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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 123, 2017

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 123, 2017

Working Group "Integrated Plant Protection of Fruit Crops"
Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production at Thessaloniki (Greece), September 4-8, 2016.
Editors: Claudio Ioriatti, Petros Damos, Lucía-Adriana Escudero-Colomar, Christian Linder, and Arne Stensvand.
ISBN 978-92-9067-308-8 [IX + 235 pp]

 

25.00 €

 

 

 

 

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Aerosol delivery of pheromones in IFP: A mature technology for plant protection
Jay F. Brunner

Abstract: The discovery of pheromones, specifically sex pheromones of Lepidoptera, and subsequent identification of pheromone chemical structure(s) led to their synthesis and eventually to the development of commercial products, first as components of monitoring systems and eventually as pheromone dispensers for control of agricultural pests. In pome fruit pheromone technology has primarily targeted the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.). Initial pheromone dispensing technologies were comprised of plastic packets, tubes or solid matrices where pheromone evaporated from the dispenser surface. These dispensers were typically applied by hand at densities of 500 to 1,000 units per hectare. For many agricultural pests these hand-applied pheromone dispenser systems worked very well, though labor required to apply dispensers has been often raised as a concern for growers. The development of aerosol pheromone delivery technology applied at a density of 2-2.5 units per ha is an alternative to passive pheromone release technologies. This report summarizes results of five years of research trials comparing aerosol pheromone delivery technology with a standard hand-applied pheromone product, Isomate® CM Flex, conducted in Washington State with treatments challenged by the release of sterile CM. There was very little difference between the Isomate® CM Flex treatment and aerosol treatments, Checkmate® Puffer® CM-O or Isomate® CM MIST, when the aerosol treatments were releasing 100% or 50% of registered rates. However, when pheromone release rates in aerosol treatments were 25% or less of the full rate, suppression of sterile CM capture was less than in the Isomate® CM Flex treatment. For the Isomate® CM MIST technology reducing the hours of pheromone release from 12 h to 7 h did not impact suppression of CM captures. Average fruit injury by Checkmate® Puffer® CM-O and Isomate® CM MIST treatments was not different. There was a decline in fruit injury associated with aerosol treatments releasing lower levels of CM pheromone. The pros and cons of the aerosol technology of delivering pheromones are discussed.

1-13

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Aerosol technology for mating disruption: the perspective of the pioneer and leading company
Daniel Casado

Abstract: Aerosol mating disruption is oftentimes still perceived as a technology under development. However, it has been largely commercially proven and its adoption has spread around the world. The first steps were taken in the mid-1990s when the research groups of T. Baker and H. Shorey initiated in parallel field studies with aerosol formulates. Soon Suterra LLC adopted the approach and initiated the development of several commercial products. The first registered product saw the light in the USA as Puffer® PTB in 1998 for control of peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella Zeller). Today, aerosol mating disruption is implemented in ca. 150,000 ha around the world and it is in continuous expansion. The industry is largely dominated Suterra’s CheckMate Puffer® products, and adoption rates are higher in North and South America, South Africa, Europe and the Middle East.

14-16

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Female moth pheromone production and release are affected by sublethal doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide
Miguel A. Navarro-Roldán, César Gemeno

Extended abstract

17-19

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Control of oriental fruit moth Cydia molesta and peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella by using CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB and CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB MESO dispensers, in Bulgaria
Hristina Kutinkova, Stefan Gandev, Vasiliy Dzhuvinov, Bill Lingren

Abstract: Oriental fruit moth (OFM), Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and peach twig borer (PTB) Anarsia lineatella (Zell.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are economically important pests of peach, nectarine and apricot in Bulgaria. Their larvae cause damage infesting shoots and fruits. Investigations were carried out in two fruit-bearing commercial peach orchards in the south-eastern Bulgaria in the Sliven district during the period 2014-2016. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of mating disruption (MD) in management of OFM and PTB in peach orchards, using CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB and CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB MESO dispensers from Trécé Inc., USA. The damage to shoots was evaluated during the first generations of OFM and PTB on 20 trees, randomly selected within the central area of each block. Correspondingly, fruit damage was recorded on 100 fruits per each selected tree for 2000 fruits being inspected for damage from both pests in each block. The rate of damaged fruits in the trial plots were compared with that in the reference orchard, located in the vicinity, treated with conventional pesticides. CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB applied at 400 dispensers/ha and CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB MESO at 80 and 20 dispensers per ha completely inhibited OFM captures in the pheromone traps installed in the trial plots, indicating a high level of disruption. The percentage of shoots infested by OFM and PTB larvae was nil in the MD plots. The damage rate to fruits in the MD plots was rather low, below 1%. Presented results confirm that mating disruption, using CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB and CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB MESO dispensers can provide a more effective control of both important pests on peach - oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer. The used rate of CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB and CIDETRAK® OFM/PTB MESO dispensers shows the reduced rate of dispensers does not affect the effectiveness of mating disruption and will help growers to decrease labour in the field. Applications of these dispensers provide effective control of oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer, with better results than the conventional protection programs employed in Bulgaria. This approach to control oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer is in line with the recent EU recommendations emphasizing the preservation of the natural environment and production of healthy fruits, with no pesticide residues.

20-26

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Introduction of Mate Disruption Pheromones in apple orchards in Fyr of Macedonia
Stanislava Lazarevska, Mile Postolovski, Zoran Dimov, Sterja Naceski, Vesna Krsteska, Shpend Shahini, Ivan Postolovski

Abstract: During the 2014 and 2015 seasons, the control of codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple orchards in Prespa Region in Fyr of Macedonia was conducted with mating disruption pheromones. The apple is a dominant crop in this region and the codling moth pressure is constantly very high. Mating disruption technique in apple orchard was utilized for the first time with a single application of Isomate C TT dispensers per season. Population density of codling moth and fruit damage at harvest were kept at a low level. At the same time, population density of the pest and fruit damage in the conventionally treated orchards were higher and was serving as a reference. Based on our results, Isomate C TT dispensers may represent a promising alternative to traditional programs trying to control high initial infestation by codling moth and should be involved in the Integrated Pest Management practices on apple crops.

