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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 94, 2013

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 94, 2013

Working Group "Benefits and Risks of Exotic Biological Control Agents".
Proceedings of the Second Meeting at Hluboká, Czech Republic, 30 October - 03 November, 2011.
Editors: John J. Sloggett, Peter M. J. Brown and Helen E. Roy.
ISBN 978-92-9067-273-9 [IX + 139 pp.].

 

25.00 €

 

 

 

 

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The GB Non-Native Species Information Portal and EU biodiversity strategy
Helen E. Roy

Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, The Convention on Biological Diversity and the 10th Conference of the Parties in Nagoya during 2010 have all identified invasive alien species (IAS) as one of five major pressures driving biodiversity loss, and ultimately extinction of species. The requirement for improved detection and monitoring capabilities coupled with an effective decision-making framework is required to underpin control, mitigation and eradication of invasive non-native species. Here I describe the GB Non-Native Species Information Portal within the context of EU Biodiversity Strategy.

1-4

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The risks of regulation for invertebrate biological control
Johannette Klapwijk

Abstract: The development of new invertebrate biological control products is more and more threatened by national and international regulations. Access to new genetic material is increasingly limited due to Access & Benefit-Sharing regulations under the Convention on Biological Diversity. An increasing number of countries start to develop regulation on import and release of (exotic) biocontrol agents. The focus on Harmonia axyridis as an invasive species in recent years has changed the image of biological control agents in general, treating all of them as being potentially invasive. Risks are generally overestimated, resulting sometimes in unrealistic regulation. A balanced evaluation of natural enemies is essential to find biological solutions in time and support the development of Integrated Pest Management systems, which will eventually help to produce safe food and conserve biodiversity.

5-6

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Evolutionary changes during biological invasion: theoretical aspects and experimental studies using the ladybird Harmonia axyridis as a biological model
Guillaume J. M. Laugier, Ashraf Tayeh, Renaud Vitalis, Arnaud Estoup & Benoît Facon

Extended abstract

7-8

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Does niche overlap with Harmonia axyridis correlate with population declines in the British ladybird fauna?
Richard F. Comont, Helen E. Roy, Owen T. Lewis, Richard Harrington, Chris Shortall & Bethan V. Purse

Abstract: The effect of the alien invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis on British native species was quantified as the extent to which population trends were altered at a 1-km grid square level, and correlated with the degree of habitat and diet niche overlap each species has with the invader. Preliminary analysis demonstrated that both diet and habitat niche overlap were significantly correlated with the effect of H. axyridis on population trends, suggesting that the invader may be playing a significant role in the decline of the British ladybird fauna.

9-14

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Seven years of post-release monitoring for biological control agents released for biological control in the Netherlands: impact of regulatory measures on establishment and use
Antoon J. M. Loomans, Bert Vierbergen & Ping-Ping Chen

Abstract: In The Netherlands since 2005, rules are in place that regulate the release of a natural enemy as an invertebrate biological control agent (IBCA). Prior to an application for release of a BCA, the Plant Protection Service evaluates the potential risks of such a release for the native flora and fauna, in a so called Environmental Risk Analysis (ERA). When a licence is permitted for a natural enemy, it can be released for a period of maximum five years. Since 2004, 22 BCA species have been released, based on such an ERA. During that same period we established several surveys for different groups of natural enemies in the natural environment to verify whether they escape from the greenhouse, and whether they have established outdoors. We found that several of the IBCAs – predatory mites (Phytoseiidae), predatory bugs (Anthocoridae, Miridae), parasitoids (Braconidae), coccinellids (Harmonia axyridis) – disperse from (greenhouse) cultures into the natural environment and some of these have established outdoors. In this paper an account is given on the methods and results of seven years surveys of different groups of natural enemies and the potential impact of such releases on the native fauna and the use of biological control.

