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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 117, 2016

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 117, 2016

Working Group "Biological and Integrated Control of Plant Pathogens"
Preceedings of the Meeting „Biocontrol and Microbial Ecology" at Berlin (Germany), September 12-15, 2016.
Edited by Jürgen Köhl and Marc Bardin.
ISBN 978-92-9067-301-9 [XX + 324 pp]

 

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Contribution of biocontrol agents to sustainable agriculture: do insights from microbiome research and BCA “omics” pay off
David M. Weller, Linda S. Thomashow

Extended abstract

2-6

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Dissecting induced systemic resistance by Pseudomonas spp. from the WCS collection
Peter A. H. M. Bakker, Ke Yu, Ioannis A. Stringlis, Corné M. J. Pieterse, and Roeland L. Berendsen

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8

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Pea broth promotes cell motility and biocontrol activity of Lysobacter capsici AZ78 nd upregulates genes related to biogenesis of type IV pili
Selena Tomada, Gerardo Puopolo, Michele Perazzolli, Nazia Loi, Ilaria Pertot

Abstract: Cells of biocontrol bacteria can colonise spaces occupied by plant pathogens by using different types of motility. In spite of the ecological importance of motility, few information is available on the motility of Lysobacter capsici. We discover that in the biocontrol bacterium L. capsici AZ78 (AZ78) motility is medium-dependent, in fact it developed dendrite-like colonies when grown on jellified pea broth (PB), while no cell movement was recorded in the media commonly used in motility assays. The application of AZ78 combined with PB increased its biocontrol activity against Plasmopara viticola under greenhouse conditions. We demonstrated that a quantity of PB equal to that present on grapevine leaves after the treatment is sufficient to determine the AZ78cell motility. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the medium-dependent motility, the genome of AZ78 was mined for genes responsible for the flagellum and type IV pilus (T4P) biogenesis. The subsequent gene expression analysis revealed that genes encoding structural components and regulatory factors of T4P were upregulated in AZ78 cells grown on medium containing PB, as compared with the other tested media. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first hint regarding the cell motility in a L. capsici biocontrol strain. Furthermore, these results pave the way to the possible role of pea compounds as co-formulant, to improve the biocontrol efficacy of AZ78.

9-13

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The potato microbiome and its potential impact on late blight resistance
Mout De Vrieze, Ramona Gloor, Josep Massana Codina, Adithi Ravikumar Varadarajan, Brice Dupuis, Christian H. Ahrens, Aurélie Gfeller, Aurélien Bailly, Laure Weisskopf

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14

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Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Pseudomonas donghuensis P482
is based on an overlapping genetic background

Sylwia Jafra, Magdalena Jabłońska, Dorota M. Krzyżanowska, Adam Ossowicki, Tomasz Maciąg, Magdalena Rajewska

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15

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Different antifungal effects of Bacillus subtilis and Pantoea agglomerans
on 2 grapevine cultivars against Grapevine Trunk Diseases pathogens,
Neofusicoccum parvum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

Awatef Rezgui, Jessica Vallance, Asma Ben Ghnaya Chakroun, Emilie Bruez, Najla Sadfi Zouaoui, Patrice Rey

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16

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Unravelling induced immune response in grapevine by beneficial bacteria
and efficacy of ISR against Botrytis cinerea in both controlled and vineyard conditions

Aziz Aziz, Charlotte Gruau, Bas Verhagen, Sandra Villaume, Fanja Rabenoelina, Christophe Clément, Fabienne Baillieul, Patricia Trotel-Aziz

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17

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Persistence of Salmonella in agricultural soil is strongly influenced by its bacterial community
Jasper Schierstaedt, Eva Fornefeld, Sven Jechalke, Adam Schikora, Rita Grosch, Kornelia Smalla

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18

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Study on the mechanisms of action of Bacillus cereus AR156: induced systemic resistance to bacterial disease
Chunhao Jiang, Zhihang Fan, Dacheng Wang, Jianhua Guo

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19-20

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The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 doesn´t have PGPR activity as additional mechanism to biocontrol
Sandra Tienda, Carmen Vida, Eva Arrebola, Antonio de Vicente, Francisco M. Cazorla

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21

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The impact of the outbreak of Tuta absoluta in tomato in Nigeria
Michael Oke

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22

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Biological characteristics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AK-0 and disease suppression of Korean ginseng root rot
caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zins.)

Young Soo Kim, Kotnala Balaraju, Wonsu Cheon, Yongho Jeon

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23

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Indigenous soil bacteria: an alternative strategy to protect against potato diseases
Florent Licciardi, Simon Caulier

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24

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Biological control of Ralstonia solanacearum and growth promoting of chili pepper
using indigenous West Sumatra isolates of Bacillus cereus

Yulmira Yanti, Fuji Febria Astuti, Chainur Rahman Nasution

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25

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Biocontrol of Aphanomyces euteiches root rot in legumes by Streptomyces sp. Z321 isolated from Moroccan ecosystems
Brahim Oubaha, Ahmed Nafis, Mustapha Barakate

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26

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Use of the omic and NGS technologies to develop and improve biopesticides
based on yeast’s against postharvest diseases of fruits

M. Haissam Jijakli, Sébastien Massart, Abdoul Razack Sare

Extended abstract

28-30

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Approaches to the development of biocontrol agent Penicillium frequentans
isolate 909 for brown rot control on stone fruit

Belen Guijarro, Antonieta De Cal, Inmaculada Larena, Paloma Melgarejo

Abstract: Microbial biocontrol agents have to be registered following the rules of the EC
Regulation 1107/2009 (EC2009), which demands information on ecophysiological
properties and on the risks and safety of biological products. Penicillium frequentans
survive actively over a wide range of environmental conditions. The probability of risks
to human and animal health is considered to be remote in terms of mycotoxic production,
and there is commercial active material capable to inhibit fungus growth.

31-36

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Genome and transcriptome analyses of the mycoparasite Clonostachys rosea highlights mycotoxin tolerance as a key biocontrol trait
Kristiina Nygren, Mukesh Dubey, Mikael Durling, Dan Funck Jensen, Magnus Karlsson

Abstract: The mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea is an efficient biological control agent under field conditions for a variety of plant diseases on agricultural crops. The genome of C. rosea strain IK726 was determined using Illumina/SOLiD technology, and shown to contain high numbers of ABC-transporters (86 genes) and MFS-transporters (620 genes). Interestingly, the increase of ABC-transporter gene number in C. rosea was associated with phylogenetic subgroup G (pleiotropic drug resistance transporters) and subgroup B (multidrug resistance transporters), possibly involved in protecting C. rosea against exogenous toxins. Transcriptomes from C. rosea interacting with Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum showed that 61% of all induced genes were predicted to encode ABC- and MFS-transporters. Four and seventeen transporter genes were specifically induced during interaction with B. cinerea and F. graminearum, respectively. In summary, our data suggest that mycotoxin tolerance is an important component of the biocontrol ability of C. rosea.

37-40

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Transcriptomic responses of the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala to aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus
Sui-Sheng Hua

Abstract: Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 is a biocontrol yeast which has been shown to inhibit growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus. The molecular mechanism of biological control was further characterized by the temporal transcriptome response of P. anomala to A. flavus in a liquid growth medium. Total RNA was extracted and processed using an Illumina TruSeq RNA Sample Prep kit. RNA-seq reads were mapped to the W. anomalus genome using tophat2 with default settings. Differential expression analysis was performed using edgeR. Gene ontology (GO) annotation of P. anomala was retrieved from http://genome.jgi.doe.gov/. Enrichment of GO categories in differentially regulated genes was determined using Fisher’s exact test in the R environment. In comparison of yeast gene expression with and without A. flavus, a large number of genes were differentially expressed. At 24 h, 662 genes and 679 genes out of a total of 6423 genes were up- and down-regulated respectively, specifically genes involved in protein phosphorylation, protein kinase, DNA-templated regulation of transcription, and microtubule-based movement. They were enriched in the down-regulated genes at 24 h, but in up-regulation at later time points. This suggests that P. anomala was recuperating from the competition of A. flavus. Transport was enriched in up-regulated genes at 48 h, which implies that P. anomala was actively utilizing nutrients from the environment to build its biocontrol activities.

