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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 126, 2017

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 126, 2017

Working Group "Pheromones and Other Semiochemicals in Integrated Production"
40 Years of the IOBC-WPRS Working Group "Pheromones and Other Semiochemicals in Integrated Production".
Proceedings of the Meeting "The Good Sense of Scent" at Mishkenot Sha'ananim, The Konrad Adenauer Conference Centre, Jerusalem (Israel), 8-13 November, 2015.
Edited by: Jürgen Gross & Ally Harari.
ISBN 978-92-9067-311-8 [XIII + 106 pp]

 

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History of pheromone research in Israel 1975-2015
Ezra Dunkelblum

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2

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Chemical ecology of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae),
vector of pinewood nematode in Europe

David R. Hall, Juan A. Pajares, Estela Sanchez-Husillos, Gonzalo Álvarez, Iňaki Etxebeste, Byrappa Ammagarahalli, César Gemeno

Abstract: Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is an invasive pest causing a
fatal wilting disease in susceptible pine trees. Native to America, it was introduced from the
Far East to Portugal in 1999. The nematode is vectored by cerambycid beetles of the genus
Monochamus, and the only confirmed vector in Europe is Monochamus galloprovincialis,
although related species are also potential vectors. As part of an EU project to restrict spread
of the nematode in Europe, aspects of the chemical ecology of the vector and potential vectors
were investigated to provide potential management tools for the nematode and the disease.
The aggregation pheromone produced by male M. galloprovincialis was identified and its
attractiveness to both sexes was shown to be strongly synergised by host-plant volatiles and
bark beetle kairomones. Traps baited with the attractant are being developed for measuring
dispersal of the beetle and mass trapping around outbreaks of the nematode. The lures attract
only mature beetles and work is in progress in field and laboratory to develop an attractant for
the immature beetles. Cuticular compounds are involved in species and sex recognition in
M. galloprovincialis, although key, non-hydrocarbon compounds produced by the males are
responsible for this rather than hydrocarbons in the female, as reported for other cerambycid
beetles. M. galloprovincialis beetles tend to colonise stressed pines, including those damaged
by fire. Electrophysiological studies and field trapping tests indicate the beetles can detect
volatile compounds found in wood smoke and these may provide a new approach to attraction
of the beetles. The chemical ecology of Monochamus spp. presents several intriguing
questions, not least how is species-specificity ensured with such parsimony of pheromone
components? How is the main pheromone component biosynthesised? Are we just scratching
the surface of the interactions of beetle, host plants and other fauna? What does this mean for
invasive species?

4-11

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New strategies for phytoplasma vector control by semiochemicals
Jürgen Gross

Abstract: Phytoplasmas are worldwide responsible for more than 700 different plant diseases
and have an important economic impact. Apple proliferation (AP), pear decline (PD) and
European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) cause severe crop losses in European fruit growing
regions. Phloem feeding insects were identified as vectors, often one species transmitting a
specific phytoplasma. All investigated psyllid species use chemical cues for the identification
of their host plants during migration between different host plant species. The production of
plant volatiles was in some systems influenced by phytoplasma infections which indirectly
influenced the behavior of vector insects. For several vector insects species-specific attractive
and repellent compounds have been identified. Attractive compounds can be used in traps as
lures for monitoring and mass trapping purposes. By combination of attractive compounds in
traps and repellent compounds in dispensers these chemicals may be used in push-and-pull
strategies.

12-17

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Behavioural responses of Hyalesthes obsoletus to synthetic volatile cues
Paola Riolo, Roxana L. Minuz, Nunzio Isidoro

Abstract: In this study, behavioral responses of Hyalesthes obsoletus to six synthetic
mixtures and nine single compounds, previously identified from the headspace of Vitex
agnus-castus (chaste tree) and Urtica dioica (nettle), were investigated in Y-tube olfactometer
bioassays. Choice tests revealed differences in the behavioral responses of males and females
to the volatiles that they were exposed to. Results showed that males were attracted to a five
compounds mixture containing volatiles identified from chaste tree. Females were attracted to
a six compounds mixture of chaste tree volatiles, and to a five compounds mixture of volatiles
identified from nettle. Neither males nor females showed attractivity or repellency toward the
singly tested compounds.