27-36

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Aerosol technology to control the codling moth with mating disruption: how moth behaviour changes when directly exposed to pheromone puffs or in response to pheromone-treated leaves
Gino Angeli, Mario Baldessari, Sara Zanoni, Serena G. Chiesa, Claudio Ioriatti

Extended abstract

37-38

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First results on mass trapping of Ceratitis capitata using the new attractant BIODELEAR
Nikos Kouloussis, Nikos Papadopoulos, Charalambos Ioannou, Petros Damos, Dimitrios Koveos, Eleftheria Bempelou, Vasilis Mavraganis

Abstract: Mass trapping can be a powerful tool for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), and other fruit flies of high economic importance. Here we present results of using the new female specific attractant Biodelear for the mass trapping of C. capitata in citrus orchards in the Campos area of Chios. The results form part of a five-year LIFE programme aimed at developing an integrated strategy for the management of this serious pest. The study was conducted from September to December 2015. Mass trapping was performed in four 0.5 ha plots using 50 plastic McPhail traps per plot baited with 17 g of Biodelear. For comparative purposes, we included in the study three additional plots with traps baited with the “standard”, commercially available attractant Biolure® (Suterra LLC, Bend, OR, USA). Likewise, we included four conventional plots treated with insecticides, as well as three organic plots receiving no treatments to serve as control. The experimental plots were separated from one another by 10 m wide buffer zones treated with insecticides. The efficacy of mass trapping was evaluated by monitoring the level of C. capitata population using five separate McPhail traps baited with Biolure and five Jackson traps baited with trimedlure per plot. We also monitored infestation rates by sampling and examining large numbers of fruits for oviposition stings and emerging pupae. Finally, to assess the environmental impact of each treatment, we monitored ground biodiversity of arthropods using pitfall traps. The results showed that mass trapping with Biodelear resulted in a substantial reduction of the population of C. capitata compared to the organic control treatment. Although Biolure initially appeared to be better, later in the season the two attractants converged in efficacy. A similar pattern was observed in the results concerning the infestation of sweet oranges and mandarin oranges. In both the Biodelear and Biolure treatments these fruits were significantly less infested compared to the organic control treatment. Although Biolure appeared to be slightly better than Biodelear the two treatments did not differ statistically. Finally, in both the Biodelear and the Biolure treatments the diversity of ground arthropods was similar as in the organic control and significantly higher relative to the conventional insecticide treatment. These first results of the LIFE programme strongly suggest that mass trapping with the new attractant Biodelear can effectively control the population of C. capitata, lower citrus fruit infestation and preserve biodiversity of arthropods. The results are particularly encouraging given the much lower cost and negligible toxicity of Biodelear compared to Biolure.

39-42

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Susceptibility of selected apple cultivars to the Mediterranean fruit fly
Sara Zanoni, Mario Baldessari, Antonio de Cristofaro, Claudio Ioriatti

Extended abstract

43-44

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Invasive Fruit Flies of economic importance in Austria – monitoring activities 2016
Alois Egartner, Christa Lethmayer

Abstract: Fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the genera Ceratitis and Bactrocera are among the most serious orchard pests worldwide. Due to the increase of fruit fly interceptions in Europe in the last decade the status of different species of those genera was in focus of a monitoring in Austrian peach orchards. A total of 68 fruit fly traps was employed in the main part of the fruit production area of Austria and in the city of Vienna during the first season of the survey (2016). A total of 766 specimens of Ceratitis capitata, one specimen of Bactrocera zonata and one specimen of Bactrocera dorsalis species complex were caught. While C. capitata is considered to be established in parts of Vienna, it is assumed that the findings of single specimen of both Bactrocera species are due to accidental introductions. The confirmation of the sources of the findings is still in progress.

45-49

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New endeavors in monitoring and management of brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in eastern United States
Greg Krawczyk, Marcelo Zanelato Nunes, Hillary D. Morin, Lauren Shaak

Abstract: Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) Halyomorpha halys (Stäl) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) continues to be the most important driver for the intensity of insecticide based pest management programs in fruit orchards in eastern United States. The BMSB monitoring studies which included lure and trap design comparisons documented the practical viability of BMSB field monitoring practices for very accurate assessment of the actual BMSB pest pressure from July until October. And while the precise BMSB treatment thresholds are still not fully validated, employing traps for the development of provisional treatment thresholds provided reliable indicators of stink bugs presence in the area. The commercial availability of BMSB attractants allowed us to re-introduce IPM friendly management practices based on monitoring and, at the same time, provided tools to verify the results. Employing extensive monitoring of BMSB and other fruit insect pests allowed some of our growers to reduce the number of insecticide applications by over 70 percent between the 2013 and 2015 seasons with no difference in the fruit injury levels caused by BMSB.

50-56

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An overview on the invasive pest Halyomorpha halys in Northern Italy: biology, field monitoring and IPM approaches
Lara Maistrello, Stefano Caruso, Elena Costi, Giacomo Vaccari, Sara Bortolini, Roberto Guidetti, Paolo Bortolotti, Roberta Nannini, Luca Casoli, Stefano Vergnani, Anselmo Montermini, Mauro Boselli

Extended abstract

57-59

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Conservational biological control of the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in French cider apple orchards
Laurence Albert, Pierre Franck, Yann Gilles, Manuel Plantegenest

