: Plodia interpunctella and Ephestia kuehniella are important pests of stored products that are both parasitized by Venturia canescens and Habrobracon hebetor. These two cosmopolitan larval parasitoids are found in large numbers in food processing facilities in north-eastern Spain. In laboratory, we evaluated their performance when mono and heterospecific populations of 3rd-4th larval stages of the two moths were offered. We also examined the dispersion capability of females when larvae of the two moths were offered also alone or in combination. For this purpose hosts were offered in the eight corners of experimental rooms of aprox. ≈ 30 m3 during three days; the experimental rooms had a window for considering the influence of natural light illumination on their dispersion pattern. Both parasitoids reduced the emergence of both moth species by half in the laboratory, in comparison with the controls, either when offered separately or in combination. Reproduction of H. hebetor was also similar in presence of both hosts, while V. canescens had a significantly higher reproduction on E. kuehniella than on P. interpunctella larvae. In experimental rooms both parasitoids were able to similarly parasitize larvae located in any of the eight corners, independently of the window situation. However, both parasitoids were more efficient parasitizing E. kuehniella than P. interpunctella larvae.

349-353

5.00 €

 

Can biological control affect the number of fragments in processed food?
Sara Savoldelli, Daria Patrizia Locatelli, Luciano Süss, Lidia Limonta

Abstract: Biological control, traditionally considered for field pests, has been recently considered to control stored products pests, and its efficacy has been demonstrated. The presence in processed food of fragments derived from biological control agents could be considered a problem. In this research the results of light filth analysis on semolina and pasta, processed in a plant where Xylocoris flavipes Reuter (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were released to control stored product beetles, are reported. The aim was to verify if biological control agents can affect the number of fragments in processed food. Light filth analyses were carried out on semolina and pasta samples collected before and during the release of predators and parasitoids in semolina processing plant. The number of fragments detected in the samples collected during the release of the natural enemies was similar to the ones present in the samples collected before biological control. Moreover only fragments of stored products pests were detected, fragments directly related to X. flavipes and A. calandrae lacked.

355-359

5.00 €

 

Efficacy of nano-extracted Destruxin from Metarhizium anisopliae against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), under laboratory and store conditions
Magda M. A. Sabbour

Abstract: The destruxin is a cyclic hexadepsipeptides produced by entomopathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi five amino acids and one hydroxyl acid. The effect of destruxin and nano-destruxin on the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), under laboratory and store conditions were studied. The results showed that the mean number of the eggs laid/female of T. castaneum significantly decreased to 166.6 ± 9.4 and 38.6 ± 9.1eggs/female when treated with destruxin and nano-destruxin, respectively, as compared to 298.1 ± 9.4 eggs/female in the control. When T. confusum were treated with destruxin and nano-destruxin the number of eggs/female significantly decreased to 101.6 ± 4.4 eggs/female and 50.6 ± 9.1 eggs/female when treated with nano-destruxin as compared to 297.9 ± 5.3 eggs/female in the control. When T. castaneum was treated with destruxin the number of eggs laid/female were significantly decreased to 31.8 ± 6.9 eggs/female after 120 days. The number of eggs laid/female significantly decreased to 11.8 ± 3.5, 21.7 ± 1.8, 30.1 ± 4.5 and 41.1 ± 1.5 eggs/female after 20, 45, 90 and 120 days when treated with nano-destruxin. The percentage of adult emergence were decreased to 1, 5, 11 and 19%.

361-367

5.00 €

 

Efficacy of nano-extracted destruxin from Metarhizium anisopliae against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under laboratory and store conditions
Magda M. A. Sabbour

Abstract: The rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most serious stored grain pests worldwide. Destruxin is a cyclic hexadepsipeptides produced by entomopathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi five amino acids and one hydroxyl acid. The effect of nano-extracted destruxin from Metarhizium anisopliae was evaluated against the rice weevil. Results showed that the mean number of eggs laid/female of S. oryzae significantly decreased to 90.6 ± 2.1 and 41.6 ± 3.1eggs/female when treated with destruxin and nano-destruxin, respectively as compared to 299.6 ± 8.4 eggs/female in the control. When S. oryzae were treated with destruxin and nano-destruxin the percentage of infestations were significantly decreased to 18 % and 4%, respectively, as compared to 99% in the control in the store.