18-21

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Leafhopper interactions with host plants – a role for volatile cues?
Roleen la Grange, Michelle Schröder, Robert Glinwood, Rickard Ignell, Kerstin Krüger

Abstract: Due to the sap-feeding nature of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), many
transmit disease-causing pathogens to economically important plants. When infected with
plant pathogens, plant hosts may produce volatile profiles different to those of uninfected
plants, attracting insect vectors to infected plants and potentially increasing disease
transmission. Although few studies have investigated the use of olfactory cues in host plant
selection by leafhopper species, a push-pull strategy using semiochemicals to repel insects
from important crop plants toward a trap or trap crop is a promising alternative to chemical
control. In a previous study, the leafhopper Mgenia fuscovaria (Stål), a vector of aster yellows
phytoplasma (AY) (‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’) in grapevine Vitis vinifera L. in South
Africa, was found to be preferentially attracted to AY-infected grapevine branches. The mode
of attraction, either visual or olfactory, was not determined. Analyses of the volatile organic
compounds produced by AY-infected and uninfected grapevine branches revealed
quantitative and, in most cases, qualitative differences between infected and uninfected
branches. However, behavioural bioassays with the leafhopper vector, as well as a literature
review of other leafhopper species, suggest that olfactory cues, although important, are
largely supplementary to other stimuli, such as visual cues, for many leafhopper species.

22-26

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Unraveling the cues for oviposition site acceptance of European grapevine moths
Margit Rid, Anna Greif, Christoph Hoffmann, Jürgen Gross

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27

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Interactions between hop flea beetle Psylliodes attenuates Koch
(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and host plants

Magda Rak Cizej, Iztok Jože Košir

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28

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Chemical and behavioral analysis of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci attraction
to rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Dganit Sadeh, Murad Ghanim, Nativ Dudai

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29

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Highway may disrupt insect’s chemical communication and movement
Netta Keret, Panu Välimäki, Marko Mutanen, Uri Shanas

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31

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Studies on the attraction of green lacewings to semiochemicals in different habitats: species and sex specificity (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Sándor Koczor, Ferenc Szentkirályi, John A. Pickett, Michael A. Birkett Miklós Tóth

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32

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The role of kairomones in mosquito life history
Alon Silberbush, Zvika Abramsky, Ido Tsurim

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33

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Components of the sex pheromone of blackcurrant sawfly, Nematus olfaciens (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae): novel isopropyl esters and the role of hydrocarbons
David Hall, Dudley Farman, Paul Douglas, Jerry Cross, Michelle Fountain, Bethan Shaw

Abstract: Blackcurrant sawfly, Nematus olfaciens (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), is a common and frequently damaging pest of blackcurrant, probably present to varying degrees in all UK blackcurrant plantations. Infestation is sporadic and localised, and damage can occur rapidly. No practical, systematic sampling methods or attendant crop damage thresholds have been developed, and pheromone traps could provide such a tool. Previous work on related sawfly species has suggested that breakdown products of cuticular hydrocarbons act as components of the female sex pheromone. We found that male and female blackcurrant sawfly produce large quantities of identical suites of long-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, of which (Z)-9-tricosene is the most abundant. Analysis of collections of volatiles from virgin females by gas chromatography linked to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antennae of males showed no EAG responses to the hydrocarbons but very strong responses to at least three compounds present in trace quantities. These were identified as mono-unsaturated isopropyl esters, including the (Z)-5-tetradecenoate, (Z)-7-tetradecenoate and (Z)-7-hexadecenoate. The synthetic compounds elicited strong EAG responses from male blackcurrant sawfly and no EAG responses were observed to likely breakdown products of the unsaturated hydrocarbons. In field tests, blends of the isopropyl esters attracted male blackcurrant sawfly and addition of (Z)-9-tricosene further increased the attractiveness. These results suggest a role for cuticular hydrocarbons that is somewhat different from that proposed for related sawfly species.