41-44

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Effect of two mitoviruses (FcMV1 and FcMV2-2) on the virulence of Fusarium circinatum and laccase activity
Emigdio Jordán Muñoz-Adalia, J. Asdrubal Flores-Pacheco, Pablo Martínez-Álvarez, Jorge Martín-García, Mercedes Fernández, Julio J. Diez

Abstract only

45

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Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and health status of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller)
A. Jamiołkowska, A. Hamood Thanoon, A. Księżniak

No abstract

46-48

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Management of chickpea wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris) using Trichoderma spp.
Merkuz Abera Admassu

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49

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The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba-alba aqueous extract and essential oils against mycotoxigenic fungus
Nasrine Salhi, Bahi eddine Rahmani, Madiha Benouaar, Khadidj Amraoui, Bissati Samia, Valeria Terzi

Abstract only

50

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Effect of Penicillium rubens strain 212 proteins on controlling Fusarium wilt in tomato plants
María Carreras, Yolanda Herranz, Antonieta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, Inmaculada Larena

Abstract: Penicillium rubens strain 212 (PO212) (formerly P. oxalicum) is an effective biocontrol agent (BCA) in the control of a wide range of horticultural plant pathogens. Evidence of the role proteins play in disease reduction will be presented. We proposed to look for PO212 putative protein candidates that are involved in disease reduction, in order to improve the PO212 efficacy to reduce vascular wilt of tomato. We have demonstrated that extracts of submerged culture free-conidia PO212 were as effective as dried conidia in the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) in tomato. There were no negative effects on host or pathogen. However, only treatments with viable and dried conidia improved plant growth. PO212 showed the highest mycelial growth and sporulation on medium with 1% xylane. In addition, commercial xylanases were as effective as dried PO212 conidia against Fusarium wilt of tomato.

51-55

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Investigating the biocontrol potential of dark septate endophytes against plant fungal pathogens
Wael Yakti, Philipp Franken

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56

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Safe crops, better health and higher income: Ground-truths from the development and scaling up of aflatoxin biocontrol in Africa
Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J. Cotty

Abstract: Aflatoxin contamination of food crops due to Aspergillus flavus is frequent and widespread harming health and trade in Africa. Competitive exclusion of aflatoxin-producing isolates by endemic atoxigenic vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of A. flavus is a proven biological control tool for aflatoxin management. We describe progress made with the development of biocontrol of aflatoxins in Africa, the current status, and prospects for further scaling-up in maize and groundnut value chains.

58-61

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Bacillus subtilis CH13: a highly effective biocontrol agent for the integrated management of plant diseases
Natalia Malfanova, Andrey Shcherbakov, Alexander Zaplatkin, Alexey Zavalin, Vladimir Chebotar

Abstract: Bacillus subtilis CH13 is a commercially important bacterium with proven plant growth promoting and biocontrol abilities. Here we report the results of the 2-year biocontrol trials with CH13 on different cultivars of cabbage and potato grown in fields naturally infected with phytopathogens. Application of B. subtilis CH13 at cell concentration of 108 CFU/ml throughout the growing season resulted in a significant reduction of disease incidence and a yield increase, compared to untreated control. Analysis of the CH13 genome sequence revealed that this strain is genetically closely related (99.98% identity) to B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Similarly to FZB42, CH13 has a remarkable genomic potential for synthesizing numerous biocontrol metabolites, including lipopeptide antibiotics, siderophores and volatiles. Overall, our data suggests that incorporating CH13 into conventional agricultural system provides an effective, environmentally sound approach for the control of phytopathogens and the improvement of agricultural productivity.

62-66

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From bioassays to field trials: screening and selection of microbes for control of Rhizoctonia root rot on wheat
Stephen Barnett, Christopher Franco

Abstract: Rhizoctonia root rot is the major fungal root disease of cereals in low to medium rainfall areas with limited chemical and agronomic control options. Disease is influenced by soil microbes and this project successfully developed and used new screening methods to allow rapid initial evaluation of microorganisms in bioassays and in the field to identify strains which are candidates for development as commercial inoculants. From 2310 strains initially assessed in a high throughput plant-pathogen-soil tube bioassay, 43 strains (1.9%) reduced disease. Of these, 21 strains had > 20% survival on seeds over 7 days and were then assessed in hand planted microplots to provide initial evidence of efficacy in the field. The eleven strains which reduced disease were then assessed in 20 m field plots. From this screening methodology, one strain was identified that increased grain yield in Rhizoctonia infested fields between 3.8 to 4.2% and performed better than current chemical controls.

67-71

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Bumble bees & Gliocladium: Potential partners in the biocontrol of internal fruit rot in sweet pepper
Soraya França, Sarah Van Beneden, Liesbet Van Herck, Bart Van Calenberge, Sanne Van Gool, Rob Moerkens

Abstract only

72

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Developing a new biocontrol strategy against brown rot in stone fruit in Europe
Neus Teixidó, Rosario Torres, Amparo Gotor, Antonieta De Cal, Belén Guijarro, Josep Usall

Abstract only

73

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Incorporation of a microbial fungicide into a chemical fungicide program for the control of black sigatoka disease in banana plants
Valeska Villegas Escobar, Vicente Rey, Sandra Mosquera, Jaime Andres Gutierrez, Javier Danilo Sánchez

Abstract: Black Sigatoka (BS) disease is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, one of the most devastating diseases of banana crops worldwide. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating a microbial fungicide (MF) based on Bacillus subtilis EA-CB0015 and its metabolites, into a chemical fungicide program regularly used for the control of BS in field conditions. Results showed that the incorporation of the MF into the fungicide program did not have any significant effect on the state of evolution of the disease (SED), although it did have in the disease severity (DS), suggesting that the MF could be used instead of the protectant fungicide mancozeb under certain circumstances.

74-78

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Effect of integrating fungicide and biocontrol foliar sprays on maize grain yield and fumonisin content
Edgar Zanotto, Rafaela Araújo Guimarães, Lidia Almeida Salum Zanotto, Jose da Cruz Machado, Itamar Soares Melo, Renzo Garcia Von Pinho, Felipe Augusto Moretti Ferreira Pinto, Paulo Henrique Oliveirsa Sá Fortes, Henrique Novaes Medeiros, Flávio Henrique Vasconcelos de Medeiros

Abstract: The adoption of biocontrol is low in maize production although its synergistic action with fungicides on the grain content of fumonisin is reported. The objective of this work was evaluate the potential effect of Bacillus sp. (BIOUFLA2) and Streptomyces araujoniae (BIOUFLA1) combined or not with fungicide (azoxystrobin + ciproconazol) on grain yield, Fusarium verticillioides, incidence and total fumonisin content. Maize plants were sprayed two times, at the phenological stages V9 and R1 with water, BIOUFLA1, BIOUFLA2, fungicide alone or in different combinations two by two. All plants were inoculated with F. verticillioides. Upon harvest, treatments were evaluated for total yield, F. verticillioides grain contamination (blotter test) and total fumonisin (B1 and B2) contents. The treatment combination fungicide at V9-V10 combined to S. araujoniae at R1 resulted in increased yield in three out of the four field trials, while all the other treatment combinations resulted in increased yield in two out of the four trials. All treatment combinations less the two sprays of fungicide reduced F. verticillioides incidence in grains compared to the water control. None of the treatments contributed to the reduction on the fumonisin content compared to the control but the two sprays of fungicides or S. araujoniae and the combination S.araujoniae (V9-V10) + Fungicide (R1) resulted in higher mycotoxin contents compared to the control. The use of the fungicide at V9 followed by S. araujoniae (R1) resulted in more consistent yield increases, reduced grain contamination by F. verticillioides and did not increase the fumonisin content compared to the control.

79-82

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Are there regional differences in the susceptibility of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains to Coniothyrium minitans?
Philippe C. Nicot, Félicie Avril, Magali Duffaud, Christel Leyronas, Claire Troulet, François Villeneuve and Marc Bardin

Abstract: In an attempt to understand regional differences in the efficacy of biocontrol against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in France, strains of the pathogen were collected from different locations and tested for their susceptibility to the biocontrol fungus Coniothyrium minitans. Based on results obtained for the first 22 strains examined, wide and highly significant differences were observed, suggesting that the efficacy of this biocontrol method could vary locally depending on the frequency of susceptible vs less susceptible strains of S. sclerotiorum. However, the differences in susceptibility observed so far for strains from the North and the South of France cannot explain global regional differences in the efficacy of this biocontrol method. If confirmed by ongoing work on additional strains of S. sclerotiorum, these results will point to other hypotheses examined in the framework of national project "ScleroLeg".