369-375

5.00 €

 

Role of root border cells and secretions in plant defence
Azeddine Driouich, Koroney Abdul, Maxime Gotte, Youssef Manasfi, Marie-Laure Follet Gueye, Maite Vicré Gibouin

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377

0.00 €

 

Beneficial insects against moth and weevils in long-term grain storages in Germany, Part I: Comparison of different traps to detect S. granarius
Steffi Niedermayer, Solène Juillet, Bernd Wührer, Matthias Schöller, Sabine Prozell, Johannes Steidle

Abstract: Long-term storages have special requirements to stored product protection. Therefore a three year project was established to improve and adjust existing biological control strategies to those conditions. To secure an early detection of pests especially of the Granary Weevil Sitophilus granarius, three different trap types were tested: plastic cups used as simple pitfall traps, pitfall cone traps with lids, and probe traps. The experiments were conducted in barrels, BigBags and silo bins. In all setups the probe trap performed best, being more sensitive to low
infestation rates and infestations with O. surinamensis. Furthermore probe traps are not affected when grain is moved. Therefore, based on our results, probe traps should be the trap of choice.

379-384

5.00 €

 

A qPCR method to detect and quantify Rhyzopertha dominica in brown rice
Mireia Solà, Jonathan G. Lundgren, Nuria Agustí, Jordi Riudavets

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385

0.00 €

 

Molecular approaches based on PCR to identify and quantify arthropod internal feeders in grain
Mireia Solà, Jordi Riudavets, Nuria Agustí

Abstract: Insect occur at each step along the chain of food production, leading to serious quantitative and qualitative losses and representing a major threat to food industries. Albeit several methodologies to detect stored pests have been developed, they present several drawbacks. Along the last decades, there has been a global trend in biological studies to use molecular approaches for diagnosis analysis. Although food industries have been using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) diagnostics for food control it has not been used yet to detect insect infestations. We present different molecular approaches based on PCR methodologies to detect, identify and quantify the presence of insects in raw materials and processed food. Conventional PCR has been used for the detection of all Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) developmental stages in brown rice, wheat and maize even hidden inside the grain kernels. Multiplex PCR is a variant of conventional PCR permitting simultaneous detection of different target species. We have developed this method for the detection and discrimination of the three morphologically similar species of the genus Sitophilus [S. granarius (L.), S. oryzae (L.), S. zeamais (Motschulsky)] potentially present in stored grain facilities. On the other hand, decreasing amounts of R. dominica DNA in brown rice have been analysed by real-time PCR to be used for the quantification of this insect species in food. The introduction of these molecular approaches in stored grain and food industries will be very useful for the diagnosis of insect pest species, particularly to reveal infestations of insect immature stages hidden inside the grain.

387-393

5.00 €

 

The use of the parasitoids Anisopteromalus calandrae and Lariophagus distinguendus for the control of the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus
Ouarda Benkhellat, Jean Paul Monge, Aissa Moali

Abstract: The bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus is the major constrain in cowpea production and storage in Algeria. Damage due to this insect affects especially the quality, the quantity and agronomic value of the product. In storage C. maculatus is currently parasitized by two parasitoids Anisopteromalus calandrae and Lariophagus distinguendus. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of the two parasitoids used alone or simultaneously and at different density on the reduction of emergence of C. maculatus bruchids adult’s. The effect of intra and interspecific competition between parasitoids was also studied. The results show that A. calandrae was much more efficient at reducing of emergence of C. maculatus (32.85%) than was L. distinguendus (42.92%). Competition reduced emergence of both A. calandrae and L. distinguendus; however A. calandrae was clearly the dominant species when bruchids were exposed to equal number of both species of parasitoids.