Abstract: The rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini, 1860) is a major insect pest in apple orchards in Europe, causing significant economic losses by reducing yield. Cider apple production, for which the perfect visual aspect of fruits is not an imperative for their marketability, offers good opportunities to study production systems favouring the biological control of pests and the reduction of insecticide use. To design new strategies to improve aphid biological control efficiency, a good knowledge of the dynamics of the pest and its natural enemies and on their interactions is required. The “Institut Français des Productions Cidricoles” carried out a study on the biological control of D. plantaginea in five insecticide free apple cider orchards from north-western France during two years (2014 and 2015). On each tree of these orchards, the aphid abundance, the natural enemy abundance by taxon, and the abundance of ants were counted in aphid colonies during the period of the rosy apple aphid presence (from the end of April to the beginning of July). Then the dynamics of the rosy apple aphid were divided in four periods: 1. colony establishment, 2. population increase, 3. peak abundance, and 4. population decrease. For each period, the population growth rates and the abundances of aphids, ants and each taxon of natural enemies were calculated. Principal component analyses were used to visualize the relationships between abundances and population growth rates. During the first and the second periods, the growth rate of D. plantaginea decreased with the increase in the natural enemy abundance, suggesting a significant biological control of this aphid during these periods. More specifically, biological control seemed to be mainly performed by hoverfly larvae and ladybirds.

60-70

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How French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) volatiles can affect the performances of green peach aphid
Tarek Dardouri, Hélène Gautier, Guy Costagliola, Laurent Gomez

Abstract: Intercropping companion plants (CPs) with horticultural crops could be a method to optimize pest management. It is known that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by CP can reduce aphid infestation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of VOCs emitted by French marigold (Tagetes patula L. cv. Nana) on the performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and to understand the mechanism involved: either direct VOCs effects on aphid and/or indirect effects via the host-plant (pepper, Capsicum annuum L.). Laboratory experiments tested the effect of T. patula VOCs on the fecundity and orientation behavior (using a Y-tube olfactometer) of M. persicae. VOCs emitted by T. patula were collected and identified by GC-MS. Flower VOCs (but not the leaf VOCs) significantly reduced aphid reproduction. This difference in VOCs emission depending on the plant part underlines the necessity to consider the phenological stages for evaluating the CP potential. The olfactory tests showed that T. patula VOCs had no significant effect on aphid orientation behavior. Otherwise, aphids were significantly less attracted by pepper associated with T. patula and also by pepper previously intercropped (PIC) with T. patula. This supports the hypothesis of an indirect effect of T. patula VOCs on aphid performance.

71-78

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Combining irrigation, fertilisation and pruning techniques helps control aphid populations in apple and peach orchards
Marie-Odile Jordan, Aurélie Rousselin, Gille Vercambre, Marie-Hélène Sauge

Abstract: Peach green aphid and rosy aphids can develop resistance to insecticides. Alternative strategies are therefore required to control these major pests in commercial orchards. To identify the key plant variables which determine tree resistance and could be manipulated by usual cultural practices we submitted potted peach and apple trees to contrasted water and nitrogen inputs. The trees were then artificially infected and the infestation dynamic followed in line with shoot development and apex composition. The high infested shoots grew faster, developed more secondary ramifications and their apices had higher amino acid and soluble sugar concentrations than the low infested shoots. Moreover, aphids preferred trees having a small number of fast growing shoots to others, having the same number of leaves being distributed among a higher number of smaller shoots. Irrigation and fertilisation could thus be used to improve tree resistance to aphids since those techniques contribute to the control of shoot development and composition.

79-85

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Increasing efficacy of thrips chemical control with attractive additives in strawberry
Rik Clymans, Eva Bangels, Miet Boonen, Dany Bylemans, Marieke Vervoort, Peter Melis, Simon Craeye, Jochen Hanssens, Matti Pisman, Guy Smagghe, Tim Belien

Abstract: Insecticide treatments against thrips in strawberry cropping are often insufficiently working in the field, while in (extended) laboratory tests the same chemicals show high efficacy. An inadequate spraying technique, avoidance and cryptic behaviour of the thrips are possible explanations. In open field strawberry cultivation spraying technique is often underdeveloped, resulting in poor spray coverage. Attractive additives can lure thrips from their difficult to reach hiding places onto the treated plant surfaces, increasing the insecticide contact and/or ingestion. They also may mitigate possible repellent characteristics of the insecticide. In this study the potential of using baits or behaviour modifying chemicals to increase insecticide efficacy for Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) was studied in laboratory bio-assays and semi-field experiments. In bio-assays spinosad was less effective when untreated leaf area was available; efficacy could be increased by 20 to 30% by adding a sugar bait. A similar increment in efficacy was observed in a semi-field experiment when the same sugar bait was added to an experimental insecticide.

86-95

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Optimized timing of IPM treatments against pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri) based on a temperature driven population dynamics model
Tim Belien, Eva Bangels, Nathalie Brenard, Jonas Reijniers, Herwig Leirs, Dany Bylemans

Abstract: Pear suckers (Cacopsylla sp. or pear psylla) (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) are widely considered to be the most important pest in pear orchards. They are mostly feared by growers because of their secreted abundant honeydew colonized by sooty mould fungi causing blackening of leaves, shoots and fruits. Sustainable control of pear psylla relies on their natural suppression by beneficial arthropods and a well-tuned integration of crop protection treatments. However, population dynamics of pear psylla are complex with their presence in pear trees throughout the whole year in 4-5 consecutive generations in commercial pear growing in Northwestern Europe. Conversely, main beneficial arthropods like predatory bugs (Anthocoris sp.) and earwigs (Forficula auricularia L.) are only present at certain periods as active psyllid predators on pear shoots and foliage. In order to achieve a maximal control efficacy on the pear psylla population and a minimal side-effect on their natural enemies, we followed a modelling approach to optimize IPM treatment schedules. A temperature driven model forecasting the dynamics and populations structure (eggs/larvae/adults) of pear psylla was used to optimize timing of control sprays targeting a specific life stage of the pest. In addition, impact on beneficial populations was minimized by avoiding non-selective treatments on vulnerable life stages using a similar population dynamics forecasting modeling approach. This model-based strategy for an improved sustainable control of pear psylla was tested in multiple field trials. The outcomes of these field validation trials are presented and discussed, providing valuable insights in model driven integrated pest management in commercial fruit growing.