83-87

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Integration of biocontrol agents and thermotherapy to control Fusarium fujikuroi on rice seeds
Slavica Matic, Angelo Garibaldi, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Davide Carmelo Spadaro

Abstract: Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of bakanae disease, is the most important seedborne fungal pathogen of rice. Chemical alternatives to seed treatments against bakanae disease consist in biological and physical control methods. Four yeast isolates were selected among all potential antagonists obtained from various rice seeds on the basis of in vitro and in vivo assays. Two of them were identified as Metschnikowia pulcherrima, one as Pichia guilliermondii and one as Sporidiobolus pararoseus. Biocontrol efficacy of P. guilliermondii and M. pulcherrima on F. fujikuroi was higher in comparison with some applied commercial biofungicides. The seed dressing with antagonistic yeasts diminished the bakanae disease index to 70% compared to control seeds. Biocontrol yeasts resulted even more efficient when combined with thermotherapy, decreasing the disease index less than 5%, and ameliorating the seed germination as well. Selected biocontrol agents could be efficient alternative method to control F. fujikuroi on rice seeds, particularly when combined with thermotherapy.

88-91

5.00 €

 

Biocontrol of olive anthracnose by Aureobasidium pullulans
Franco Nigro, Ilaria Antelmi, Rossella Labarile, Valentina Sion, Isabella Pentimone

Extended abstract

92-94

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Biological control of chestnut blight: an interplay between chestnut, fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and Cryphonectria hypovirus 1
Mirna Curkovic-Perica, Marin Ježić, Ljiljana Krstin, Zorana Katanić, Lucija Nuskern, Igor Poljak, Marilena Idžojtić

Extended abstract

95-97

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Use of a plant oil extract biostimulant to control grapevine fungal diseases
Anthony Bellée, Marie-Cécile Dufour, Gwenaelle Comont, Gilles Taris, Olivier André, Marie-France Corio-Costet

Abstract only

98

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Potential contribution of biological control to integrated management of plant diseases in UK gardens
Matthew Cromey, Rebekah Robinson, Guy Barter, Gerard Clover

Abstract only

99

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Impact of use of Trichoderma spp. on greenhouse tomato crop and the bio control of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary
Messgo-Moumene Saida

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100

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Management of groundnut stem and root rot complex by using Trichoderma harzianum Th3 at field level
Pratibha Sharma, Prashant P. Jambhulkar and Manokaran Raja

Abstract: Stem and root rot complex disease of groundnut is a devastating disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and Macrophomina phaseolina. To avoid extensive use of pesticides, biological formulation developed from Trichoderma harzianum (Th3) was used as an environment friendly option. In the dual culture method, T. harzianum Th3 showed around 62% inhibition against S. rolfsii and 71.9% inhibition of M. phaseolina. Seed treatment, soil application and drenching with T. harzianum Th3 showed minimum disease incidence of 21.6% in Banswara and 12.6% in Jhabua districts. Thus it reduces the disease incidence by 66.3 to 78.1% as compared with control. In the same way, there was significant response of application of T. harzianum Th3 was observed on plant growth promoting parameters. at field level to increase number of pods per plant and shelling % and thereby produces maximum yield of 3.37 and 3.6 t/ha in Banswara and Jhabua district, respectively.

101-105

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Over 30 years of research, more than 15 years of using Bacillus subtilis and production of other beneficial microbes by ABiTEP – a vision of a sustainable agriculture becomes reality
Kristin Dietel, Helmut Junge

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106

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In vitro and in vivo co-inoculation of soil biocontrol microbial agents: methods for the evaluation of their persistence and performance
Loredana Canfora, Eligio Malusà, Cezary Tkaczuk, Małgorzata Tartanus, Barbara H. Łabanowska, Anna Benedetti, Flavia Pinzari

Abstract: Two species of fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. and Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch were jointly applied in the field as biological agents in strawberry plantations in Poland to control Melolontha melolontha L. (European cockchafer). We adapted a genotyping approach based on SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) marker to a discriminating tracing of the two inoculants in vitro and in soil. We analysed the behaviour of the two fungal species in vitro in the presence of different carbon sources, to assess possible antagonistic and/or synergistic effects of the consortium. Further, we used SSR markers in the assessment of inoculants persistence and traceability in soil after their field application.

107-111

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In vitro screening of Trichoderma species isolates for potential bio-control of black foot disease causing pathogens in grapevine nurseries
Lizel Mostert, Wynand van Jaarsveld, Francois Halleen

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112

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Protection of apple and pear flowers against fire blight infections using biocontrol organisms applied via bumble bees
Serge Remy, Bart Cottyn, Jolien Smessaert, Maxime Eeraerts, Shanna Peeters, Miche Claes, Martine Maes, Guy Smagghe, Wannes Keulemans, Olivier Honnay, Hilde Schoofs, Tom Deckers

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113

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Biological control methods for soil-borne pathogens in organic onion production – the on-farm study
Emmi Kuivainen, Sari Iivonen

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114

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Biological control of potato diseases: control of Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani by indigenous Belgian bacteria
Gil Colau

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115

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Influence of mode of application and strain effect on the antagonist efficacy of bacterial strains to control the fungal pathogen Neofusicoccum parvum in grapevine
Patrice Rey, Rana Haidar

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116

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Opportunistic endophytism of Trichoderma spp. and its biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight in rice
Pratibha Sharma, Verna C. Leon, Manokaran Raja, R. Thava Prakasa Pandian, Shaily Javeria, Prashant P. Jambhulkar

Abstract: In this study we explored opportunistic endophytism of Trichoderma spp. in rice [Pusa basmati-1 (PB-1)]. Pusa basmati-1 was subjected to soil and seed treatment with five isolates. After 28 days, the root samples were assessed by microscopic analysis (light and SEM) and isolation of endophytic fungi from root samples revealed that the isolated endophytic fungus were identical to the inoculated ones. These results were further confirmed by PCR amplification of the rDNA region and tef 1 with the newly isolated Trichoderma asperellum and T. asperelloides. Consequently, the in vitro (dual culture assay) and in vivo (plant infection) studies of the antagonistic activity of the five isolates against Rhizoctonia solani showed that all isolates significantly inhibited the growth of the pathogen. In both treatments, TaR3 proved to be the best isolate. The mean horizontal spread range and relative lesion height were studied in both seed and soil treatment. In this study, it has been reported that T. asperellum and T. asperelloides is endophytic in rice upon inoculation through seed and soil treatment. This may indicate the role of T. asperellum and T. asperelloides as endophytes protecting the host against biotic stress.

117-121

5.00 €

 

Pythium oligandrum root colonization of grafted vines and protection against the Grapevine Trunk Disease pathogen, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora
Amira Yacoub, Jonathan Gerbore, David Renault, Candido da Costa Daniele, Remy Guyoneaud, Patrice Rey

Abstract: Esca is the most destructive Grapevine Trunk Disase (GTD). It causes substantial losses in vineyards, for instance 13% of the French vineyard is unproductive because of Esca. No efficient chemical product is registered to control this disease but a biocontrol strategy is presently developed. Pythium oligandrum, a biological control agent, frequently isolated from the roots of grapevines planted in the Bordeaux region (France), displays interesting properties to control grapevine diseases, including Esca. P. oligandrum root colonization of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon cuttings (not grafted) reduced by half the necroses caused by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, a pathogen involved in Esca, In order to apply P. oligandrum in nurseries and vineyards that mainly used grafted plants, plant protection induced by the oomycete on grafted plants has to be verified. A greenhouse assay showed that P. oligandrum colonizes rootstock (SO4) roots over the whole experiment period. Moreover, necroses in the trunk and P. chlamydospora DNA quantities in the rootstock were reduced in P. oligandrum inoculated plants.