34-39

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The occurrence and role of pheromone unattracted males in three mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species
Hofit Kol-Maimon, Murad Ghanim, José Carlos Franco, Zvi Mendel

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40

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The evolution of chemical signals: signals tend to evolve from chemicals that harm the potential receiver
Keith Daniel Harris, Amotz Zahavi

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41

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Response of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella to stored grain contaminated by fungi
Vincas Buda, Laima Blažytė-Čereškienė, Irena Nedveckytė, Violeta Apšegaitė, Rita Butkienė, Dalė Pečiulytė

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43

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Dispersal of Sitotroga cerealella in a conventional small-farm in Central-Southern Italy
Pasquale Trematerra

Abstract: Using sex pheromone traps baited with Z,E-7-11-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (HDA), observations of male adult presence and dispersion of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), in warehouse and in field-plots were carried out. The studies were realised in a conventional small-farm of 10.5 ha located in hilly areas of Central-Southern Italy. The farm was divided into plots as follows: nursery truffle plants, vineyard, spring wheat, clover, oak grove, corn, tobacco, oats, barley and olive grove. According to the results, infestations of S. cerealella occurred during both preharvest plantation and postharvest storage. Levels of insect abundance varied among plots. The highest numbers of males were trapped in the warehouse in which different cereals are stored all year long. S. cerealella activity suggests adult dispersal from the warehouse to field-plots during the spring-summer season up to 600 meters from the warehouse. The activity of S. cerealella in the Southern-Central Italy agricultural territory is mainly affected by the presence of small traditional warehouses. The crop succession in the fields does not seem to be very important for the presence and dispersion of the moth.

44-50

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Citrus essential oils determine immature survival, boost adult reproductive success and elicit hormetic responses on Mediterranean fruit flies
Nikolaos Papadopoulos

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52

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Attractiveness of bacterial volatiles to olive fly
Antonio Belcari, Patrizia Sacchetti, Anna Liscia

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53

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Chemical ecology versus fruit flies
Yoav Gazit

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54

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Sea buckthorn volatiles involved in host plant choice by Rhagoletis batava females
Vincas Buda, Vilma Baužienė, Dominykas Aleknavičius, Rita Butkienė

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55

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Inquiries on the chemical communication system of the Ethopian fruit fly Dacus cilatus Löw (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Polychronis Rempoulakis, David Nestel, John Byers, Esther Nemny-Lavy, Ayelet Shaked, Daniela Fefer, Maayan David, Anat Zada

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56

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Mating disruption for 21st century: matching technology with mechanism
Larry Gut, James R. Miller

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58

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How to measure mating disruption efficacy of pheromone products for registration purposes in the field?
Christoph Hoffmann & Eric Doye

No abstract

59-70

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Mating disruption of Lobesia botrana in Israeli vineyards – practical issues
Tirtza Zahavi, Avishay Harpaz, Ruth Harpaz, Arie Ben Meir, Yoni Ben David

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71

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Evaluation of mating disruption in Ephestia cautella (Walker): use of water traps and presence of spermatophores
Pasquale Trematerra, Sara Savoldelli

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to verify the efficacy of a mating-disruption system (MD) applied in a confectionary factory infested by almond moths, Ephestia cautella (Walker), using pheromone traps and the presence of spermatophores in females caught with water traps. Results obtained confirmed that water is a considerable attractant for E. cautella, as a great number of males and females were caught. The presence of spermatophores in females allowed determination of mating status: most captured females were mated; in the area where MD was applied the percentage of unmated females was lower as compared to the control area (the proportion of unmated females was much higher in the control area). In an Integrated Pest Management programme, the combined use of MD and water traps eliminates large numbers of male and female almond moths. This information will be useful in developing strategies for suppressing E. cautella infestation.