96-100

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New insight into the biology and ecology of psyllid vectors of apple proliferation in order to develop sustainable control strategies
Tiziana Oppedisano, Federico Pedrazzoli, Bernd Panassiti, Cecilia Mittelberger, Jernej Polajnar, Rok Kostanjšek, Pier Luigi Bianchedi, Valerio Mazzoni, Meta Virant-Doberlet, Katrin Janik, Gino Angeli, Antonio De Cristofaro, Gianfranco Anfora, Claudio Ioriatti

Extended abstract

101-103

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Investigation of the biodiversity and landscape ecology of apple orchards to investigate potential new vectors of apple proliferation
Tiziana Oppedisano, Federico Pedrazzoli, Christian Cainelli, Roberta Franchi, Francesco Gubert, Lorenzo Marini, Valerio Mazzoni, Antonio De Cristofaro, Claudio Ioriatti

Extended abstract

104-105

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Effects of food availability during the nesting phase on growth and survival of the common earwig Forficula auricularia
Karin Winkler, Sytske de Waart, Herman Helsen

Abstract: The common earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) is a generalist predator that plays an important role in the natural control of orchard pests such as woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann) and pear sucker (Psylla pyri L.). In this work we study the effects of food availability during the nesting phase on the growth and survival of young earwigs.
Soil samples were taken in ten pear orchards in order to investigate the available soil biota. Using PCR techniques, we determined what kind of food the mothers and their young consume in the field. The effect of the different food sources on earwig offspring development was tested in the laboratory.
Acari and Collembola made up for 97% of the soil sample content. Analysis of stomach contents showed that first and second instar earwigs feed on a wide range of food sources in the field, including Collembola, mites, Isopods and plant material. Differences in diet had a significant effect on body weight (and other parameters) in the laboratory. These results can be used as a starting point to adapt orchard soil management in order to optimise the conditions for nesting earwigs.

106-109

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Effects of two reduced-risk insecticides on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum in apple orchards
Daniel Cormier, Paula Cabrera, Marc Fournier, Franz Vanoosthuyse, Éric Lucas

Abstract: Trichogramma minutum Riley is an egg parasitoid found in North American apple orchards where it contributes to the biological control of several lepidopteran pests including the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). To control this major pest, reduced-risk insecticides have been commonly applied in Quebec orchards for several years. We investigated the compatibility of these insecticides with the biological control agent T. minutum in field and laboratory experiments. In an experimental orchard, codling moth eggs were exposed to parasitism a few days prior or after the application of either novaluron, chlorantraniliprole or water (control). For each egg cohort, the emergence of Trichogramma adults from the codling moth eggs was significantly lower for novaluron than chlorantraniliprole and control. In laboratory experiments, we evaluated the effects of these insecticides on the development of
the immature stages of T. minutum. Eggs were treated 24 and 120 h after parasitism. Results indicated that the development of Trichogramma from the egg to pupal stage was not affected by the treatment. Similar results were observed for their development from the pupal to adult stage. The results suggest that the inhibition of chitin synthesis associated with novaluron did not affect the development of immature stages of T. minutum but may affect specialized structures such as mandibles used by Trichogramma during the emergence process.

110-114

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Usefulness of spirotetramat (Movento 100 SC) to control spider mites on apple, blackcurrant and raspberry in Poland
Barbara H. Łabanowska, Wojciech Piotrowski, Zofia Płuciennik, Tomasz Gasparski, Małgorzata Tartanus, Barbara Sobieszek, Mirosław Korzeniowski

Abstract: Apple, blackcurrant and raspberry are economically important crops in Poland. Mites, such as European red mite, Panonychus ulmi and two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae are serious pests of fruit trees and bushes in Poland. Pest mobile forms pierce plant cells and suck out the sap, causing pale spots on leaves (visible on the leaf upper surface). More severe infestations cause distinct bronzing of the foliage and sometimes can lead to premature leaf fall. Nowadays, the control of spider mites in Poland is possible with few active ingredients: spirodiclofen, hexythiazox, etoxazol, fenpyroximate, milbemectin, abamectin, acequinocyl, tebufenpyrad, depending on the plant species. However, there is a constant need to search for new control measures against this pest, because some of the products might be withdrawn from the plant protection industry within the next few years. For the past few years the efficacy of new insecticide containing spirotetramat, Movento 100 SC has been tested for the control of mites occurring on apple, blackcurrant and raspberry crops.
On apple, the efficacy to control mobile forms of mites obtained with spirotetramat, Movento 100 SC at the rate 0.75 l/ha/m of canopy height ranged from 84 to 100% at 1 to 6 weeks after treatment. On blackcurrant, the efficacy of Movento 100 SC at the rate 0.75 l/ha, in mite control ranged from 83 to 100%, and on raspberry it reached the level from 94 to 100% at 1 to 4 weeks after treatment. Immediate efficacy of spirotetramat is not very high (at 1 week after treatment), but the material in conducted experiments demonstrated very high long lasting effect, at least 5 to 6 weeks after treatment. The results obtained with the reference product, abamectin were similar to those obtained with the tested product, but better than those obtained with fenpyroximate and spirodiclofen. Spirotetramat controls not only spider mites, but also other pests present on treated plants such as aphids, eriophyids and midges. Movento 100 SC is also selective on beneficial insects. Numerous Coccinellidae (larvae and beetles), Phytoseiidae (larvae, adults and eggs) and larvae of Syrphidae were observed on treated plants.