122-127

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Effects of selected sebacinoid endophytic fungi on tomato plant health
Negar Ghezel Sefloo, Siegrid Steinkellner, Karin Hage-Ahmed

Abstract only

128

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Efficacy of biopesticides on root diseases and pests in hydroponic production of vegetables
Anissa Poleatewich, Travis Cranmer, Rose Buitenhuis, Michael Brownbridge

Abstract only

129

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EUCLID: Leveraging IPM for sustainable production of fruit and vegetable crops in partnership with China
Philippe Nicot, Marc Bardin, Christel Leyronas, Nicolas Desneux

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130

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PGPR induces resistance against soft rot on Chinese green mustard
Natthiya Buensanteai, Mathukorn Sompong, Chanon Saengchan, Piyaporn Phansak, Kanjana Thumanu

Abstract: Plant growth promotion rhizobacterium (PGPR), Bacillus subtilis strain CaSUT007 was isolated from soil in northeast of Thailand. Application of CaSUT007 reduced the disease severity of soft rot up to 60% when compared to pathogen inoculated control plants. Our results revealed that phenolic compounds were found to accumulate in Chinese green mustard leaf tissues treated with CaSUT007 when plants were 5 days old, with the level of phenolic compounds reaching 2.05 μg/g fresh weight. FT-IR analyses indicated that protein was highly accumulated in response to the strain CaSUT007. Chinese green mustard treated with CaSUT007 showed changes in the beta sheet secondary structure of proteins and appeared to have a higher polysaccharide content, but lipid content was decreased compared with plants treated with distilled water. These results demonstrate that the application of PGPR strain CaSUT007 has potential to control soft rot disease and reduce the risk associated with high use of chemical pesticides in commercial Chinese green mustard production in Thailand.

131-135

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Suppressive soils: back on the radar screen
Linda S. Thomashow, David M. Weller

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137-138

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Microbiome studies give new insights in Rhizoctonia-suppressive microbial communities
Ruth Gomez Exposito, Joeke Postma, Irene de Bruijn, Jos M. Raaijmakers

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139

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Microbial profiling of a suppressiveness-induced agricultural soil amended with composted almond shells lead to isolation of new biocontrol agents
Carmen Vida, Antonio De Vicente, Francisco Cazorla

Abstract: This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing showed that the soil under the influence of composted almond shells revealed an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Xylariales (where R. necatrix is allocated). Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed the improvement of a group of specific probes included in the “soil benefit” category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp. or Actinobacteria. Based in such data, a model for the microbial-based suppressiveness is proposed and further isolation of representative microorganisms was performed.

140-143

5.00 €

 

Abundance of plant beneficial pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of winter wheat grown in different agricultural management systems
Francesca Dennert, Jana Schneider, Nicola Imperiali, Dmitri V. Mavrodi, Olga V. Mavrodi, Fabio Mascher, Paul Mäder, Raphaël Charles, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer

Abstract: Sustainable soil management systems, such as organic fertilization and reduced tillage, are increasingly adopted by farmers to protect soils and to decrease the application of mineral fertilizers. However, it is still not well known how these practices influence the presence and abundance of key groups of soil microorganisms, such as fluorescent pseudomonads. This group of bacteria can improve plant health by protecting roots against the attack of soil borne fungal pathogens through the production of antifungal metabolites and by activating plant defence mechanisms.
In this study, the abundance of fluorescent pseudomonads producing the antifungals 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), phenazines and pyrrolnitrin was measured in soil and rhizosphere of wheat with a qPCR based approach in two long term trials that compare conventional to organic cultivation, reduced tillage to conventional tillage and monoculture to crop rotation.
DAPG and phenazine producers were significantly less abundant in unfertilized plots compared to plots under conventional or organic cultivation. Phenazine and pyrrolnitrin producers were less abundant in organic plots compared to conventional plots. Monoculture, which had been found to favour the build-up of pseudomonads populations in past studies, had no significant effect on the abundance of any of the three quantified pseudomonads groups. Our results indicate that the quantity of fertilization, rather than the form of fertilization, influences the abundance of plant beneficial pseudomonads in wheat cultivation systems. Further research is needed to identify soil management systems favouring the growth of plant beneficial pseudomonads populations in different cropping systems.

144-148

5.00 €

 

Effect of biochar on pre-emergence damping-off in nursery growth media and its influence on microbial community structure
Amit K. Jaiswal, Yigal Elad, Ellen R. Graber, Eddie Cytryn, Omer Frenkel

Abstract: Biochar (the solid co-product of biomass pyrolysis), has several agronomic benefits in soil and has a great potential as a supplemental amendment in soilless and nursery media. As biochar has a significant influence on the severity of foliar and soilborne diseases in various crops, its influence on young seedlings health and the potential mechanisms involved in the process has to be studied. This study tested i) the impact of biochar on pre-emergence damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and ii) biochar's influence on soil bacterial community composition and diversity. We found that biochar suppressed pre-emergence damping-off by up to 76%. PCR-DGGE analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed substantial differences in bacterial composition between biochar amended and control soils. Illumina sequencing revealed a significant enrichment of bacterial abundance, potentially beneficial microorganisms and shift in microbial community structure. These changes may play an important role in the overall effects of biochar on disease suppression either through direct antagonist effect towards pathogen or indirectly via induction of systemic resistance in the plant.

149-153

5.00 €

 

Effect of agricultural management on the soil and rhizosphere microbiome and its implications for soil health
Doreen Babin, Margarita Bosnak, Martin Sandmann, Jörg Geistlinger, Rita Grosch, Kornelia Smalla

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154

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Survival of Stenocarpella spp. in maize debris and soil suppressiveness to maize ear rot pathogens
Felipe Augusto Moretti Ferreira Pinto, Henrique Novaes Medeiros, Victor Biazzotto Correia Porto, Carolina da Silva Siqueira, José da Cruz Machado, Jürgen Köhl, Flávio Henrique Vasconcelos de Medeiros

Abstract: Stenocarpella species (S. maydis and S. macrospora) overwinter saprophytically in maize stubble but little is known about the factors that contribute to its survival and to the induction of suppressiveness of pathogen colonization. We aimed at determining the role of crop rotation on the survival of the pathogen and induction of specific or broad spectrum disease suppressivity. Maize fields cultivated with soybean crop rotation or maize monoculture were randomly sampled for Stenocarpella sp. detection. Stalks were sampled, DNA extracted and the pathogen quantified through qPCR. Soil from the same sampled sites was tested for suppressivity to F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and S. maydis. The crop rotation consistently contributed to the lowest Stenocarpella sp. quantification in maize stalks and also to the highest number of soils with suppressiveness to F. graminearum and F. verticillioides compared to the maize monoculture. The obtained data not only endorsed the importance of soybean crop rotation for broad spectrum control of stalk and ear rot causing pathogens but also pointed out the most promising fields to look for biocontrol agents once the suppressiveness is of biological nature.

155-159

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Involvement of rhizobacteria in Fusarium wilt suppressiveness of soil induced by Allium plants cultivation
Tomoki Nishioka, Haruhisa Suga, Masafumi Shimizu

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160

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Influence of temperature and culture media on growth, lipopeptide production and antagonistic activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Bs006
Carlos Andres Moreno Velandia, Joseph Kloepper, Marc Ongena, Laurent Franzil, Alba Marina Cotes Prado

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161

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Effects of the biological activity in the antagonistic potential of soil to Fusarium Head Blight of wheat
Fabienne Legrand, Adeline Picot, Sophie Cliquet, Georges Barbier, Olivier Cor, Gaétan Le Floch

Abstract: All soils are potentially naturally resistant or receptive to plant pathogens due to their microbial activity. In our study, we focused on the ability of agricultural soils to reduce primary inoculum of F. graminearum, the major causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight. We selected 31 wheat cultivated fields with maize as previous crop and examined soil physicochemical properties, disease symptoms in fields and mycotoxin content as well as Fusarium species present on in harvested grains. In parallel, growth of F. graminearum was evaluated in autoclaved soil samples and untreated samples incubated under controlled conditions. A significant difference was observed between the two conditions. Pathogen growth was up to 3 logs higher in autoclaved soils when compared to untreated soils. These results demonstrate a key role of soil biological activity in reducing pathogen growth. Besides, when multivariate analyses were used to correlate soil properties to the previous results, any abiotic factors seemed to have a predominant role. Our study demonstrates the key role of soil biological activity in F. graminearum repression. Further experiments are ongoing on plant model and sequencing to complete the study on soil suppressiveness.

