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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 118, 2016

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 118, 2016

Working Group "Integrated Protection in Field Vegetables".
Proceedings of the Meeting at Pflanzenschutzdienst Hamburg (Germany), 04 - 07 October, 2015.
Edited by Richard Meadow.
ISBN 978-92-9067-302-6 [V + 119 pp] 

 

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Effect of crop cover netting on pests and their natural enemies in Brussels sprouts and impact of oilseed rape
Martin Ludwig, Rainer Meyhöfer

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1

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Influence of soil moisture and type on entomopathogenic nematode and predatory mite performance in cabbage root fly control
Malaika Herbst, Martin Hommes

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2

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The occurrence of the carrot psyllid in Germany
Martin Hommes, Holger Buck

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3

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Digital pest monitoring in cole crops (Brassica oleracea)
Nelli Rempe-Vespermann, Martin Hommes

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4-5

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Leaf miners in field vegetables – a rising concern?
Andreas Willhauck, Martin Hommes

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6

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Management of overwintering white flies (Aleyrodes proletella, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
in kale (Brassica oleracea convar. acephala var. sabellica L.)

Ute Vogler, Luzian Messmer, Dominique Mazzi

Abstract: White flies Aleyrodes proletella (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are serious insect pests
of vegetable brassica crops. Harvested products showing damage from white flies fail to meet
quality standards, and are thus unmarketable. In spite of the availability of effective
insecticides, growers struggle to contain white flies in overwintering vegetable brassica crops
such as kale (Brassica oleracea convar. acephala var. sabellica L.). As the cultivation of kale
increases, so does the demand for management solutions, also because kale provides an
overwintering habitat to white flies and hence a reservoir endangering newly planted crops in
the following season. We investigated the effectiveness of late insecticide treatments in kale
and colonization success of overwintered white flies in comparison to white flies without
overwintering stimulus. We evaluated the efficacy of late-season insecticide treatments in the
field in two vegetable brassica crops with different plant architecture, savoy cabbage
(Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.) and kale. The tested products differed in
their effectiveness in protecting the two crops, in terms of the recovered number of eggs and
larvae of white flies.
To study colonization of vegetable brassica crops early in the growing season, we
performed a greenhouse experiment and took morphological measurements. Field-collected
white flies reared through the winter on kale under greenhouse conditions (without
overwintering stimulus) and white flies exposed to typical winter weather conditions in the
field (with overwintering stimulus) were compared with respect to their ability to colonize
newly planted kale plants. Additionally, we measured the white flies’ forewing and abdomen
size. White flies with and without overwintering stimulus differed in their colonization
success measured in terms of the number of eggs laid and hatching larvae, as well as in their
morphology.

7-14

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Combining crop resistance and trap plants for cabbage whitefly control
Peter Hondelmann, Christina Paul, Rainer Meyhöfer

Abstract: The cabbage whitefly Aleyrodes proletella L. is a serious pest of cabbage varieties
such as Brussels sprouts or kale. As part of a BLE-funded BÖLN joint research project for
integrated management of the cabbage whitefly, a combined approach using two Brussels
sprouts cultivars with increased resistance in combination with trap cropping was evaluated,
because earlier results showed that plant resistance alone seems not to offer sufficient pest
control potential. First the attractiveness of several potential trap plant species and different
cultivars was investigated, followed by a field experiment with selected trap plants in a
perimeter enclosing Brussels sprouts plots. The results of greenhouse experiments indicated
that especially Brassica-crops such as marrow-stem kale (Brassica oleracea var. medullosa),
Savoy cabbage (B. oleracea var. sabauda), or kale (B. oleracea var. sabellica), were preferred
by adult whiteflies. Therefore in 2015 a field trial with marrow-stem kale and Savoy cabbage
as trap plants was completed, where marrow-stem kale performed better in reducing the
infestation of Brussels sprouts with cabbage whitefly especially during the early cropping
period. In conclusion, host plant resistance and trap plants offer a perspective to cabbage
whitefly control, but only bringing together successful elements of different pest management
tactics to a holistic approach might finally offer a reliable integrated pest management
strategy.