395-399

5.00 €

 

Mortality effects of selected native Beauveria isolates on three coleopteran pests of stored wheat under controlled conditions
Mehmet Kubilay Er, Ali A. Işikber, Hasan Tunaz, Arife Öz, Fadime Aydin, Ümmühani Tuğba Özbalikçioğlu

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401

0.00 €

 

A banker box to improve the impact of Habrobracon hebetor on stored product insects
Eric Lucas, Jordi Riudavets, Cristina Castañé

Abstract: The treatment of store room walls, ceilings, floors and other structures is necessary as part of the good hygienic procedures recommended for reducing pests problems. Structural pests such as some moth species hide in the floor, corners, cracks and crevices inside machinery and are always difficult to control. With the continuous reduction of the availability of the insecticides, it is relevant to evaluate potential alternative methods of control. Habrobracon hebetor is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of pyralid moths that is found in large numbers in several food processing facilities in north-eastern Spain. H. hebetor can be a good candidate for biological control of moths that contaminate structures. In this work, we developed a banker box system for rearing H. hebetor on Ephestia kuehniella larvae and for releasing them progressively in the room. Different host-parasitoid ratios were tested to optimize the efficiency of the rearing box. Also, different apertures in the box were tested in order to allow the exit of adult parasitoids but avoid the larval moths to escape.

403-407

5.00 €

 

Biological and molecular analysis of an isolated Granulovirus, Tecia solanivora, for protection of stored potatoes collected in the Andes of Venezuela
Alonso Arroyo, Laura Niño, Artiom Carmona, Paulo Beserra Maia, Gerardo Medina, Xavier Léry, Miguel López-Ferber

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409

0.00 €

 

Seed-applied bioprotectants for control of seedborne Alternaria arborescens and growth enhancement of wheat
Analía Perelló, Gladys Lampugnani, Cecilia Abramoff, Cecilia Fusé, Gustavo Dal Bello

Abstract: Alternaria arborescens was recently detected as a new member of the Alternaria spp. complex causing black point in Argentina. Seed treatments with Trichoderma harzianum and Epicoccum nigrum; Lippia alba and garlic extracts; sodium bicarbonate (SB), salicylic acid (SA), potassium chloride (PC) and sodium phosphate dibasic (SP) were applied to grains of wheat cv BIOINTA 1004 previously to the infection with the pathogen following ISTA (blotter method) rules. After 7 days, seed germination, infected seeds, necrotic symptoms of emerged seedlings and fresh weight were evaluated. Remarkable results were obtained with L. alba, SA and SP that reduced symptoms from 50 to 78% compared with the control. Necrosis of radicles was significantly reduced by the application of all treatments tested. Moreover, fresh weight of seedlings was significantly increased with the application of the two antagonists, garlic and the three tested salts in comparison with control. It is concluded that compounds here tested have potential as biofertilizers and ecofriendly alternatives to control seed-borne fungi of wheat.

411-415

5.00 €

 

Postharvest control of Botrytis gray mold in tomato by antagonists and biorational compounds
Gustavo Dal Bello, Gladys Lampugnani, Cecilia Abramoff, Cecilia Fusé, Analía Perelló

Abstract: The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea causes severe rots on tomato fruit during storage and shelf life. Continuous use of synthetic fungicides has produced an increasing public concern regarding contamination of edible crops with toxic residues, and proliferation of resistance in the pathogen populations. These facts have led to a search for new alternative control measures in a more ecological way. This study evaluates efficacy of biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Epicoccum nigrum), botanicals (Lippia alba and garlic extracts) and low-risk chemicals such as salicylic acid (SA), sodium bicarbonate (SB), potassium chloride (PC) and sodium phosphate dibasic (SP) against gray mold caused by B. cinerea on postharvest tomato fruits. The fruits were obtained in packinghouse, being washed and disinfected with sodium hypochlorite. Artificially wounded fruits were treated sequentially with each bio-agent and the pathogen. After 1 week of incubation in plastic trays, the soft rot lesion diameters were evaluated. Results obtained have demonstrated that the treatment with T. harzianum, E. nigrum, PC, SP and garlic extract reduced significantly the gray mold infections from 95 up to 99% compared to the control treated with B. cinerea alone. These findings indicate that these environmentally friendly agents have the potential to control postharvest gray mould on tomato fruits in an integrated pest management strategy.