162-166

5.00 €

 

Gaeumannomyces graminis suppression and microorganisms involved in the decline of disease in southern Chile
Paola Durán, Jacquelinne Acuna, Milko Jorquera, Sharon Viscardi, María de la Luz Mora, Orlando Andrade

Abstract: The central-south Chile produces 85% of the national cereal production. Wheat production has been affected for an important plant disease called “take-all”, which is caused by the soil borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var tritici (Ggt). Conductive soils with elevated incidence of take-all disease may develop into “suppressive” soils under wheat monoculture. Suppressive soils occur as natural phenomena that prevent or affect the pathogen establishment or disease incidence.
This study focused on the screening of suppressive soil from 16 sites located in small communities from la Araucania región where wheat monoculture was applied for more than 10 years. The disease suppression was measures under in vitro conditions. According to preliminary result we can suggest 10 putative suppressive soils which inhibit Ggt. However, a greenhouse assay and molecular studies are ongoing to confirm these results.

167-171

5.00 €

 

Toward dissecting naturally occurring soil suppressiveness to Ceratocystis paradoxa
Priscilla F. Pereira, Fernando P. Monteiro, Viviane Talamini, Eudes A. Carvalho, Luiz R. G' Guilherme, Mirian R. Faria, Monica A. Freitas, Rodolfo Teixeira, Jorge T. de Souza, Flávio Medeiros

Abstract: Stem bleeding caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa is of major concern to coconut production in tropical areas and no sustainable control measures are available. The exploitation of naturally occurring suppressive soils offers an unique opportunity to develop sustainable management practices. This study aimed at characterizing soil suppressiveness to C. paradoxa and determining the biological, chemical, and physical properties responsible for the suppression of the pathogen. Suppressiveness was evaluated by determining the percentage of banana peel baits colonised by the pathogen added to the soil samples. The five most suppressive and the five most conducive soils were contrasted to determine the nature of suppressiveness. Total culturable bacterial populations were the only biological property implicated in suppressiveness. Among the physical and chemical properties, soil pH, calcium content, sum of bases, effective cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and sand content were higher in suppressive soils. Aluminium and iron contents were higher in conducive soils. In conclusion, soil suppressiveness to C. paradoxa could not be narrowed down to a single factor, but the results of this study indicate that a combination of biological, physical, and chemical soil properties contribute to the phenomenon.

172-175

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Metagenomic analyses of soil microbiomes in a long-term organic farming experiment and its ecological implications
Guo-Chun Ding, Mohan Bai, Hui Han, Huixiu Li, Ting Xu, Ji Li

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176

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A protein derivative stimulates grapevine resistance and the natural phyllosphere microbiota against downy mildew
Michele Perazzolli, Martina Cappeletti,, Andrea Nesler, Livio Antonielli, Massimo Pindo, Gerardo Puopolo, Ilaria Pertot

Abstract: Protein derivatives can stimulate plant growth, activate plant resistance and act as nutritional substrate for phyllosphere microbial communities. A protein derivative (nutrient broth, NB) reduced downy mildew symptoms and induced the expression of defence-related genes, indicating the activation of grapevine resistance mechanisms. NB increased the number of culturable phyllosphere bacteria and altered the composition of bacterial and fungal populations residing on grapevine leaves. Modifications in the structure of phyllosphere populations caused by NB application could partially contribute to downy mildew control by competition for space or other biocontrol strategies. Modifying phyllosphere populations by increasing natural biocontrol agents with the application of microbial nutrients can open new opportunities in terms of biocontrol strategies.

178-182

5.00 €

 

Designing efficient bacterial mixtures from extreme habitats to protect crops in a cultivar-specific manner
Christin Zachow, Henry Müller, Ralf Tilcher, Gabriele Berg

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183-184

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Plant species and soil type independent rhizosphere competence and biocontrol activity of Pseudomonas jessenii RU47 under field conditions
Susanne Schreiter, Kornelia Smalla and Rita Grosch

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185

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Potential candidates for AHL-interacting proteins in plants
Abhishek Shrestha, Sebastian T. Schenk, Cassandra Hernández-Reyes, Adam Schikora

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186

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Ecology of bacterial antagonists and their complex interaction with the pathogen and the host plant rhizosphere microbiome
Tarek Elsayed, Susanne Schreiter, Guo-Chun Ding, Rita Grosch, Samuel Jehan Auguste Jacquiod, Søren Sørensen and Kornelia Smalla

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187-188

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Menaces from the plant microbiome
Leo van Overbeek

Extended abstract

189-190

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Effect of compost treatments on matched growing media and root microbiome samples in a Pythium-cucumber system
Victoria Ferguson-Kramer, Dagmar Werren, Kornelia Smalla, Maria R. Finckh, Christian Bruns

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191

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Bacterial endophytes from seeds of conifers with potential role in biocontrol: microbiome analysis
Elena Shcherbakova, Evgeniy Andronov, Andrei Shcherbakov, Vladimir Chebotar, Albert Kanarskiy

Abstract: It is well established that many forest conifers depend on associations with mycorrhizal and foliar endophytic fungi. However, our understanding of the bacterial endophytes of conifers is limited. In this work we used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. It was found that for seeds of coniferous the total number of established nucleotide sequences belonging to bacteria is low and for different samples does not exceed 100. Overall, it should be noted that at the level of phyla the dominating position was taken by representatives of the Proteobacteria (about 30-35% of the total) and Actinobacteria (30%), whereas the number of such phyla as Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria was significantly lower (1 to 5%). The most interesting results of the microbiome analysis of the seeds of conifers can be monitored at the level of families. For seeds it was found that diversity of endophytic bacteria in the composition of microbiome is low and is determined by four main families: Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae and Comamonadaceae. As a general trend, similarity is found with other microbiomes of conifers seeds with the same dominant components that are characteristic for pine and spruce seeds.

192-199

5.00 €

 

Comparative analysis of the root microbiomes of Verticillium longisporum resistant and susceptible rapeseed lines
Stefanie P. Glaeser, Christian Obermeier, Ebru A. Aydogan, Hossain Haghighi, Rod Snowdon, Peter Kämpfer

Abstract: In a first pilot study we investigated the root-microbiomes of two contrasting double haploid oilseed rape lines which were either resistant or susceptible to Verticillium longisporum infection. The two contrasting oilseed rape double haploid lines were obtained from a cross of a susceptible and a resistant parent. We hypothesized that the rapeseed lines establish specific root microbiomes which may be responsible or contribute to the resistance against V. longisporum. To get a first impression of differences in the root microbiomes of the two rapeseed lines seeds were germinated and grown for 10 days either in sand or soil. Roots were harvested to study the root microbiomes. First results indicated that the root microbiomes were strongly affected by the growth in sand or soil but also showed rapeseed line specific differences, especially after growth in sand. Interestingly, the root microbiome of the resistant rapeseed line was more diverse than that of the susceptible rapeseed line after growth in soil. Those preliminary data gave a first inside in rapeseed line specific root microbiomes. Currently running studies will further extend the understanding of the role of the rapeseed line specific microbiomes for expression of Verticillum resistance.