115-119

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Development of digital mite recognition system to monitor two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and its potential applicability in fruit crops
Andrea Veres, Márk Kaszó, László Kaszó, Bence Petővári, Vasileios P. Vasileiadis, Sotiris Pantazis, András Kárpinszky

Extended abstract

120-121

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Representing and integrating agro plant-protection data into semantic web through a crop-pest ontology: The case of the Greek Ministry of Rural Development and Food (GMRDF) Ontology
Petros Damos, Sotirios Karampatakis, Charalampos Bratsas

Abstract: The FAO is working actively with linked data to bring together those working with agricultural data via the use of a number of semantic taxonomies. We have developed the first Greek crop-pest ontology which links data of the crop protection domain using AIMS/FAO object properties and SKOS conceptual schemes. The concepts we have developed include relations between pest types, hosts and management actions. Particularly, it facilitate retrieval of pesticides information which have received a registration for certain crops for the Greek marked by the GMRDF, as well as related information such as: pesticides category, type of ingredient, mode of action, method of application, lethal doses, supplier info, registration dates, etc. Additionally, the ontology contains more than 100 host-specific arthropods pests and plant diseases which are conceptually classified with their scientific names and related host preferences. Twenty years ago, IOBC published a document that can be considered as one of the cornerstones of Integrated Production in Europe. Key element in this collection of documents is the Declaration of Ovrannaz. It was established by a group of entomologists that met in the Switzerland to discuss basic aspects and principles of Integrated Plant protection and production. It is gratifying to observe that the work of the IOBC carried out during the last 20 years has not only found its precipitation in European agriculture but has also generated interest outside the WPRS-region.

122-127

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An overview of Drosophila suzukii research within the EU funded DROPSA project
Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson, Neil Audsley

Abstract: DROPSA addresses major challenges faced by the EU soft fruit industry. The aim of the project is to create new knowledge and understanding of the damage and losses of fruit crops resulting from both pests and pathogens, with a specific focus on the new and emerging threats due to Drosophila suzukii, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), Xanthomonas fragariae (Xf) and X. arboricola pv. pruni (Xap). It integrates leading expertise in fruit pests and pathogens, fruit production and orchard management from across Europe and more widely on a global basis. The project aims to develop a cost effective IPM approach that can be widely implemented by the EU soft fruit industry.

128-133

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Current status of Drosophila suzukii management in Trentino (Italy), research achievements and perspectives for sustainable control
Claudio Ioriatti, Gianfranco Anfora, Alberto Grassi, Davide Profaizer, Marco Valerio Rossi Stacconi

No abstract

134-139

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Survey of Drosophila suzukii in Switzerland from 2011 to 2016
Fabio Kuonen, Catherine-Aryelle Baroffio

Extended abstract

140-142

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Enhancement of Drosophila suzukii trapping
Christa Lethmayer, Alois Egartner

Abstract: In the present study two different trap types, each at two different positions in the orchard were compared for their trapping efficiency of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii). An improved version of a self-made trap type (“green bottle trap”) and a commercially available trap type (“Swiss cup trap®”, RIGA AG, Switzerland) were studied, in order to find a trap type with high trapping efficiency, but easy to handle and at reasonable costs. The mean number of caught individuals per trap was statistically significantly different between the trap types, the height of trap positioning and for the portion of caught males and females of spotted wing drosophila. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the self-developed “green bottle traps” are an effective, suitable alternative to commercially available traps.

143-149

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Drosophila suzukii – experiences from the fly's northernmost inhabited region (from the first record to two years after the detection)
Sanja Manduric

Abstract: Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, was recorded for the first time in the Nordic region in the county of Scania, southern Sweden, in late summer 2014. Inventory work has been carried out in 2015 and 2016 with focus on two main objectives, the spread and the potential for the subsequent economic consequences. Raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, elderberries, red currants, cherries, plums and grapes were included in the survey. In 2015, the first flies were recorded during week 32. Varying numbers of catches were recorded all over the Scania county but not in any other regions. The highest level of catches was observed during the period of week 42 to 44. Maximum captures, 42 and 62 flies per week and trap, were observed in plums and autumn fruiting raspberries respectively. In 2016, the fly has been found in three new regions. The first specimen was cached in week 29 in cherries and maximum captures, 170 flies per week and trap, were obtained in week 40. The fly occurrence was observed until the middle of December. Eggs and/or larvae were found in fruits and berries in all the crops and plants that have been monitored during both years. The damage caused by SWD larvae was however very limited. An integrated management approach was implemented in 2016. A focus group bringing together scientists, advisers and farmers has been formed, working on tools for site specific risk assessment and integrated control.

150-156

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Drosophila suzukii on cherry in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy): results of field efficacy trials of seven insecticides (2013-2016)
Maria Grazia Tommasini, Gianni Ceredi, Mauro Boselli, Fabio Franceschelli, Massimo Scannavini, Silvia Paolini, Stefano Caruso

Abstract: D. suzukii represents a new serious economic threat to soft summer fruits. This dipteran fly is a polyphagous pest which infests a wide range of fruit crops, included berries and cherries. The female has a serrated ovipositor that allows them to lay eggs in intact, ripe fruit, and the larvae destroy the fruit pulp by feeding. This species has a high reproductive rate and short generation time (theoretically up to 13 generations per year), which may contribute towards a rapid spread, and is listed on the EPPO alert list. An effective management program requires: the use of effective insecticides, the implementation of a reliable system for pest population monitoring, and the need to not delay the harvest. In this paper, we describe the monitoring carried out at a regional level – to know the yearly risk of D. suzukii for a crop, and field trials on cherry to evaluate the efficacy of some active ingredients. In particular, pyrethroids, spinosoids, diamides, organophosphates, and a natural substance, were evaluated.