417-425

5.00 €

 

The influence of native isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae on mortality of Blattella germanica adults co-injected with eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors
Hasan Tunaz, Mehmet Kubilay Er, Ali A. Işikber

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427

0.00 €

 

Studies on the multiple host range, developmental compatiblity and biointensive management of Callosobruchus theobromae (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
Desh R. Thakur

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428

0.00 €

 

Basic research and defence against wood-destroying pests
Elisabetta Chiappini

Abstract: Cultural properties made from organic materials are easily damaged by biotic agents of different nature (insects, fungi, bacteria). In particular, wood artefacts are often attacked by insects which belong to taxa very distant from each other: basically that of Isoptera and that of Coleoptera. Furthermore, in the latter group, families that evolved along very distant lineages, i.e. powderpost beetles, anobiids and longhorn beetles, adopt various strategies to feed on wood. The functional morphology, as well as the taxonomy, the behaviour and ways of life, and the modes of attack turn out into different damages, different defence options and different risks. Therefore, a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of these biodeteriogens, mainly woodborers and termites in our case, as regards everything they are concerned with in their life, is essential, for defence, particularly when considering it as prevention. Many applied researches and, even worse, many common defence actions are not based on reliable data obtained from basic research but on hypothesis, common sense and suppositions with the obvious consequence of not being effective and so invalidating the sustainability of preventive conservation for the protection of cultural heritage. Monitoring, risk assessment and control, all need a deeper knowledge to be cogent. Examples are given.

431-435

5.00 €

 

Intraguild competition between two larval parasitoids of the webbing clothes moth Tineola bisselliella and possible impact on control strategies under laboratory conditions
Rudy Plarre

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437

0.00 €

 

Efficacy of ethanedinitrile (EDN) against wood-boring pests
Swaminathan Thalavai Sundaram, Adam Jonas, Yonglin Ren

Abstract only

438

0.00 €

 

Temperature and relative humidity effects on Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in controlled atmospheres
Elisabetta Chiappini, Alessia Berzolla, Claudia Sotgia

Abstract: Key ecological factors such as temperature and water influence the distribution and population dynamics of terrestrial arthropods, so the speed of the anoxia treatment in killing insects is dependent upon temperature, relative humidity (RH) and on oxygen percentage. The
present study reports on the efficacy of temperature and relative humidity on controlled atmosphere treatment, as an alternative to insecticide management, against the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus), one of the most widely encountered insect causing serious damages to stored products and cultural heritage. The aim of the research is also to verify the feasibility of anoxia at percentages of oxygen significantly higher than those normally used (< 1%), in order to define the application conditions of the method, easier and less expensive. Larvae and adults were exposed to atmospheres containing low oxygen percentages (3-5%), at four different relative humidities (15% – 35% – 55% – 75%) and two different temperatures (23-30 °C) for periods of 7 days. Temperature affects S. paniceum, mainly the adult stage. They seem to be more susceptible, while larvae appear very tolerant, showing a modest mortality at 23 °C, with no difference in values. Only at 30 °C and low humidity (dry conditions) they reach 70-80% of mortality, with significant difference between the worst and the “best” humidity condition (15-75%). Adults show a higher mortality compared to the larvae, however it seems that there are no differences between the relative humidity percentages, except at 5% oxygen percentage. The important role of controlled atmospheres can be improved by studying the sensitive relationships between these environmental parameters critical to the survival of insects and testing more possible combinations to achieve the highest efficiency in less time and at lower cost.

439-443

5.00 €

 

Comparative efficacy of neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss, extracts against powder-post beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne attacking seasoned wood in Egypt
Ahmed Merghem