200-203

5.00 €

 

Linking the belowground microbial composition, diversity and activity to soilborne disease suppression and growth promotion of tomato amended with biochar
Amit K. Jaiswal, Yigal Elad, Ellen Graber, Eddie Cytryn, Omer Frenkel

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204

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Evaluation of the antifungal activity of the protein and non-protein extracts of Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates against Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary
Messgo-Moumene Saida

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205

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Use of Trichoderma spp. isolates in the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea, causal agent of gray mold of tomato Solanum lycopersicum (Mill.) in Algeria
Messgo-Moumene Saida

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206

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Testing the efficiency of some fungal isolates and bacteria in the inhibition of the growth of some of the causative fungi of root rots of grains and legumes
Omran Youssef

Extended abstract

207-208

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Antifungal activity of a Moroccan plant extract against pathogenic fungi Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of Net Blotch of barley
Karima Taibi, Fatiha Bentata, Labhilili Mustapha, Ilyass Maafa, Fatima Ezzehra El Alaoui-Faris, Aicha El Aissami

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209

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Analysing the bioactive potential of the endomicrobiome of New Zealand’s medicinal plant Pseudowintera colorata
Neeraj Purushotham, Hayley Ridgway, Eirian Jones, Jana Monk

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210

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Long term (in)stability of vegetative incompatibility type diversity and hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica populations
Marin Ježić, Jelena Mlinarec Novosel, Lucija Nuskern, Mirta Tkalec, Zorana Katanić, Rosemary Vuković, Ljiljana Krstin, Igor Poljak, Marilena Idžojtić, Mirna Ćurković-Perica

Extended abstract

211-213

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Plant endophytes in tomato studied by omic techniques
Alessandro Bergna, Christin Zachow, Gabriele Berg

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214

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Contribution to the study of the biological activity of Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae) on phytopathogenic fungi
K. Taibi, I. Maafa, H. Hajji, F. Bentata, M. Labhilili , F. E. El Alaoui Faris, A. El Aissami

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215

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Combining cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to select effective bacterial biocontrol agents
Alessandro Passera, Giovanni Venturini, Paola Casati, Fabio Quaglino, Piero Bianco

Abstract: In previous studies, we performed cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to describe the microbiome in healthy, Flavescence dorée-diseased or -recovered grapevine plants to identify putative biocontrol agents. Obtained results allowed the identification of two strains, colonizing exclusively healthy and recovered plants, that we tested for in vitro biocontrol activity. Both strain R8 (Burkholderia sp.) and R16 (Paenibacillus pasadenensis) demonstrated to control the growth of fungal pathogens of grapevine such as Botrytis cinerea and Phomopsis viticola. Further studies are planned to determine the strains' efficacy against other pathogens, including phytoplasma, and effective in planta biocontrol activity.

216-219

5.00 €

 

The grapevine phyllosphere as potential source for BCAs against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)
Christina Morauf, Christin Zachow, Henry Müller, Christina Donat, Marc Lemmens, Gabriele Berg

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220

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Taking a look at the inside of trees, does irrigation water quality have an effect on fungal endophytes in Citrus sinensis (orange) trees?
Maayan Grinberg-Baran, Lior Blank, Yigal Elad, Stefan J. Green, David Ezra

Abstract: Water has always been a resource in absence in the Middle East. Water for agriculture, of different origins and quality is used in the Israeli orchards. One of the major water resources for citrus orchards in Israel is treated waste water. Long term irrigation with waste water influence trees health and appearance. It is clear that the water quality plays a major role in the trees health as well as fruit quality and quantity. Many possible explanations for the trees deterioration have been suggested, among them soil physical character changes, plants root damage and root associated microbial community changes. We suggested another, different approach, claiming that high concentrations of solubles in the treated water are changing the endophytes communities in the tree tissues. These changes cause the loss of beneficial endophytes aiding the trees. We have sampled trees from two orange orchards different only by the water used for their irrigation. Both orchards are of the same citrus variety and stock, planted on the same type of soil and climatic area. Fungal endophytic communities among samples from the two watering were compared using two methods; by isolation of fungi from the different tissues and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Samples were collected from roots, branches and leaves at summer, fall, winter and spring. All samples (72 samples) were used for fungal endophytes isolation and total DNA extraction. Phenotypic characterization and ITS identification were done to isolates from the different samples. Deep sequencing of all samples was performed by amplification of a 28S rRNA LSU sequence (LROR/LR3) of the fungal endophytic communities. Data was generated by MiSeq technology analysed using QIIME program. Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) was used for taxa identification. Differences between the methods used, and among samples and treatments in fungal composition are observed. Demonstration of these differences, with emphasis on root tissue is presented.

221-225

5.00 €

 

Comparison of different inoculum methods for infection with Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum
Sneha Gulati, Rita Grosch, Max-Bernhard Ballhausen

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226

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Involvement of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN sigma factors in reducing disease susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana against a Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 virulent strain
Raúl Donoso, Tania Timmermann, Bernardo González, Thomas Ledger

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227

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Biocontrol potential and efficiency compared of one medicinal plant on the major pathogens of cereals and legumes
Fatiha Bentata, Aicha El Aissami, Mohamed Benchacho, Hajar El Ghiati, Ilyass Maafa, Younes Ghaouti, Jamila Bouarda, Naima Essaouaadi, Jamal Ibijbijen, Mustapha Labhilili

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228

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In vitro evaluation of the impact of four Moroccan medicinal plants on five phytopathogenic fungi
Hadda Hajji, I. Maafa, K. Taibi, F. Bentata, M. Labhilili, E. Abdennebi, A. El Aissami

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229

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Elucidating the etiology of apple replant disease: a microbial ecology approach
Alicia Balbín-Suárez, Felix Mahnkopp, Traud Winkelmann, Kornelia Smalla

Extended abstract

230-232

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Controlling the root microbiome by soil management and break crops
Susanne Schreiter, Sally Hilton, Tim H. Mauchline, Christopher van der Gast, Ian M. Clark, Penny Hirsch, Gary Bending

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233

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Fluorescent pseudomonads for joint disease and pest control: just a dream or a real perspective?
Monika Maurhofer, Pascale Flury, Nicola Imperiali, Pilar Vesga, Beat Ruffner, Peter Kupferschmied, Maria Péchy-Tarr, Geoffrey Jaffuel, Francesca Dennert, Tobias Löser, Celine Terrettaz, Nora Aellen, Jana Schneider, Guido Bloemberg, Ted Turlings, Monica Höfte, Christoph Keel

Extended abstract

235-237

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Identification and characterization of volatile organic compounds active against barley pathogens
Caroline De Clerck, Amine Kaddes, Marie Fiers, Lucie Jallais, Olivier Parisi, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Sébastien Massart, M. Haissam Jijakli

Abstract: Barley is threatened by various edaphic fungal diseases. Today, since most of the chemicals used for crop protection are being forbidden, there is a growing need of sustainable ways to control these diseases. In this paper, the volatile interactions that take place below ground between barley roots and two pathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum were investigated and the effect of fungal volatiles on barley growth and the effect of barley root volatiles on fungal growth were evaluated by cultivating both organisms in a shared atmosphere without any physical contact. We show that the blend of VOCs emitted by infected barley roots decreased C. sativus growth by 13 to 17% while having no significant effect on F. culmorum. Methyl acrylate and methyl propionate were afterwards identified as the two molecules of the blend responsible for the growth reduction observed. The efficiency of these organic esters on a large panel of pathogens was tested and complete growth inhibition was obtained for five of them. Our results open promising perspectives concerning the biological control of edaphic diseases.

238-241

5.00 €

 

Differential antagonism of individual isolates and mixtures of yeasts against Fusarium and Trichoderma
Florian Freimoser, Maja Hilber-Bodmer

Abstract: The soil microbiome comprises a plethora of tritagonists that can influence the antagonist-pathogen-plant interaction in many ways. Instead of screening for the strongest antagonist, we sought to identify yeasts that differentially suppress soilborne pathogens of the genus Fusarium and beneficial fungi of the genus Trichoderma in order to improve the biological control of fungal pathogens. We quantified the antagonistic/agonistic activity of 40 yeast isolates against two Fusarium and three Trichoderma isolates, respectively. This screen identified a broad range of antagonistic activities and a positive correlation between the antagonism of yeasts against Fusarium and Trichoderma. Combining the six yeasts with the least effect on Trichoderma did not change the response against Trichoderma, but the mixture suppressed Fusarium more strongly than any of the six yeasts did when tested alone. This proof-of-concept experiment indicated that combinations of yeasts may exhibit altered, improved activities for the biological control of soilborne fungal pathogens as compared to single isolates. Mixtures of weakly antagonistic, inactive, or even agonistic microorganisms may thus provide a novel strategy for the biological control of the soilborne pathogen Fusarium.

242-246

5.00 €

 

New formulations for Candida sake CPA-1 with biodegradable coatings to improve their survival and efficacy under stress conditions
Anna Carbó, Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Cristina Solsona, Elena Costa, Neus Teixidó

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247

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Screening criteria for the development of biocontrol products for control of plant diseases
Jürgen Köhl, Lina Russ

Abstract: Commercial biological control products for the use against plant diseases have to fulfil a broad range of requirements. Besides their efficacy against the targeted plant pathogens major requirements concern the ecological, toxicological and eco-toxicological characteristics of the used antagonists. Consequently, a broad range of criteria has to be considered during the selection of new antagonists. Screening programs can use a stepwise approach to exclude unwanted candidates in an early stage. The antagonists selected with such a screening strategy fulfilling all the major criteria will combine suitable characteristics for registration and marketing as commercial biocontrol products.