157-164

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Drosophila suzukii new pest in Poland
Wojciech Piotrowski, Barbara H. Łabanowska

Abstract: The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is a new, invasive pest causing a lot of damage to small- and stone fruit crops as well as economic losses for farmers in North America and in Europe. The monitoring of this pest in Poland has been carried out since 2012 by the Research Institute of Horticulture (RIH). Since 2013, observations of pest presence have also been carried out at the wholesale market near Warsaw. Between 2012-2016, the monitoring of flies was conducted in about 200 locations in all regions of the country. The first traps (plastic bottles, 2012) were prepared at the RIH and filled up with a liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar + red vine), based on the Italian recipe (Andrea Tandardinii). In following years (2013-2016), trials were also included other available traps and baits, e.g. manufactured by Belgian, Spanish, American, Polish and Bayer AG manufacturers. The first specimens of D. suzukii were caught in late autumn (October) in western and southern Poland in 2014 in Polish and Spanish traps. In 2015, the first flies of spotted wing drosophila were caught in early September in many regions of Poland. Some eggs/larvae were also found in blueberry and sweet cherry fruits in mid-September (fruit remnants). In 2016, the first flies D. suzukii were caught in mid-June in west part of Poland (close to German border). However, economic losses from damaged fruit have not yet occurred.

165-170

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Overwintering biology of Drosophila suzukii females in the Trentino region in northern Italy
Alberto Grassi, Angela Gottardello, Claudio Ioriatti

Abstract: After being first recorded in 2009, Drosophila suzukii has rapidly became the key pest of the sweet cherry and soft fruit in Trentino (northern Italy). In the context of the experimental and research activities conducted at the Edmund Mach Foundation (FEM) in subsequent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to elucidating the biology of this new and damaging insect, with a particular focus on its overwintering behaviour. About 75,000 adult females, caught in area-wide monitoring activities from 2012 to 2016, were dissected under a stereo-microscope in order to classify their reproductive condition, according to a pattern of five recognisable ovarian maturation stages: no ovaries, unripe ovaries, ripening eggs in ovarioles, mature eggs in ovarioles, mature eggs in the abdomen. The results obtained from this work revealed that during the winter (December/February) females do not have mature fertile eggs available and ready to be laid. They pass through this period in different ovarian maturation stages, but clearly showing a reproductive diapause. Oogenesis normally resumes when temperatures and the photoperiod start to increase, and the first overwintered females with mature eggs appeared very early in the season (March). As new susceptible fruits were not yet known to be available in our region at that time, we speculated that these eggs may be laid in other substrates (e.g. compost), reabsorbed by the females or stored in their ovaries until the appearance of new fruit. In the framework of the area-wide monitoring implemented in 2016, several D. suzukii eggs laid in ivy (Hedera helix L.) fruits were detected. Adult females and males emerged from these infested berries when stored in laboratory conditions, confirming that the pest is able to exploit this very common and widespread host in a period when other fruits are not yet present. However, the smaller size of these adults in comparison with individuals emerging from early infested cherry fruit, as well as the high larval mortality recorded in infested berries collected in some of the sampled sites, indicate that this host plant is probably not highly appreciated. New generation adults were also obtained under laboratory conditions from domestic compost infested with overwintering D.suzukii adults collected live in an open field situation in February 2016.

171-177

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Overwintering capacity of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Belgium
Madelena De Ro, Tom Devos, Nick Berkvens, Hans Casteels, Jeroen Goffin, Tim Beliën, Patrick De Clercq

Abstract: The invasive Asian fruit fly Drosophila suzukii, also known as spotted wing drosophila (SWD), is a significant pest of soft and stone fruits in large parts of the world, including Europe. In this study, the cold hardiness of both summer and winter morphs of a Belgian SWD population was examined by means of three common indices: (1) supercooling point (SCP), (2) the lower lethal temperature (LLTemp) and (3) the lower lethal time
(LLTime). In addition, the incidence of reproductive diapause in the same population was investigated.

178-179

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Habitat use and a molecular approach to analyze the diet of Drosophila suzukii
Felix Briem, Karin Staudacher, Astrid Eben, Michael Traugott, Jürgen Gross, Heidrun Vogt

Extended abstract

180-182

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Multi-regional comparison of attractants for Drosophila suzukii monitoring in sweet cherry orchards in Italy
Lorenzo Tonina, Alberto Grassi, Stefano Caruso, Nicola Mori, Angela Gottardello, Gianfranco Anfora, Folco Giomi, Giacomo Vaccari, Claudio Ioriatti

Extended abstract

183-185

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First results of the testing of Asian parasitoids as potential biological control agents of the spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii
Pierre Girod, Laureline Rossignaud, Tim Haye, Marc Kenis

Extended abstract

186-187

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Presence and spread of stone fruit viruses in Northern Italy
Anna Rosa Babini, Patrizia Grillini, Paolo Fini, Assunta D'Annibale, Riccardo Bugiani, Valeria Gualandri, Paola Bragagna, Daniele Prodorutti, Chiara Lanzoni, Claudio Ratti

Abstract: Stone fruit cultivation is very important in the Emilia-Romagna region, as well as in other areas in Northern Italy, in particular in the Trento Province, where extension of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) orchards has been recently increased. Symptoms of fruit necrosis and deformation, necrotic lesions and spots on leaves were observed in both regions. For this reason, regional Plant Protection Services (PPS) carried out a detailed survey in orchards and nurseries in order to avoid the spread of dangerous viral diseases that can cause quality losses and plant decline of fruit trees. During the recent five years, 5480 stone fruit samples were analyzed by ELISA or RT-PCR in the Virology laboratory of PPS, in order to detect Plum pox virus (PPV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), both in symptomatic and symptomless samples. Peach cultivars represent the main group of samples (3262), and one third of these were infected by PPV (1008). PPV was the most prevalent infectious agent also in apricot and plum, but it was not detected on cherry. Cherry samples, collected in orchards where fruit showed deformations and discoloration, were found positive for PDV, PNRSV and/or ACLSV. Furthermore, the flexiviridae Cherry virus A (CVA) and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV), and the foveavirus Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) were also discovered by analyses performed in the Virology Lab of the University of Bologna, using RT-PCR. In Trento Province, the same symptoms on cherry fruit were observed in 2015 and 2016 and a proper investigation was carried out to evaluate the presence of viruses infecting the cherry trees. Samples collected in 13 different orchards (399 in total) were analyzed by ELISA in the Fondazione Edmund Mach Virology Laboratory, resulting in mainly presence of ACLSV and PNRSV. CVA was detected by RT-PCR in some samples.