72-78

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Field experience with monitoring Grapholita molesta (Busck) in peach and apple orchards treated with mating disruption
Grzegorz Krawczyk, Lauren Shaak

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79

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Scent-based pest control using innovative slow fluid release (SFR) technology
Nimrod Israely

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81

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The PK/PBAN family: a highly potent novel target for mating disruption
Vinnie Altstein, Orna Ben Aziz, Michael Davidovitch

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82

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Sequential SPME/GC-MS analysis (SSGA) – a new methodology for the identification of pheromones
Anat Levi-Zada, Ezra Dunkelblum, Daniela Fefer

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83

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Development of a funnel trap for Meligethes (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): summary of efforts of the last decade
Miklós Tóth, István Szarukán, Zsolt Marczali, Éva Bálintné Csonka

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84

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Trophic interactions in the rhizosphere: applying chemical ecology to develop novel strategies for root pest control
Ted Turlings

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85

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The role of kairomones in the behavior of parasitoids and predators of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea)
José Carlos Franco, Elsa Borges da Silva, Manuela Branco, Pompeo Suma, Alex Protasov, Zvi Mendel

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87

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The kairomonal activity of the sex pheromone of the pine bast scales Matsucoccus spp.
Manuela Branco, José Carlos Franco, Zvi Mendel

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88

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Attractants of ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex
Miriam Cooperband, Allard Cossé, Richard Stouthamer, Daniel Carrillo, Tappey Jones

Abstract: Laboratory and field evaluations of semiochemicals associated with ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) were conducted. Crossing experiments were conducted between beetles from three invasive populations of cryptic species in the USA. The beetles were collected from a population in Florida, referred to as the tea shot hole borer (TSHB), and two areas in California, referred to as the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and the Kuroshio shot hole borer (KSHB). Crossing experiments showed only a limited ability of PSHB to hybridize with the other two beetles. Behavioral bioassays of PSHB to diet, diet + fungus, and diet + fungus + beetles revealed the presence of odor-mediated behavior to the latter two treatments. Volatile collections of diet + fungus revealed a compound not present in diet without fungus, p-2-menthen-1-ol, which has four stereoisomers. Lures containing all four stereoisomers, including the one called quercivorol, were field tested in avocado groves in both FL and CA, and found to attract TSHB, PSHB, and KSHB. The addition of high release ethanol in PSHB-infested groves reduced attraction of PSHB. The four stereoisomers contained in the lures were synthesized individually and tested for attraction in Y-tube bioassays. Two stereoisomers were found to be repellent, and the other two were found to be attractive. Modifying lure blend ratios to maximize the attractive stereoisomers and minimize the repellent ones allowed for improvement of lures and capture rates in the field. Volatile collections of diet + fungus + beetles contained compounds that were absent in volatile collections from just diet + fungus. Two compounds were identified and synthesized, and a blend of the two synthetic compounds was tested in the Y-tube and found to be attractive to PSHB. A quantitative analysis of the three species revealed that each species had the same two compounds but at different ratios.

89-92

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Olfactory communication in the pine processionary moth – decoded mechanisms and open issues
Maria-Rosa Paiva, Eduardo Mateus, Helena Santos, Manuela Branco

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93

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Female sex pheromone of the cone moth, Dioryctria mendacella: the role of polyunsaturated hydrocarbons
David R. Hall, Dudley Farman, Juan C. Domínguez, Juan A. Pajares

Abstract: Polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (Type II pheromone components) have been reported to be synergists for unsaturated acetates, alcohols or aldehydes (Type I components) in several species of Lepidoptera. However, there is some debate over whether the active components are the hydrocarbons themselves or more volatile degradation products. We found females of the cone moth, Dioryctria mendacella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), produce (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (ZE9,11-14:Ac) and (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene (ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H). The former elicits a strong EAG response from males while no response could be recorded to the latter. In field trapping tests, both compounds were individually unattractive to males, but blends of the two compounds were highly attractive. It was demonstrated that the relatively involatile hydrocarbon is actually released from the dispensers used and no significant degradation could be detected. Furthermore, analogues with fewer carbons and/or double bonds that might be expected to produce similar degradation products to the ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H were inactive. This indicates a specific response to the hydrocarbon itself, further substantiated by the observation that related hydrocarbons did not interfere with the activity of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H. Thus a two-step conversion of cod liver oil was used to produce a blend of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H as the major single component, albeit only 30% of the total, and this was as attractive to male D. mendacella as an equivalent amount of the pure material in combination with ZE9,11-14:Ac.