248-251

5.00 €

 

Trichome O-acyl sugars protects N. attenuata against both native fungal pathogens and a specialist herbivore
Van Thi Luu

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252-253

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Seed treatment with biological control agents against Verticillium wilt in oilseed rape
Daria Rybakova, Maria Schmuck, Riccardo Mancinelli, Gabriele Berg

Abstract: Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium spp. is difficult to suppress and results in severe yield losses in a broad range of crops including oilseed rape (OSR) and cauliflower. The objective of the study was to develop a sustainable seed treatment that will protect oilseed rape and Brassica vegetables from Verticillium wilt. Preselected Serratia and Paenibacillus isolates showing antagonistic properties against fungal pathogens were compared for their plant growth-promoting (PGP) potential under a range of plant growth conditions. Serratia treatment resulted in a variety of levels of PGP, while Paenibacillus strains damaged roots of the seedlings under gnotobiotic soil free conditions. The selected strains from each genus, S. plymuthica 3RP8 and P. polymyxa Sb3-1, were tested for their PGP potential under sterile and non-sterile soil conditions. P. polymyxa Sb3-1 did not have a significant effect on plant growth in non-sterile soil; however it did promote plant growth in sterile soil. S. plymuthica 3RP8 had a mild non-significant PGP effect on the seedlings in gnotobiotic soil-free conditions and in unsterile soil. Similarly to the P. polymyxa Sb3-1, HRO-C48 significantly increased the weight of the OSR seedlings in sterile soil. This indicated that the choice of growth environments is crucial for the investigation of plant-bacterium interaction. In order to study the biocontrol efficacy of P. polymyxa Sb3-1, it was applied to the seeds of OSR in two different concentrations. The resulting one week old seedlings were infested with V. longisporum EVL25 using a root dipping method. Both treatments induced a significant increase in the lengths of the seedlings, however no significant reduction of disease was observed. The treatments with S. plymuthica 3RP8 did not result in any significant improvement in the seedlings’ health. The field trials and screening for new antagonistic isolates are ongoing.

254-257

5.00 €

 

Plant disease control by metabolites of fatty acids in bacteria
Katsuya Ohno, Hiroko Takagi, Kumiko Takada, Toru Nakai

Abstract: Various metabolites of lipids produced by some bacteria from vegetable oil were shown to control bacterial and fungal plant disease, respectively. We focused on fatty acids produced as metabolites in culture. Cucumber plants were treated with supernatant (metabolite), water (as control), 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (TPN), sorbitan fatty acid ester (PS) or potassium bicarbonate (PBC) and inoculated with Botrytis cinerea. In control, PS and PBC treatments symptoms of browning or holes were observed on each leaf. In treatments with the supernatant and TPN no remarkable symptoms were observed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, roots were treated with the supernatant, medium and control (water) and Erwinia carotovora was inoculated on above-ground parts of the plants. The treatment with each concentration of supernatant reduced the diseased foliage area by 71.4 to 93.0% compared to the control (water). These results indicated that the mechanism of disease control by metabolites from fatty acids was induced systemic resistance.

258-260

5.00 €

 

Sulphur-containing volatiles: new weapons in the fight against plant diseases
Aurélien Bailly, Mout De Vrieze, Aurélie Gfeller, Laure Weisskopf

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261

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Biological control of the date palm tree borers, Oryctes spp.
Mohammed Khalaf, Hussain Alrubeai

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262

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Combined control of Locusta migratoria manilensis by dissemination of Metarhizium anisopliae using Carabus smaragdinus as the vector
Xinghu Qin, Zehua Zhang

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263

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Bacteria and bacteriophages based biocontrol product against SRE in potato tubers
Tomasz Maciąg, Robert Czajkowski, Dorota Krzyżanowska, Joanna Siwińska, Sylwia Jafra

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264

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N-acyl-homoserine lactones play an important role in the biological activities of the endofungal bacterium Rhizobium radiobacter RrF4
Ibrahim Alabid, Jafargholi Imani, Stefanie Glaeser, Elke Stein, Dan Li, Michael Rothballer, Anton Hartmann, Karl-Heinz Kogel

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265

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Efficacy of postharvest treatments by nebulisation of biological control organisms against Botrytis cinerea fruit rot on pear
Tanja Vanwalleghem, Donald Dekeyser, David Nuyttens, Alemayehu Ambaw Tsige, Pieter Verboven, Wendy Van Hemelrijck, Dany Bylemans

Abstract: Storage diseases of pome fruits are caused by different fungal species. Disease management to control storage diseases includes several treatments with different fungicides in the weeks prior to harvest. However, residues on fruits become more and more a public and governmental concern. In order to reduce the chemical residue on fruits to a minimum, more research is done on alternative disease management. In this respect, in 2013, a project on ‘Nebulisation of biological control organisms in cold storage rooms to control storage diseases’, which is funded by Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship (vlaio), has started at the pcfruit institute in collaboration with ILVO and the Catholic University of Leuven. Here the efficacy of several biological control organisms (BCOs), which were applied through specific atomization in the cold storage room, was examined against storage diseases. Two groups of fungal pathogens causing storage diseases were monitored. The first comprises the latent fruit rot pathogen, Neofabraea spp. The second are the wound pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia spp., Penicillium spp.) that penetrate the fruits through accidental wounds, for example during picking. However, not only the efficacy of the BCOs is important but also the homogeneous distribution of the compounds in the cold storage room. The results of these trials will be presented.

266-270

5.00 €

 

Control of Plasmodiophora brassicae by combining antagonists, organic amendments, and cultivation practices
Matthias Lutz, Jürgen Krauss, Brigitte Baur, Reto Neuweiler

Abstract: Plasmodiophora brassicae is a common threat to vegetables of the Brassicaceae family. Recent research has shown that Trichoderma ssp. are potential antagonists of P. brassicae. Furthermore, ridge cultivation and the use of chitin-based fertilizers are potentially able to reduce the disease. In order to control the disease different control measures and their combination were evaluated in a pot and a field experiment. In a first step different biocontrol agents (Trichoderma spp., and Bacillus spp.) were tested alone and in combination with Biosol (chitin) in a pot experiment in the greenhouse using naturally clubroot infested soil. In this experiment, a synergistic effect between antagonists and chitin-based fertilizer was observed. Of the best performing biocontrol strain, one strain was selected for the field experiment. The field experiment was conducted in a naturally heavily clubroot infested soil. The application of antagonists, application of a chitin-based fertilizer, and the cultivation on ridges were tested alone and in all possible combinations. All control measures reduced the disease, where ridge cultivation had the most disease suppressive effects. Additional disease suppression by combined measures was observed. To control clubroot it is worthwhile to combine different preventive control measures.

271-275

5.00 €

 

Search for microorganisms which can disrupt communication between plant pathogenic bacteria causing hairy roots disease in greenhouse vegetables
Marta Streminska, Ineke Stijger

Abstract: Hairy roots disease is an important problem in cultivation of greenhouse vegetables (tomato, aubergine and cucumber). Infection is caused by rhizogenic bacteria from Agrobacterium/Rhizobium group. It has been shown that infection process is regulated by environmental factors and quorum sensing mechanism. Rhizogenic bacteria produce acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) as signal molecules, which enable cell-to-cell communication. Disruption of this communication process will most likely lead to lower infection and symptoms. There are several possible routes of quorum quenching. One of them is degradation of pathogenic bacteria’s signal molecules by other microorganisms present in the root environment. Bacteria capable of AHL degradation were previously isolated from natural environment such as soil and water. In this research AHL degrading bacteria were successfully isolated from greenhouse growing substrate rockwool. Application of these micro-organisms in greenhouse practice is also discussed.