188-190

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Apiognomonia erythrostoma: an emerging disease of stone fruits in Italy
Daniele Prodorutti, Riccardo Bugiani, Rossana Rossi, Loredana Antoniacci, Angela Gottardello, Christian Cainelli, Davide Profaizer, Sergio Franchini, Tommaso Pantezzi

Abstract: Apiognomonia erythrostoma is a fungal pathogen of stone fruits known as the causal agent of cherry leaf scorch. In the Emilia-Romagna region the disease has been reported since 2001 on apricot, and severe infections have been recorded on sweet cherry trees since 2013. In 2015, symptoms resembling those made by A. erythrostoma were observed on sweet cherry in a mountainous area in the Trentino region. Symptoms on the leaves start with pale green spots that turn yellow and red, while affected areas become necrotic and the leaves dry up, remaining attached to the tree. Irregular red areas appear on the fruit, causing deformity and cracks. In Emilia-Romagna, a preliminary epidemiological study on apricot was carried out in the field over three years, with the aim of determining infection events. Dead, overwintered leaves containing fruiting bodies of A. erythrostoma were collected from apricot trees and investigated for ascospore maturation. Maturation and release of ascospores was correlated with degree days and compared with infections in the field. This preliminary investigation provided information about the first, maximum peak and end of ascospore release. Monitoring of the presence of the disease in Emilia-Romagna and Trentino was carried out in the main apricot and cherry growing areas. Typical symptoms on leaves, fruit and the reproductive structures of A. erythrostoma were found both in orchards and on wild cherry trees in the surrounding areas, suggesting that infected uncultivated trees may act as an inoculum source for the pathogen. In 2016, preliminary epidemiological studies of perithecial maturation, ascospore release and symptom development on potted plants were also carried out in Trentino. Potted cherry plants were exposed to ascospore infection from infected cherry leaf litter. Ascospore release was monitored by means of a volumetric spore trap placed over the leaf litter. Potted cherry plants were exposed and replaced weekly with healthy ones. The first ascospores were detected by the spore trap during the first ten days of April, with a peak at the end of May, in conjunction with rain. Symptoms on leaves appeared four to six weeks after the infection event. Further studies will be necessary to fully understand the biology and the epidemiology of this fungus in northern Italy, in order to implement an effective control strategy.

191-194

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Calosphaeria canker of sweet cherry in Trentino (north-eastern Italy)
Christian Cainelli, Claudia Maria Oliveira Longa, Sergio Franchini, Gino Angeli, Daniele Prodorutti

Abstract: In the recent years branch and trunk dieback of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees has been observed in Trentino (north-eastern Italy). Plants were stunted with wilted shoots and branches, internal canker and wood necrosis. The development of black perithecia was observed beneath the bark, in correspondence with the canker. Isolation from symptomatic branches was carried out by plating fragments of diseased wood tissues on culture media. Fungal colonies were transferred and identified with morphological and molecular methods, as well as with morphological observations of perithecia. Isolation from symptomatic branches consistently yielded pink-red colonies. Based on the observed characteristics of both perithecia and conidia, the fungus was identified as Calosphaeria pulchella (Pers.) J. Schröt. Identification was confirmed by BLAST analysis based on 100% ITS sequence similarity with GenBank references. The pathogenicity of C. pulchella isolates was evaluated by inoculating the trunk and shoots of two-year-old potted sweet cherry plants. Isolation from discoloured tissues was carried out. Twenty-one months after inoculation, some shoots started to show stunted growth and withering. C. pulchella was re-isolated from inoculated shoots and trunks.

195-197

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Contributing to fire blight risk prognosis in orchards with honey bee colonies as a gateway for detection of Erwinia amylovora
Ulrike Persen, Richard A. Gottsberger, David Szalatnay, and Rudolf Moosbeckhofer

Abstract: Fire blight infections can originate from previous outbreaks within orchards but also from inoculum sources of surrounding host plants. Forecasting models based on environmental conditions may indicate a timing for spraying plant protection products to prevent Erwinia amylovora infections. However, hardly any empirical data on inoculum levels of E. amylovora in individual orchards or their vicinity is included. It is well known that bees and other pollinating insects can play an important role in the secondary spread of the bacteria during bloom of host plants. As nectar and pollen collecting honeybees come into contact with the pathogen during their flower visits, they can be used as part of a vector based system to monitor the incidence of E. amylovora in blooming host plants within the flight range of the bee colony. An E. amylovora detection system has been developed using tube collectors mounted at the flight entrances of beehives. This system provides valuable information on the presence of the bacteria within the range of their flights, is less time consuming and the number of sampling points is dramatically higher compared to flower sampling by hand. Qualitative and quantitative data about the occurrence of epiphytic E. amylovora within the flight range of honeybees could be gained. In 2012 to 2016 monitoring of flowers and inlays of tube collectors were carried out in commercial and experimental orchards in Switzerland and Austria during bloom of apple and pear. Sample preparation and confirmation by specific qPCR of daily collected samples gave an estimation of the incidence of flowers colonized by E. amylovora. Orchards with no or low findings of E. amylovora on inlays did not show any fire blight symptoms at the end of the incubation period. High numbers of the pathogen on inlays were correlated with fire blight outbreaks. Still, inlays of different beehives in one orchard or even collectors mounted at the same hive could bear divergent amounts of the pathogen. This was likely due to different groups and numbers of forager bees using different food sources in varying numbers, frequencies and distances. Therefore, the simultaneous operation of 3 honeybee colonies with collectors in the same monitoring place is recommended.