15-21

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Phenology and flower visitors of selected plant species with special respect
to predators of the cabbage whitefly

Sebastian Laurenz, Rainer Meyhöfer

Abstract: Floral resources represent essential nutrition for many natural enemies of important
arthropod pests. However, they suffer severely from the lack of suitable flowering plants in
modern agricultural landscapes in Central Europe and other parts of the world. This study
investigated flower phenology and flower visitation by natural predators of the cabbage
whitefly, Aleyrodes proletella, on selected flowering plants in order to find candidates for a
tailored flower strip to improve whitefly pest control. Results show that Lobularia maritima
was one of the first plants that started flowering, kept flowering for the entire growing season
and, together with Anethum graveolens, covered the largest area with its flowers. Zoophagous
hoverflies visited all evaluated plant species, but most tended to be found on Berteroa incana,
Fagopyrum esculentum and Ammi majus. Ladybeetles preferred flowers of An. graveolens
and visited them at least 4.7 times more frequently than any other flowers. Adult lacewings
were abundant in low numbers, but only on Am. majus, L. maritima, B. incana and F.
esculentum. Sampled zoophagous hoverflies, ladybeetles and lacewings were identified and
the species composition for each plant is presented. Several plants have shown to possess
promising properties in terms of flower phenology or promotion of different predatory groups.
However, actual effects of these plants (individually and implemented in a tailored flower
strip) on predator, A. proletella and other cabbage pest populations needs to be investigated in
future research.

22-29

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Opportunities and challenges in predicting local migration dynamics
of cabbage whitefly Aleyrodes proletella – a preliminary evaluation

Ann-Christin Schuldreich, Paula R. Westerman, Gunnar Hirthe, Kai-Uwe Katroschan

Abstract: From the early 2000s onwards, the cabbage whitefly Aleyrodes proletella has
become a serious problem in the production of brassica vegetables throughout Germany. The
increase in rapeseed production area offers attractive hibernation habitats and can therefore be
considered as one possible reason for the growing relevance of A. proletella as pest insect.
Detailed knowledge on the regional migration behavior of the cabbage whitefly is of
particular importance for the development of prediction models and the successful
implementation of plant protection strategies. In order to investigate the temporal migration
dynamics, a quantitative monitoring of A. proletella was carried out in four conventional
rapeseed fields located in North-Eastern Germany from April to October 2014. Population
development and flight activity were assessed during the entire growing season. The study
revealed that whitefly migration is characterised by a seasonal pattern with distinct emigration
peaks. Contrary to our initial assumption, whitefly migration was still ongoing after rapeseed
harvest. Preliminary observations indicate that up-scaling local data from individual fields to
landscape level as well as field management after rapeseed harvest are key uncertainties in
forecasting whitefly migration into brassica vegetable crops.

30-36

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Improving mass rearing systems for micro-hymenoptera: Case studies with Diaeretiella rapae and Encarsia tricolor
Mónica María Zamora-Carrillo, Rainer Meyhöfer

Abstract: The improvement of the quality of rearing systems can enhance the efficiency of biological control agents. Diaeretiella rapae M´Intosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and Encarsia tricolor Förster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are present on crops under open field conditions but their efficiency is not enough to maintain pests below the economic injury level. In order to improve the quality of the rearing systems of both parasitoids, we evaluated the effect of three host plants: Broccoli var. Marathon F1, Brussels sprouts var. Hilds Ideal and Cauliflower var. Freemont; two architectures of the plant: with and without pruning and two sizes of cages: 0.21 m3 and 0.023 m3. The production of mummies per plant and longevity of the parasitoids were measured among other variables. In the first experiment, the number of mummies of D. rapae and E. tricolor were significantly higher on broccoli as host plant as compared to other treatments by 169% and 138%, respectively. In the second experiment, the number of mummies of D. rapae and E. tricolor were higher in the treatment with pruning as compared to the control by 41.63% and 95%, respectively. Pruning also increased longevity of D. rapae and E. tricolor by 55% and 200%, respectively. In the last experiments, the number of mummies of D. rapae and E. tricolor were an 18.5% and 40.7%, respectively higher in the large cages than in the small ones. Additionally, large cages increased longevity of E. tricolor by 51.6%. The selected treatments also had positive effect in other quality criteria, such as: herbivore size, lifespan of banker plants, reduction of incidence of powdery mildew and adaptation in field. In conclusion, the use of pruned broccoli plants, in large cages substantially improved the quality of both rearing systems.