Abstract: The present study deals with one of the most economic important wood borer; the powder-post beetle Lyctus africanus Lesne (Coleoptera: Lyctidae) which devastates wooden production in industry, forestry and agriculture including timber, bamboo and stored products on both local and global distribution scales. In Egypt, such as in many countries worldwide, control programs of this dangerous pest are restricted to the usage of chemical pesticides. Thus, alternative methods with lower risk of toxicity as neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Sapindales: Meliaceae) extracts are encouraged. Through this work, three crude extracts of neem seeds were used against this lyctid borer on seasoned wood cuttings. These extracts were generated from the crude by three solvents apart; petroleum ether, ethanol, and distilled water. A second experiment series for comparison using a commercial neem product "Nemazal" in addition to a reference of standard recommended insecticide "Cidial" were conducted. Experiments were designed to apply protective and remedial techniques against L. africanus attacks by recording the mortality and repellency rates as indicators under natural laboratory conditions. Each extract was tested in three concentrations; 6, 3, 1.5 gm/100 ml for each separate solvent whereas the commercial products were used with their recommended dosages (3 ml/l). Experiments revealed that petroleum ether neem extract in a concentration of 6 gm/100 ml resulted in the highest significant average mortality and repellency rates with L. africanus reached 81.7 and 76.3% at P > 0.05, respectively whereas distilled water neem extracts showed the lowest infestation levels with this lyctid borer at P > 0.05 recording a least average mortality rate of 17.4% and 21.8% repellency rate. These gained results were confirmed by lethal times and toxicity lines which were estimated by the log-time probit model. On the other hand, the commercial products of Nemazal and Cidial resulted in significant higher mortality and repellency levels at P > 0.05 compared with those of the crude neem extracts. Nemazal and Cidial titres scored 90.3 and 97.1% average mortality rates meanwhile the average figures of repellency levels were 87.3 and 93.6%, respectively.

445-454

5.00 €

 

A new biological control method for the common furniture beetle, Anobium punctatum
Alexander Kassel, Judith Auer

Abstract: The common furniture beetle (Anobium punctatum) is a permanent threat in churches and museums, is wreaking devastating damage by corrosion of wooden inventory and antiques. The conventional control methods are complex, polluting and high-priced. The aim of our research was to develop and establish a biological control method for the common furniture beetle with the braconid wasp species Spathius exarator, the most common antagonist of A. punctatum. After successful mass rearing, laboratory and praxis tests of the parasitism rate and the predator-prey relationship were performed by documentation of newly appeared exit holes from wasps and furniture beetles over time. The laboratory control tests proved 80% parasitism by the braconid wasps after three and 98% parasitism after ten months. The results of the practical tests in churches and museums (n = 13) revealed an average predator-prey relationship of 3 A. punctatum in the first, 0.37 A. punctatum in the second and 0.13 A. punctatum per S. exarator in the third year of treatment. In contrast untreated objects (n = 25) showed an annual average relationship of 26.5 A. punctatum per S. exarator. The results demonstrate the biological control of the common furniture beetle with the braconid wasps as an efficient, sustainable alternative to conventional, polluting methods. However, the development of pest infestation in the treated objects remains to be seen in the following years.

455-461

5.00 €

 

Effects of chewing insect attack (Blaptica dubia) on colour photographic prints
Marianna Adamo, Giuseppe Cotellessa, Massimo De Francesco, Donatella Matè, Pasquale Trematerra

Abstract: In the context of a larger research aimed to highlight possible differences in the vulnerability of photographic materials related to different manufacturing characteristics (i.e. the three main binders: albumin, collodion, and gelatin) several trials have been carried out to assess the damage caused by Blattodea, omnivorous insects widely distributed in museum and in archives environments. They are particularly harmful to paper materials because of their ability to corrode and mess, with their excrements, the objects with which they come in contact; moreover they can provoke public health problems (allergies) and sometimes transmit infectious diseases. In this paper we present the results of a study carried out to investigate the damage caused by Blaptica dubia (Blaberidae) to coloured photographic materials samples such as: chromogenic colour prints (resin coated), photomecanical prints (offset) and inkjet prints, exposed to insects and monitored for a three weeks period. XRF Spectroscopy was used to perform elemental analysis of samples. Radiation technologies can be considered an alternative method to ethylene oxide disinfestation.

463-473

5.00 €

 

The European Standard 16636 for pest control services: a new step toward higher professionalism of the operators in order to protect the consumer’s rights
Sergio Urizio