276-280

5.00 €

 

Are Sphagnum-species potential antagonists of pathogens?
Riina Muilu-Mäkelä, Anu-Teija Kuovi, Tuuli Aro, Jenni Tienaho, Niko Silvan, Robert Franzen, Matti Karp, Tytti Sarjala

Abstract: Bryophytes (nonvascular plants such as mosses and ferns) are considered as promising sources of antibiotics and biologically active compounds in nature. Mosses, especially the Sphagnum species, constitute a large part of photosynthesizing biomass in Northern Hemisphere and they serve as bioeconomically important but rarely used resource. The widespread Sphagnum magellanicum was used as a model species to investigate antioxidative capacity and antagonistic properties of Sphagnum moss. Two different bacterial biosensor strains (S. aureus 8325-4/pAT19-luxABCDE-hlaPr-frp and E. coli K-12/pCGLS-1) were used to evaluate the effect of alive S. magellanicum on growth of bacteria. Furthermore, extracellular peroxidase was shown to be activated with chitosan treatment (fungal cell wall component). The results indicated antagonistic potential of Sphagnum against bacteria and fungi.

281-286

5.00 €

 

Extremophile plants as source of biopesticides against European damageable plant pathogens
Sofiene Ben Kaab, Olivier Parisi, Riadh Ksouri, Haissam Jijakli

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287-288

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In vitro control of Mycosphaerella arachidis Deighton, the early leaf spot disease pathogen of groundnut, by extracts from six medicinal plants
Matthew Omoniyi Adebola, Jude E. Amadi

Abstract: Ground nut (aArachis hypogaea) is one of the most popular commercial crops in Nigeria. Its successful production has been drastically affected by early leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella arachidis Deighton. In vitro control of the pathogen by six medicinal plants (Entada africana, Vitex doniana, Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica, Acalypha hispida and Nuaclea latifolia) was assessed in this study. The extracts of the plants were prepared using cold and hot water and alcohol. The pathogen was isolated from ground nut infected with early leaf spot disease. The results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in yield of extracts between cold water, hot water and alcohol extracts. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in percentage concentrations of the various phytochemical constituents present in the extracts. Flavonoids percentage concentration was the highest (0.68-1.95%) followed by saponin (0.09-1.53%) in N. latifolia extracts. Steroiods had the lowest percentage concentrations (0.00-0.09%) followed by terpenoids (0.02-0.71%) and proanthocyannin (0.05-0.86%). N. latifolia extracts produced the highest percentage concentrations (0.07-1.95%) of all the phytochemicals followed by A. indica (0.05-1.64%) and lowest concentrations were obtained in A. hispidia (0.09-0.87%) and V. doniana (0.00-0.88%). The extracts inhibited spore germination and growth of M. arachidis. The inhibition by alcohol extracts was high and significantly different (P > 0.05) from cold and hot water extracts. Alcohol extract of L. inermis gave 100% spore germination inhibition followed by N. latifolia and A.indica with 97.75% and 85.60% inhibition, respectively. Therefore, field trials with these six medicinal plants on the control of early leaf spot disease of ground nut are recommended.

289-293

5.00 €

 

Biological efficiency of polyethylene plastics and Idefix (65.6% cupric hydroxide) injection against tomato bacterial leaf spot (Ralstonia solanacearum) and their effects on soil microorganisms in Burkina Faso
G. Kambou, S. A. Hema, H. Boro, L. Ouedraogo

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294

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Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN confers grapevine resistance against Botrytis cinerea by a better ressource mobilization rather than a direct antimicrobial effect
Lidiane Miotto, Cedric Jacquard, Christophe Clement, Essaid Ait Barka, Lisa Sanchez

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295

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Effect of nettle manure and bio-compost extracts on in vitro and in vivo mycelial growth on Botrytis cinerea, causative agent of grey mold
Meriem Louanchi, Massinissa Hammad, Louiza Abdellaoui, Mohamed Ouslimane Louaguenouni

No abstract

296-297

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Replacing chemical seed treatments by a tailored mixture of microbial strains to secure germination of Styrian Oil Pumpkin
Eveline Adam, Henry Müller, Johanna Winkler, Gabriele Berg

Abstract only

298

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Resistance management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) by recombinant Cry1Ac – entomocidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis
Jigar V. Shah, Sanjay S. Ingle

Abstract only

299

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Dynamics of signaling and signal perception in microbe – host interactions
Anton Hartmann

Abstract: To better understand beneficial interactions of rhizobacteria with plants, it is necessary to include widely distributed small molecules, which modulate the primary microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered innate immune response of plants. Besides signaling molecules affecting phytohormone regulons or other secondary metabolites with e.g. antibiotic activities, N-acyl homoserine lactones, which are widely found in Gram-negative bacteria as quorum sensing compounds, have profound effects on plant development and systemic resistance.

301-304

5.00 €

 

Between field trials and large scale field application – the registration process for biocontrol products and its challenges
Christina Donat

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305

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MIP diversity from Trichoderma harzianum, and transcriptional regulation during its mycoparasitic association with Fusarium solani in olive trees
Maroua Ben Amira, Ali Khouaja, Hatem Chaar, Mohamed Ali Triki, Nicole Brunel-Michac, Valérie Pujade-Renaud, Jean-Louis Julien, Daniel Auguin, Jean-Stéphane Venisse

Abstract only

306

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Screening of rhizospheric petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria
Amel Hassan

Abstract only

307

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Evaluation of antagonistic mixtures to control Neofusicoccum australe and Diplodia seriata on grapevine pruning wounds
Valeria Arriagada, Luz M. Pérez, Mauricio Ramírez, Javiera Molina, Jaime R. Montealegre

Abstract only

308

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Biocontrol microorganisms of Botryosphaeria spp. elicit defense and growth promotion in vine seedlings
Luz M. Pérez, Valeria Arriagada, Mauricio Ramírez, Javiera Molina, Jaime R. Montealegre

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309

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Characterization and biocontrol properties of Lactuca sativa rhizosphere microbiota in an aquaponic system
Gilles Stouvenakers, Sébastien Massart, M. Haïssam Jijakli

Abstract only

310

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Repeated applications of a non-pathogenic Streptomyces strain enhance the development of soil suppressiveness to potato common scab
Lea Hiltunen, Jani Kelloniemi, Jari Valkonen

Abstract only

311

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Attitudes of farmers towards biological control principles in Lublin
Talal Saeed Hameed, Barbara Sawicka

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312

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Biological control against the Fusarium wilt of pea (Pisum sativum) using non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum
Aoumria Merzoug, F. Benfreha, L. Belabid

Abstract only

313

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Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and Striga hermonthica seed bank size on parasitism and growth of sorghum
Suha Hassan Ahmed, Migdam Elsheikh Abdelgani, Abdel Gabar El Tayeb Babiker

Abstract only

314

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Screening and evaluation of chitosan from different sources for the control of yam anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc.
Jofil Mati-Om

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315

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Endophytic plant growth-promoting bacterium Kosakonia radicincitans: An integrated fermentation and formulation
Fredy Mauricio Cruz Barrera, Desiree Jakobs-Schönwandt, Matthias Becker, Beatrice Berger, Silke Ruppel, Anant Patel, Kristin Dietel, Helmut Junge

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316

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Development of application protocols for BCAs against soil-borne diseases is a top priority research need from practice: Recommendations of the EIP-AGRI Focus Group on soil-borne diseases
Soraya França, Jane Debode, Ilaria Pertot

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317

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Measuring gene expression levels in the plant-associated bacterium Ochrobactrum sp. A44 – an RT-qPCR based assay for monocultures and complex samples
Dorota Krzyzanowska, Anna Supernat, Tomasz Maciag, Sylwia Jafra

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318

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Screening of oilseed rape endophytes for biocontrol of Phoma stem canker and Sclerotinia stem rot
Christoph Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Petra Lovecká, Tomáš Frantík, Miroslav Vosatka

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319-320

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The Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) transcriptome during interaction with the host plant Lactuca sativa
Bart Verwaaijen, Daniel Wibberg, Magdalena Kröber, Anika Winkler, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Rita Grosch, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter

Abstract only

321-322

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Sense and nonsense of the data requirement for secondary metabolites of microbial biocontrol agents (mBCAs)
Frank de Jong, Jacqueline Scheepmaker

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323

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Management of southern corn leaf blight via induction of systemic resistance by Bacillus cereus C1L in combination with reduced use of dithiocarbamate fungicides
Chien-Jui Huang, Yi-Ru Lai, Pei-Yu in, Chao-Ying Chen

Abstract only

324

0.00 €

 
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