37-45

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Searching IPM control measures for cabbage and turnip root flies on swedes
Anne Nissinen, Lauri Jauhiainen

Abstract: In field experiments 2012-2013 different control measures against cabbage root flies (Delia spp.) were tested on swede. In addition to the chemical control program of the farm, insect net, GF-120 fruit fly bait and Steinernema feltiae nematodes in two concentrations were tested. Control plots were not totally untreated: to ensure the survival of the seedlings from the early flea beetle attack the control plots were treated with pyrethroids in the beginning of the season. Row-column design was used to manage the possible two-dimensional variation within the experimental field. In October, all the swedes were harvested in the middle of each plot (3 × 2 row meters), washed, weighted, and evaluated for root fly damage. Insect net was clearly the most effective method to reduce root fly damage in swedes. The probability for root fly damage was lowest under insect net in both years (11.6% and 1.3%) whereas with other methods it varied between 20 to 40%.

46-51

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Overwintering of Helicoverpa armigera in Austria
Anna Moyses, Andreas Kahrer

Abstract: There is no information about the overwintering survival of the important agricultural pest insect Helicoverpa armigera in Austria, therefore experiments were conducted. Testing the effect of constant negative temperatures in laboratory on diapausing pupae of the cotton bollworm revealed that pupae survive temperatures of -10 °C for about 12 days maximally and they endure an exposure to 0 °C for about 180 days at most. Moreover experiments, in which Helicoverpa pupae were exposed to outdoor winter conditions, demonstrated, that Helicoverpa armigera is able to survive temperatures of the last two winter seasons in Austria. In the winter 2013/2014 in Ramingstein, Zwettl and Mönichkirchen mortality rates never reached the 30% mark, whereas nearly 100% of the pupae overwintered successfully in Vienna. In the last winter season mortality rate in Zwettl and Mönichkirchen was again very low, in contrast to the location at the Rax Mountain, where 100% of overwintering pupae died. Furthermore testing cold adaptation of overwintering pupae showed that pupae are less sensitive to cold at the beginning of exposure to outdoor low temperatures than at the end of winter season. Sublethal effects or terminating diapause could be the reasons for this increasing mortality rate.

52-55

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Insect pests in asparagus; IPM perspectives!
Klaas van Rozen and Hilfred Huiting

Abstract: Resulting from Directive 2009/128/EC, all EU Member States have to comply with stricter guidelines regarding Integrated Pest Management before 2023. As implementation of IPM measures and strategies has a high perceived risk, demonstration of and discussion on possibilities may be a key element in reducing the risk perception. Together with Dutch asparagus growers and chain partners, WUR and Aceera initiated a grower’s network to examine and discuss pest status and possible risk of a number of insect pests in asparagus, and possible IPM solutions. Such networks are a Dutch government initiative, aiming at improved knowledge transfer from (applied) science to several crop sectors. In the asparagus network insect pest species were determined; pest status was estimated, simultaneously assessing the growers´ knowledge of the species. Subsequently a species specific approach was formulated and tested. Control strategy of the asparagus fly (Plioreocepta poeciloptera Schrank) was focused on a monitoring system, which was developed and validated by Applied Plant Research in 2012-2015. The presence and population pressure of the flies was determined in cooperation with farmers based on sticky trap catches. The asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi Linnaeus) was mainly controlled by all kinds of mechanical technics and natural enemies. This publication presents the outcome of this network with the new goals of the EU as background, that make implementation of new control methods necessary.