Abstract: In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that the last sixty years had brought significant changes in ecology, climate and human behaviour that favoured the development of urban pests. In the meantime, the food industry and the providers of professional pest control services were beginning to feel the need to comply with the EU Regulations that applied and the types of control systems used in the food sector: it was becoming clear that there was a need to unify and further professionalize the European Pest Management Industry. Simultaneously, in 2008 CEPA, the European Confederation of Pest Control National Associations, held in Rome the 1st Convention EUROPEST where “The Roma Protocol” was issued, establishing the basic rules for a Common Training program for Pest Control Operators. In 2009, the CEPA Board decided for the application of a CEN Standard for Pest Control Services and CEN-CENELEC admitted the application as TC/404, sponsored by the Italian ANID (Associazione Nazionale delle Imprese di Disinfestazione). It was clear to all operators that it was necessary to develop a single common essential standard throughout Europe. The objective of the standard should be to show to clients that service providers following this standard offer a quality recognized as being truly professional within all Europe and would ensure that its operators were competent to sell and deliver the service they were offering by meeting specified and validated minimum standards of knowledge, skill and practical competence. European Standard EN 16636 was approved by CEN on 10 January 2015, after more than 5 years of work and meetings with all European Countries. The goal of every pest management activity is the effective and economical reduction or elimination of damage caused by pests. The successful achievement of this goal depends on a partnership approach between the service provider and the client. To achieve this goal, the professional service provider conforms to the principles established by the WHO in respect of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), which can include a combination of habitat modification, biological control, physical control, chemical control, environmental impact as well as animal welfare. The key contents of EN 16636 are essentially two: the process of professional service and the competences of the operators.

477-482

5.00 €

 

Emerging global technological challenges in the reduction of post-harvest food losses
Shlomo Navarro, Hagit Navarro, Simcha Finkelman

Abstract: The adverse effects of pesticide residues in food and the environment resulted in imposing strict limitations on pesticide registration by regulatory agencies. On the other hand consumer demand for chemical-free and insect contamination-free products is a general tendency with which the food industry finds it difficult to conform. This paper reviews the emerging global technological challenges in the reduction of post-harvest food losses. In many countries, storage insects like Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus oryzae have been reported to develop resistance to contact insecticides and to the conventionally used phosphine gas. Phosphine fumigation is a common treatment where three important points deserve attention: a) sufficient gas tightness, the lack of which leads to insect resistance; b) recirculation to obtain uniform gas concentration; and c) sufficient exposure time for complete control. Other registered fumigants suffer from the limitation that they may be useful for application using special equipment or under specific conditions. The most common non-chemical alternative for storage of cereals is the use of aeration systems during the winter and refrigerated aeration in the summertime with the objective to achieve temperatures of less than 18 °C to reduce insect activity. In the summertime, refrigeration provides an excellent solution for quality maintenance of grain. However, aeration has a limited effectiveness in tropical climate areas. Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of thermal disinfestation in flourmills and in the dry fruit industry, particularly for dates. Other gaseous treatments that have successfully replaced fumigants are the manipulation of modified atmospheres (MAs) through the use of biogenerated MAs and hermetic storage, for insect control and for quality preservation of stored cereals, cocoa beans, and high moisture corn. MA has niche application because of its higher cost than conventional fumigation using phosphine.

483-491

5.00 €

 

Quick phosphine fumigation technology in gastight structures for fresh plants treatment
Simcha Finkelman, Shlomo Navarro, Hagit Navarro

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493

0.00 €

 

Interpreting customer complaints: Defective or poorly designed packaging material that enables penetration of product by larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)
Ewa Sady, Stanisław Ignatowicz

Abstract: Many customer complaints are on food products contaminated by insect pests. The problem arise from holes in the package, seals that did not seal properly, sealing of the packaging material with product parts, boxes that do not have an inner liner, and even packaging material that can be chewed into by insect pests. Also, from openings produced by manufacturers to remove the excess of air or to facilitate rice cooking. Food aroma/volatiles escaping from openings, defective sealing or damaged packaging material attracts pests for feeding. Recently emerged larva (L1) from its egg is an invasive stage of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). These tiny L1 do not penetrate unbroken packaging, but efficiently locate small openings to infest packages. Invasive L1 could gain entry into the packaged products through minute holes and defective sealing of the packaging material. Manufacturers rethink their packaging design and try to improve their packaging by correcting of foil sealing process or by using alternatives.