94-99

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The use of pheromones in IPM schemes in Israeli forests
Omer Golan, Alex Protsov, Zvi Mendel

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100

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Tuning the device: effect of blend complexity, dose and age of the attractant and trap characteristics on field catches of Argyresthia conjugella
Geir K. Knudsen, Anders Aak, Vasiliki Verschut, Mario Porcel, Marco Tasin

Abstract: Monitoring devices based on plant volatiles are a promising tool to predict invasions of pest insects into crops or newly colonized areas. A trap baited with seven volatiles identified from a host plant has been used to forecast apple fruit moth (Argyresthia conjugella) attacks in Norwegian and Swedish apple orchards. A. conjugella is a specialized pest of rowan forest in Northern Europe, but can inflict heavy harvest losses in apple in intermasting years when rowan trees do not set adequate fruit crop and the moths invade cultivated apple orchards. Here we report the effect of several trap characteristics on the field performance of the monitoring device. To optimize the attraction of the lure, we loaded the traps with different plant volatile blends. While increasing or decreasing the complexity of the blend did not improve the catch, a significant dose-response effect was measured for the reference 7-component lure. The efficiency of the trap was not influenced by the age of the lure, which was active in the field for at least 50 days. The outside colour of the trap affected both the efficiency of the trap with regard to target pest captures and the selectivity towards non-target arthropods. These results provide a base that can be considered when developing plant volatile-based devices for pest management.

102-104

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Can sticky traps be improved for mass trapping and monitoring of thrips and glasshouse whitefly?
Clare Sampson, Anca Covaci, Gordon Hamilton, Nayem Hassan, Shakir Al-Zaidi, William Kirk

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105

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Refining the blend: optimization of a multispecies pheromone formulation to control apple orchard tortricids in Southern Sweden
Mario Porcel, Giulia Attocchi, Märta Johansson, Joakim Pålsson and Marco Tasin

Abstract: Mating disruption is a widely utilized method for the control of tortricid pests in apple orchards. However, the occurrence of a complex of species with potential to damage the fruit may frustrate the intended insecticide use reduction. From 2012 we have cooperated with Swedish apple stakeholders and a commercial company to develop and test a multispecies mating disruption system covering the most damaging tortricids in Swedish orchards. During the first two years of the project, the multicomponent blend, although promising for the control of the majority of the target species including Cydia pomonella and Archips podana, did not provide a complete population control for the eye spotted budworm Spilonota ocellana. Newly prepared blends including varying proportion (low, middle and high) of a secondary component of this species were tested in the field during 2014. The highest rate of trap inhibition as well as the lowest larval damage was observed when the secondary component was added to the blend at the higher concentration with no differences between medium and low concentrations.

106-108

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The vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) attractant – from discovery to trap development
Robert W. H. M. van Tol, Denny J. Bruck

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109

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Sex pheromone component ratios facilitate mating isolation among three Lygus plant bug species of North America
John A. Byers, Daniela Fefer, Anat Levi-Zada

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110

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Physiology of the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus in response to four stereoisomers of p-menth-2-en-1-ol, their synthesis and absolute configurations
Allard A. Cossé, Miriam F. Cooperband, Bruce W. Zilkowski, Tappey H. Jones, Richard Stouthamer, and Daniel Carrillo

Abstract: We have identified a kairomone, p-menth-2-en-1-ol, from Euwallacea fornicatus-infested box elder bolts (Acer negundo) and from E. fornicatus-infested rearing tubes containing diet composed of box elder sawdust in which their associated Fusarium was cultivated. This kairomone has shown to be attractive to the E. fornicatus species complex in field studies in Florida and California.

112-113

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Mortality factors affecting the invasive fruit pest Drosophila suzukii in Switzerland
Pierre Girod, Marc Kenis, Tim Haye, Tessa Ramburn

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114

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Oviposition behavior of European grapevine moths induced by different grape varieties
Anna Greif, Margit Rid, Jürgen Gross, Christoph Hoffmann

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115

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Monitoring and control of the carob moth
Haim Reuveny, Zehev Farkash, Lotem Azulai

No abstract

116

5.00 €

 
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