56-60

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Carrot psyllid – Swedish experience in practical farming and trials
Sara Ragnarsson, Mariann Wikström, and Rolf Stegmark

Abstract: The carrot psyllid, Trioza apicalis, is a pest of carrots in northern and central Europe but it has so far mainly been a problem in Norway, Finland and Sweden. The psyllid is a major pest in Swedish carrot production and reduces both yield and quality of the carrots.
The new legislation on Integrated Pest Management is introduced at the same time as the problems with the carrot psyllid are increasing and the possibilities to control the psyllid chemically are reduced. Hence there is a need to initiate research into new means of both chemical and alternative control. Chemical control in practical farming is mainly based on pyrethroids (Karate 2.5 WG and Mavrik 2F). Because the number of applications with these products are limited, seed treatment with thiamethoxam (Cruiser) and spraying with different systemic insecticides have been tested. For organic production and IPM concepts parrafin oil and plant extracts are included in one trial. Different substances are tested alone, in strategies and in IPM concepts.
Strategies that alternate pyrethroids and systemic insecticide show very good results on leaf curling, leaf discoloration and yield.

61-67

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Implementation of Integrated Pest Management by vegetable and salad growers in the UK
Rosemary Collier, Andrew Jukes, Spencer Collins

Abstract: In the UK, vegetable and salad crops are grown outdoors throughout the year, their seasonality dependent mainly on the ability of the crop to withstand low temperatures in winter. These crops are subject to infestation by a range of pests, most of which have caused concern for growers for many years. Control of pest insects on outdoor vegetable and salad crops in the UK is highly reliant on insecticides and growers are fortunate that they continue to have access to a range of insecticides with different modes of action. Even so, some pests and/or the viruses they transmit are difficult to manage with the tools available at present and for some species a very limited range of modes of action are available. Despite the potential availability of different modes of action, pyrethroid insecticides are used widely and it is of concern that incidences of pyrethroid resistance in pest species are increasing. The selection pressure from use of pyrethroids, and potentially other insecticide groups, is exacerbated by the fact that many pest species infest both arable and horticultural crops. Vegetable and salad growers have access to information and tools to forecast infestations and monitor a number of key pests to optimise insecticide use. However, without undertaking a very detailed study it is difficult to gauge the impact of this information, both in terms of any potential reduction in insecticide use and improved levels of control. Other management tools such as fine mesh netting crop covers, host plant resistance and biopesticides are used on a relatively small scale. It appears that one of the main reasons why Integrated Pest Management is not being taken up more widely is because of a lack of alternative tools and management practices that are both effective and cost-effective and there is a considerable need for these to be developed and transferred to growers in a form that they can use. They include: reliable, cost effective and simple monitoring and decision support systems; control strategies with less side effects on beneficial organisms; more knowledge about spraying technology and alternative ways of applying insecticides; more effort to breed for pest resistance; alternative control strategies such as those using pheromones. Finally, although functional biodiversity is not easy to implement and manage, and its efficacy is neither proven nor predictable, it needs to be investigated in more detail and it undoubtedly needs to be coordinated at a landscape scale.

68-76

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IPM: how to get from IPM concepts to successfully implemented IPM systems
Robert Baur, A. Nicholas E. Birch, Martin Hommes

Abstract: During more than 50 years of development, the concept of Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPM) has been described and summarized several times. One organisation which has achieved particular recognition for the development of IPM strategies is the IOBC (International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of noxious animals and plants). According to the IOBC definition “The objective of IPM as a strategic approach towards crop protection is to safeguard the quality and quantity of production whilst minimizing the impact of pesticide use on human health and the environment”. Similar definitions have been given elsewhere. Recently, with the Sustainable Use Directive (directive 2009/128/EC), IPM has become the standard European crop protection policy. This paper, after a brief description of the basics of IPM, deals with factors that might help to span the frequently-encountered gap between the often rich knowledge about agro-ecosystem functions and tools that might be useful in IPM and the successful compilation and integration of the range of measures aimed at achieving the objectives of IPM.