495-497

5.00 €

 

Future trends for stored product pest control
Maureen Wakefield

Abstract: The control of stored product insects and mites relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides. Concerns over pesticide residues in food and the environmental impact of some of the chemicals used prompted research for alternative methods to protect stored crops from infestation. Chemical, physical and biological methods have been studied. Best practice in the UK currently uses an integrated approach for invertebrate pest control with physical methods (cooling and drying) a core component of the strategy. More recently changes to pesticide legislation in the European Union and concerns over resistance of insects and mites to commonly used insecticides have added to the need to develop alternative strategies. Significant developments have been made in some areas, particularly for control of insects using entomopathogenic fungi. This research has progressed from the initial identification of an isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana through laboratory testing and field scale applications, culminating in the EU Annex 1 submission by Exosect Ltd. in 2014. In this presentation the latest developments in this research will be reviewed and the prospects for other novel control methods for the future will be discussed.

501-509

5.00 €

 

Screening of reproductive symbionts of Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus zeamais and their parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus
Aydin Suzu Tuncbilek, Sevgi Bakir, Ilhan Derin, Hasne Bilbil

Abstract: Arthropods are frequently infected with several micro-organisms, including symbiotic bacteria. They can have a broad spectrum of effects on their hosts, ranging from reproductive manipulations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminization of genetic males, parthenogenesis and embryonic male-killing. The diversification and popularization of molecular tools have led to the increasing use of molecular techniques to identify symbionts. The genus Sitophilus encompasses species of great economic importance as stored grain pests worldwide. Among these species, the granary and the rice weevils (Sitophilus granarius and Sitophilus zeamais, respectively) are particularly important. Sitophilus weevils are hosts to many endosymbiotic bacteria. Weevils provide symbionts with a stable environment and some metabolites, while the symbiont provides the weevil with nutrients deficient in their diet. In this study, we have screened for presence of the intracellular symbiotic bacteria of the S. granarius, S. zeamais and the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus by molecular technique. Here, we present evidence of Wolbachia between the granary weevils S. granarius and its parasitoid L. distinguendus. Spiroplasma was found only in L. distinguendus and Arsenophonus in S. granarius.

511-517

5.00 €

 

Diagnostic method to determine infestation of Adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis on Adzuki bean seeds
Hyun-Ju Kim, Soon-Do Bae, Bishwo Prasad Mainali, Young-Nam Yoon, In-Seok Oh, Yeong-Hoon Lee, In-Hee Park And Hang-Won Kang

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519-520

0.00 €

 

Molecular characterization of Wolbachia strains associated with grain weevil
Gislaine A. Carvalho, Alberto S. Corrêa, Luiz O. Oliveira, Raul N. C. Guedes, Marcela S. Rodriguero

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521

0.00 €

 

A neglected potential? Volatile organic substances (VOCs) in stored-product protection
Tina Gasch, Andrea Krähmer

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522

0.00 €

 

Bio-efficacy of albumin 1b of legume seeds against granary weevils
Abdelkrim Mebarkia, Frédéric Gressent

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523

0.00 €

 

Qualitative analyses of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) using real-time PCR
Satoshi Furui, Akihiro Miyanoshita, Taro Imamura, Yasutaka Minegishi, Ryota Kokutani

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524

0.00 €

 

Variation in pheromone content of Indian meal moth glands and emissions with age and time of night
Charles S. Burks, Lodewyk S. Kuenen, Mathew Hicks

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525

0.00 €

 

Host-mediated larval competition in the Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)
Sharrine Omari D. Oliveira, Alice S. Rodrigues, Juliana L. Vieira, Conrado A. Rosi-Denadai, Nelsa Maria P. Guedes, Raul N. C. Guedes

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526

0.00 €

 

Growth performance and chemical composition of larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Col.: Tenebrionidae)
Eirini Anastasaki, Kyriakos Aggelakopoulos, Dimitrios C. Kontodimas

Abstract: Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is a stored product pest of which larvae are used as food for birds and reptiles pets as well could be used for the production of fodder for livestock. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of larvae and their chemical composition after feeding on a mixture of bran and potato tubers. Larvae were obtained from a rearing carried on at constant conditions (25 °C, 65% R. H. and 16 h L/8 h D photoperiod). In these conditions, the mealworm larvae increased their weight 36 times during a 30-days period. Larvae contained 63.7% of water, high levels of total protein at 11.2%, and 14.5% of total fat. Oleic acid (C18:1), palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the predominant fatty acids compromising almost 90% of total lipid content. Larvae of mealworm had a fast growth rate and are good source of protein and mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids.

527-530

5.00 €

 
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