15-20

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Body size and the rate of spread of invasive ladybird beetles: what can we learn from the North American experience?
Jean-Louis Hemptinne, Alexandra Magro, Edward W. Evans & Anthony F. G. Dixon

Abstract only

21

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Harmonia axyridis implicated in native European ladybird declines
Helen E. Roy, Tim Adriaens, Nick J. B. Isaac, Marc Kenis, Thierry Onkelinx, Gilles San Martin, Peter M. J. Brown, Louis Hautier, Remy Poland, David B. Roy, Richard Comont, René Eschen, Robert Frost, Renate Zindel, Johan Van Vlaenderen, Oldřich Nedvěd, Hans Peter Ravn, Jean-Claude Grégoire, Jean-Christophe de Biseau & Dirk Maes

No abstract

23-25

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The impact of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in South America
Camila Fediuk de Castro-Guedes & Lúcia Massutti de Almeida

Abstract: Harmonia axyridis was introduced into the U.S.A. as a biological control agent at different times, but it only became established in 1988. It has also been released in Mexico and it is already established in Canada and also in various European countries. In the latter part of 1990, H. axyridis was introduced as a biological control agent to South America, in Mendoza, Argentina and it has also been reported in Chile, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil. There are various studies of H. axyridis in South America, including some biological and morphological aspects, behavior, intraguild predation, the history of invasion, food preferences and the potential geographical distribution of H. axyridis. Considering its capacity to invade and establish in new areas and the fact that it seems likely to expand its distribution in South America, further studies, including field studies, should be undertaken.

27-29

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Ecological effects of invasive alien species on native communities, with particular emphasis on the interactions between aphids and ladybirds
Pavel Kindlmann, Olga Ameixa & Antony F. G. Dixon

Abstract only

31

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Ladybird egg cannibalism and intraguild predation by Harmonia axyridis: the effects of egg age
John J. Sloggett, Laura K. Splichal, Yukie Kajita, Kenneth F. Haynes & Matthias W. Lorenz

Abstract: Ladybird prey vary in their suitability for the intraguild predator Harmonia axyridis. Much of this variation is attributable to differences in prey chemical defences, particularly in the types of alkaloids that different prey ladybird species possess. We here discuss another factor that plays a role in egg suitability: nutrient content. Ladybird eggs vary interspecifically in concentrations of important nutrients, notably lipids and protein. Nutrients also decline as an egg develops, leading to a predictable decline in nutritional content with egg age. Experimental results are given here showing that starved H. axyridis neonates fed younger eggs survive for longer than those fed on older, more developed eggs. By contrast, alkaloid content remains stable throughout egg development. In feeding experiments, first instar H. axyridis larvae ate more old eggs of the same prey species than freshly laid ones, and larvae developed more rapidly on the younger eggs. Eggs of the suitable prey Hippodamia convergens remained suitable irrespective of age, when compared to similarly aged conspecific eggs. However old eggs of the more toxic prey, Adalia bipunctata disproportionately slowed the development of H. axyridis larvae, by comparison with similarly aged conspecific eggs. This interactive effect of chemical defence and nutrient content, mediated by egg age, appears to arise because H. axyridis cannot metabolise the unsuitable A. bipunctata alkaloids. Because larvae must eat more old eggs, a higher level of toxic alkaloid will accumulate in the body of the larva. The results suggest that in studies of egg cannibalism and intraguild predation, absolute quantitative measures of performance on or consumption of egg prey need to be treated cautiously if egg age or stage of development is unknown or not recorded.

33-40

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Is Harmonia axyridis attacked by native species?
Louis Hautier, Felipe Ramon Portugal, Jean-Louis Hemptinne, Jean-Christophe de Biseau & Jean-Claude Grégoire

Extended abstract

41-43

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Alien arthropod predators and parasitoids: an ecological approach
Helen E. Roy, Patrick De Clercq, Lori-Jayne Lawson Handley, Remy L. Poland, John J. Sloggett & Eric Wajnberg

No abstract

45-47

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Parasites and pathogens of the invasive alien Harmonia axyridis
Helen E. Roy, Richard F. Comont, Emma L. Rhule, Susanne Harding, Lori-Jayne Lawson Handley, Remy L. Poland, Eric W. Riddick, Tove Steenberg

No abstract

49-50

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A global invader: the worldwide distribution of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Peter M. J. Brown

Abstract: Native to Asia, Harmonia axyridis was used as a biological control agent of aphids and coccids and has spread to four additional continents. Since 1988 H. axyridis has established in at least 39 countries in its introduced range: three countries in North America, six in South America, 27 in Europe and three in Africa.