198-206

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Effect of a biological agent and GRAS compounds on the control of apple postharvest diseases in long-term storages
Deena Errampalli, Karin E. Schneider, Louise M. Nelson

Abstract: The two most important postharvest diseases of apples in Canada in long term storages are blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum and gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of an antagonistic rhizobacterium alone and in combination with three food additives that are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compounds for the control of postharvest diseases in cold air storages using local apple varieties and storage conditions. Three food additives, 0.5% sodium biocarbonate (SBC), 1.0% salicylic acid (SA) and 1.0% calcium chloride (CaCl2), were tested in combination with a bacterial antagonist, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 4-6, against blue mould and gray mould on fruit from two apple cultivars, ‘Gala’ and ‘McIntosh’ in Ontario (ON). The wounded apples were co-treated with 1 ×104 conidia/ml of pathogen of either TBZ-resistant P. expansum or B. cinerea and/or in combination with 1 ×108 cfu/ml of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Ps. fluorescens) antagonist 4-6, and GRAS compounds. Positive controls, the bacterial biocontrol Ps. syringae and the chemical fungicide fludioxonil (Scholar) were applied at recommended rates. Control treatment had no antagonists or fungicides. Treated fruit were incubated in cold storage at 4 °C for up to 2 months. Blue mould or gray mould disease incidence was recorded at monthly intervals. Results showed that the antagonist, Ps. fluorescens 4-6 alone or in combination with each of the three GRAS compounds gave good control for up to 29 days following the treatments, and after which disease incidence increased significantly. The antagonist Ps. fluorescens 4-6 gave similar disease reduction as the commercial biocontrol agent Ps. syringae in ‘McIntosh’ apple. In conclusion, of the three combination treatments tested, the antagonist Ps. fluorescens 4-6 and CaCl2 and antagonist Ps. fluorescens 4-6 and SBC were found most promising against postharvest blue mould and gray mould diseases on both apple cultivars for up to 29 days in storage. Further studies with different apple cultivars are underway.

207-213

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Fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea in raspberry and strawberry in Norway
Gunn Mari Strømeng, Arne Stensvand

Abstract: Due to suspicion of reduced efficacy of fungicides against grey mould (Botrytis spp.), six to ten isolates of the fungus were collected from each of five raspberry and seven strawberry fields (open field production systems). Germination and hyphal growth were recorded on agar media amended with the various fungicides at different concentrations. The isolates were characterized as sensitive, less sensitive, moderately resistant or resistant. In raspberry, approximately 60% of the isolates were resistant against boscalid, pyraclostrobin or fenhexamid, and in four of the five raspberry fields, more than 50% of the isolates were resistant against all three fungicides. Only 7.5% of the isolates were resistant against pyrimethanil and none against iprodione or fludioxonil, however, 24% was moderately resistant to iprodione and 5.7% to fludioxonil. The situation in strawberry was very similar; 82, 68 and 57% of the isolates were resistant to fenhexamid, boscalid and pyraclostrobin, respectively. For pyrimethanil, 30 and 25% of the isolates were resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, and for iprodione, 17 and 52% of the isolates were resistant and moderately resistant, respectively. None of the isolates was characterized as resistant against fludioxonil, but 5% was moderately resistant. Of all isolates tested in strawberry, 8, 23, 25 and 10% were resistant against 2, 3, 4 and 5 fungicide groups, respectively. It may be concluded that there was a high degree of fungicide resistance in the investigated raspberry and strawberry plantings, and multiresistant strains occurred frequently.

214-218

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Effects of different organic fertilization on the community structure of plant parasitic nematodes in organic raspberry production
Elena Tsolova, Lilyana Koleva, Spaska Kalcheva

Abstract: Growing raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) occupies an important place in the fruit production of many European countries. The farmers’ interest in organic fruit growing is increasing, however, a limiting factor in sustainable production of raspberries is the presence of plant parasitic nematodes, which cause significant economic damage. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of the various fertilization schemes in organic production of raspberries on the density and community structure of migratory root nematodes and the degree of the differences between them. The investigation of the nematode communities was carried out in the region of Sofia, in the town of Kostinbrod in 2013 to 2015, with cultivars ‘Willamette’ and ‘Lyulin’. Pratylenchus spp. were the dominant plant parasitic nematodes. They were established in associations of populations with species of the following genera: Trichodorus, Paratrichodorus, Longidorus, Xiphinema, Paratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Geocenamus, Tylenchorhynchus and Tylenchus, which were found in different densities and abundance during the research period. Correlations between nematode density and different organic fertilizers were found. The study of the species composition of migratory root nematodes contributes not only to the effects of different organic fertilization on the community structure of plant parasitic nematodes, but is also a prerequisite for ensuring the plant health and the cropping potential of raspberry.

219-227

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Efficacy of lime treatments against Drosophila suzukii in Swiss berries
Melanie Dorsaz, Catherine A. Baroffio

Abstract: Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest that lays eggs in healthy fruits with a serrated ovipositor, resulting in considerable economic losses, mainly in berry crops. It was first recorded in Switzerland in 2011, causing considerable damage in all small fruit crops, especially in late-developing crops (autumn raspberries, blackberries, blueberries and elderberries). Control methods have been implemented to minimize the use of insecticides. Greenhouse trials were conducted in 2015 to test lime (calcium hydroxide) treatments efficiency as a substitute or complement to insecticide treatments. Fourteen blueberry bushes were individually placed in insect-proof cages: seven of them were treated weekly with a solution of lime, while seven others did not receive any treatment. In each cage, 10 D. suzukii were released per week. Ten blueberry fruits per bush were harvested each week, and the number of larvae and eggs per fruit was determined for each cage. The pH, strongly suspected to contribute to the efficiency of lime against D. suzukii, has been measured in 2015 on the treated and non-treated strawberry epidermis during three days. The semi-field test on blueberry showed that after several treatments, lime significantly reduced the number of D. suzukii eggs in fruits. The pH was consistently higher in treated strawberries than in non-treated strawberries. Our greenhouse trials showed the potential efficiency of lime treatments. However, they need to be repeated on-farm in order to provide producers with an efficient management strategy (treatments, mass trapping, nets, hygiene), ensuring a high quality and residue-free Swiss berry production.

228-235

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