78-83

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The potential for identifying and utilising sources of host plant resistance to the pests and pathogens of Brassica crops as a key component of future IPM strategies
Rosemary Collier, A. Nicholas E. Birch, Sonia Hallier, Peter Glen Walley, Graham Teakle, Alain Label

Abstract: In wild species, host plant resistance is often a key factor limiting pest populations. This is not the case with most crop cultivars since they have been developed for cultivation in systems where pests, diseases and weeds have been controlled effectively by agrochemicals or other means. However, despite the widespread use of pesticides, pests and diseases and competition from weeds are still responsible for billions of pounds worth of crop losses each year. In particular, control with pesticides is confounded by factors such as loss of efficacy due to the evolution of resistance in the target species, legislative removal of products on the basis of environmental concerns, the slow development of the next generation of pesticides and limited availability to farmers in many parts of the world. Many of the problems caused by pests and pathogens could be overcome by the incorporation of genetic resistance into cultivars and this has become a major activity in most crop breeding programmes. This paper discusses, in the context of Brassica crops, the new technology and improvements in techniques which should mean that it will be ‘easier’ and quicker to incorporate new traits for pest and disease resistance into commercial crop cultivars. It suggests that possibly one of the greatest bottlenecks in the process at the moment is the lack of resources for ‘phenotyping’ – screening plant material for useful traits.

84-93

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Ecological selectivity of pesticides and pesticide application methods
Rosemary Collier, Andrew Jukes, Claudia Daniel, Martin Hommes

Abstract: There has been a lot of emphasis over the years on the development and use of pesticides that are specific and/or physiologically selective. This is a property of the chemistry and mode of action of the pesticide and the physiological and biochemical attributes of organisms. However, there is also the potential to make pesticides more selective through their judicious use, based on critical selection, timing, dosage, placement and formulation of pesticides (which are often broad spectrum). This paper discusses approaches to increase the ecological selectivity of pesticides and pesticide application methods, in the context of Integrated Pest Management in Brassica crops. Topics covered include minimisation of the dose applied, controlled release and dropleg technologies and the impacts of seed treatments on non-target species.

94-98

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Effects of landscape and region on pests and pathogens in Brassica vegetables and oilseed rape
Claudia Daniel, Rosemary Collier, Jane Thomas, Martin Hommes

Abstract: Pests and pathogens of Brassica vegetables and oilseed rape are mainly managed at a field level. Management of pest insects at a farm level is only suitable for farmers owning compact areas of land, which is not the case in many central European areas. This paper discusses the effects of landscape and region on pests and pathogens in Brassica crops. Topics covered include pest and disease dispersal and persistence, regional races or biotypes, new pests and pathogens, insecticide resistance, conservation biocontrol and monitoring and forecasting.

99-105

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Clubroot in Brassica
Jane Thomas, Sonia Hallier, Huub Schepers, Marian Vlaswinkel, Geert Kessel

Abstract: Clubroot is a very serious disease of Brassicaceae species worldwide, affecting especially B. oleracea (cabbage), B. napus (oilseed rape) and B. rapa (turnip). Plants with clubroot show wilting, stunting, yellowing and premature senescence. In some cases, the field can be destroyed entirely. This paper summarises some of the research that is being undertaken on this disease in Europe.

106-109

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Plant protection in organic production of Brassica vegetables and oilseed rape
Claudia Daniel, Martin Hommes,, Martin Koller

Abstract: Growers of organic Brassica vegetables and oilseed rape face the same potentially severe plant protection problems as their colleagues in conventional or integrated pest management systems. Management strategies in organic systems rely on preventive measures, use of functional agro-biodiversity, release of biocontrol agents and a few approved pesticides of biological and mineral origin, as well as mating disruption or the use of fine-mesh netting to exclude pests. The methods used in organic production might also be applicable in IPM systems. This paper considers the methods used in organic Brassica vegetable and oilseed rape production, and discusses their potential and limitations in the context of their application in integrated pest and disease management strategies.

110-115

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Side effects of pesticide applications
Rosemary Collier, Martin Hommes

Abstract: Whilst farmers and growers endeavour to take an ‘holistic’ approach to crop production, and the need for an holistic approach is also implied by IPM, it is unlikely that many producers and their advisors consider the impact of any one management action on the ‘whole crop’. This short paper discusses some of the side effects of pesticide applications on non-target species and identifies some of the sources of information available about them.

116-119

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