51-60

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What happens to rare species when invaders arrive? Coccinella novemnotata in western North America as a case study
Edward W. Evans

Abstract only

61

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The chemical ecology of Harmonia axyridis
John J. Sloggett, Alexandra Magro, François J. Verheggen, Jean-Louis Hemptinne, William D. Hutchison & Eric W. Riddick

Extended abstract

63-64

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Larval performances for prey capture in hatchlings of two sibling ladybird beetles Harmonia yedoensis and H. axyridis
Noriyuki Suzuki, Naoya Osawa & Takayoshi Nishida

Abstract only

65

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Ecology of Arachnida alien to and spreading in Europe
Oldřich Nedvěd, Stano Pekár, Pavel Bezděčka, Jan Dolanský, Veronika Havlová, Vladimír Hula, Eva Líznarová, Milan Řezáč, Marcus Schmitt & Lenka Sentenská

Abstract: Synanthropy is an important factor facilitating spread and establishment of alien spiders, harvestmen and schizomids in Europe. Transportation, warm microclimate (mainly for overwintering of Mediterranean and tropical species) and food availability (e.g. attraction of insects to artificial light) are provided by human activities. Parthenogenesis is widespread among spreading and invasive arachnids.

67-70

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Detection in Britain of intraguild predation of Adalia species by Harmonia axyridis
Alison P. Thomas, Jamie Trotman, Angela Wheatley, Alex Aebi, Renate Zindel & Peter M. J. Brown

Abstract: The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, is an invasive alien species that arrived in Britain in 2003. Its spread across most of the country has been accompanied by a decline in some native coccinellid species, in particular the two spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata and the ten spot ladybird Adalia decempunctata. We used a PCR based approach to analyse gut contents of 156 field collected H. axyridis larvae for the presence of Adalia DNA, which was detected in 12.2% of larvae. An extended version of this work is published as Thomas et al. (2013).

71-76

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Investigation of trophic interactions between Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Anthocoris nemoralis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) associated with Tilia x europaea in a post-invasion cityscape
Andy G. Howe, Alexandre Aebi & Hans Peter Ravn

Extended abstract

77-78

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Detection of intraguild predation between Harmonia axyridis and Episyrphus balteatus using molecular methods
Brecht Ingels, Alexandre Aebi, Thomas Van Leeuwen & Patrick De Clercq

Extended abstract

79-80

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The effect of acclimation, diet and endosymbionts on the freezing tolerance of the predatory bug Macrolophus pygmaeus
Sara Maes, Thijs Machtelinckx, Maurice Moens, Jean-Claude Grégoire & Patrick De Clercq

Extended abstract

81-82

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Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae), an alien species to Benin (West Africa)
Ghislain T. Tepa-Yotto, Trond Hofsvang, Ignace Godonou & May-Guri Sæthre

Extended abstract

83-86

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Gudrun Strauß

Extended abstract

87-88

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Life history strategies of Harmonia axyridis in a semi-natural habitat
Olga M. C. C. Ameixa, Jan Šipoš & Pavel Kindlmann

Extended abstract

89-90

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Sperm competition following multiple mating in Harmonia axyridis
Mona Awad & Oldřich Nedvěd

Extended abstract

91-92

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Aggregation behaviour of Harmonia axyridis
Delphine Durieux, Christophe Fischer, Bérénice Fassotte, John J. Sloggett, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Georges Lognay, Eric Haubruge & François J. Verheggen

Extended abstract

93-94

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Effect of prey densities on searching behaviour of an invasive ladybird
Jan Šipoš, Robert Glinwood, Emma Kvastegård, Kwabena Owusu Baffoe, Kawshar Sharmin & Pavel Kindlmann

Extended abstract

95-96

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Family effect in body mass and developmental time of Harmonia axyridis
Oldřich Nedvěd, Xenia Fois & Dita Ungerová

No abstract

97-99

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Sperm survival in fertilized females of Harmonia axyridis during overwintering
Mona Awad, Plamen Kalushkov, Tereza Nedvědová & Oldřich Nedvěd

No abstract

101-103

5.00 €

 

The potential of different fruit cultivars as food for Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Camila Fediuk de Castro-Guedes & Lúcia Massutti de Almeida

Extended abstract

105-106

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Effect of air humidity on development of Harmonia axyridis
Plamen Kalushkov, Pavla Šenkeříková & Oldřich Nedvěd

No abstract

107-109

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A survey of exotic biological control agents used in Europe
Sara Maes, Maurice Moens, Jean-Claude Grégoire & Patrick De Clercq

Abstract: Both indigenous and exotic natural enemies are used in commercial biological control to reduce pest populations. As exotic biological control agents could have a negative impact on non-target organisms and may threaten local biodiversity, their use is not without risks. In the framework of a project funded by the Belgian authorities, the proportion of exotic organisms of the total assortment of invertebrate biological control agents that is commercially available to Belgian growers was estimated. The products of European producers were inventoried and the original distribution of the species listed was investigated. The survey indicated that currently more than 90 species of invertebrate natural enemies are commercially available and that about 53% of these are exotic to Belgium or to neighbouring countries within the same ecoregion. All continents were found to deliver more or less 20% of the exotics (Asia: 17%, Africa: 20%, North America: 17%, Oceania: 17%, Europe: 24%), with the exception of South America that delivered only 5% of the exotics. The European natural enemies that have not previously been described from Belgium or surrounding areas mostly have a Mediterranean origin.

111-115

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Characteristics of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis during autumn migration
Tereza Nedvědová, Mona Awad, Dita Ungerová & Oldřich Nedvěd

Abstract: Sampling of the migrating ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on building walls was conducted between 5th October and 17th November 2009 in České Budějovice, Czech Republic. Out of 1571 individuals, there were 845 females and 726 males. The sex ratio in particular samples was even more strongly biased, suggesting infection of the ladybird population by male-killing bacteria. Mean female fresh weight was 37.3 mg, mean male weight was 30.8 mg. Mean weight significantly decreased during autumn, suggesting shortage of nutrients in later developing beetles. There were 56 individuals (3.6%) of morph conspicua (mean weight 32.7 mg), 156 individuals (9.9%) of morph spectabilis (mean weight 34.4 mg), and 1359 individuals (86.5%) of morph succinea (mean weight 34.3 mg). The proportion of melanic individuals was constant among samples. In later samples there were more individuals of the morph succinea that were heavily spotted. There were 46% of females fertilised before migration, regardless of colour morph. There was a slight decrease of fertilisation rate with later sampling date.

117-122

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Preference among three aphid species by the predatory ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis in the laboratory
Pavla Šenkeříková & Oldřich Nedvěd

Abstract: Adult males, females or fourth instar larvae of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis were starved for 24 hours and then released in a 9 cm Petri dish with either 20 females of one of the aphids: Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis or Aphis sambuci, or 10 + 10 females of two aphid species combined. After 6 hours, we scored the number of aphids eaten completely, eaten partially or that had their bodily contents sucked out. Males consumed generally the same number of aphids as females, but sucked out aphid bodily contents without eating the prey cuticle more often than females. In no-choice experiments, adults consumed more A. pisum than A. f. cirsiiacanthoidis and the smallest number of A. sambuci, which is slightly toxic. In choice experiments, neither males nor females preferred either of the two aphids in any of the treatments, except for males eating more of the toxic A. sambuci than A. f. cirsiiacanthoidis. Larvae ate more of the suitable food A. f. cirsiiacanthoidis than the toxic A. sambuci. When we presented aphids on either a black or green background for the choice experiment, females still did not prefer any aphid species, except for black A. f. cirsiiacanthoidis being consumed more often than green A. pisum on a black background. Because ladybirds consumed much more A. pisum in no-choice experiments on both backgrounds, we should compare the ratio observed in choice experiments with the reversely biased ratio in no-choice experiments, not with a 50:50 probability. Thus, the difference in the choice experiment is very strong and its polarity surprising.

123-130

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Comparative analysis of invasive and native populations of Harmonia axyridis by a complex of morphological traits
Ilya Zakharov & Alla Blekhman

Abstract: Elytral pattern, pronotum pattern, and presence/absence of the elytral ridge were compared for 4751 individuals of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) collected from four invasive populations (Europe, USA) and six native populations (Russia). While the American population is similar to the native Far East populations and probably has a common origin from a limited number of individuals, the origin of the European invasive populations is likely to be mixed.

131-139

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