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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 130, 2018

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 130, 2018

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Stored Products"
Proceedings of the meeting at Ljubljana (Slovenia), July 3-5, 2017
Editors: Pasquale Trematerra, Stanislav Trdan
ISBN 978-92-9067-294-4 [XXX + 404 pp]

 

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Role of temperature in the biology and control of stored product insects
Paul G. Fields

Abstract: Insects are affected by temperature in all aspects of their biology: ecology, reproduction, behaviour, physiology and biochemistry. Stored product insects reproduce between 20 and 33 °C, with maximum reproduction occurring at approximately 33 °C. Above and below these temperatures insects can move, but cannot complete their development. Temperatures below 3 °C and above 40 °C insects cannot walk, and will eventually die. Between -10 and -25 °C insects freeze and die instantaneously. There are significant changes to these general patterns depending upon species, life stage and acclimation. For example, insects can become 10 times more resistant to cold if acclimated at cool temperatures (5-15 °C) before being exposed to sub-zero temperatures. The speed and direction of movement is affected by temperature. The implications for trapping and sampling are discussed.
Examples of using low and high temperature to control insects are given. In general insecticides work better at higher temperatures, but some insecticides have only a small increase in efficacy (methyl bromide), whereas others have a decrease in efficacy (pyrethrins) with higher temperatures.

2-5

5.00 €

 

Grain cleaning as a management tool to control internal feeding pests
Nicolas Bareil

Abstract: Although cleaning has been proposed as a management tool to limit population growth of external feeding pests (Phillips and Throne, 2009), only one study gives detailed references on grain cleaning as a mean of disinfestation against internal feeding pests (Armitage et al., 1996). The objective of this study was to evaluate grain cleaning efficacy against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius). The pilot scale cleaner comprised independent and adjustable air and grain flow rates, and two inclined sieves. Twelve barrels were filled with 90 kg of soft wheat, infested with 5 adults per kg of one of the studied species, and cleaned or poured in another barrel to simulate grain turning. Adult free wheat could be obtained causing a weight loss of 1.9 ± 0.64%, with aspiration playing a major role in insect recovery. No significant difference was observed for emergence reduction rate (e.r.r) of both species between cleaning and pouring. The non-negligible e.r.r observed depended significantly on initial number of live insect per kg and specie. A significant correlation was observed between e.r.r and initial immature infestation for R. dominica but not for S. oryzae, for which mean e.r.r caused by grain disturbance was 67 ± 15%. This study, in the light of other dealing with grain disturbance, suggests that grain cleaning, applied to an early detected infestation and at adequately timed intervals could achieve very high level of mortality for internal feeding pests.

6-12

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Available measures for control of stored product pests regarding integrated protection and research
Darka Hamel

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13

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Experiences on the use of Ekontrol, remote control system, for real-time monitoring of rodent control stations
Giuseppe Spina

Abstract: Rodents are often a big problem for the food factories. They can cause significant direct and indirect damages to the foods. The EU Biocides Regulation 528/2012 (EU BPR), and the Risk mitigation measures for anticoagulant rodenticides as biocidal products, has introduced great limitations in the use of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARS). Therefore, the three line classic of defence can not be used with SGARS to monitoring and control rodents. The indoor use is not possible in food factories and outside the structures are not permitted permanent bait systems. According to IPM programs, the monitoring system must be accurate and fast. Ekontrol is a system developed to verify real-time various types of rodent monitoring and control systems, like Ekomille, Bait Box, Multiple Catch Traps. The Ekontrol hardware is able to detect movement associated with heat and later can send a message to a specific web platform. Differently to the other systems presents in the market, Ekontrol do not need to have a control unit and every sensor is completely independent. The communication system takes place through a GSM/GPRS network. The Ekontrol management software receives the data and daily check the condition of the Ekontrol hardware and send notify in real-time on the smartphone. In the present study are reported field trials carried out to evaluate the remote monitoring system Ekontrol in rodent management programs.

14-18

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The Feed the Future Innovation Lab for the Reduction of Postharvest Loss: Maize postharvest loss mitigation in Ghana
George Opit, Frank Arthur, James Campbell

Abstract: The USAID-funded Feed the Future Innovation Lab for the Reduction of Postharvest Loss (PHLIL) was launched in 2014. This Lab is administered through Kansas State University, but includes researchers from many institutions. One of the focus areas within this broad project is reducing maize postharvest losses in Ghana. Most of the maize production in Ghana is in the Middle Belt and northern part of the country. The Middle Belt has two maize production seasons, the major season and minor season. These seasons cover the periods April-August/September and September-December, respectively. In the north, the maize production season is June-October (but maize is left in the field to dry until late November/December). The most serious problem facing smallholder farmers in the Middle Belt is difficulty in drying their major season maize. The window for drying is only approximately four weeks in August and September when it is rainy and mostly overcast. Postharvest losses are primarily due to mold and aflatoxin in the Middle Belt and due to insect pests in the north. Over the last 3.5 years PHLIL Ghana has identified tools that could be applied to help alleviate these losses and is initiating their scale up. Technologies that have been identified, researched, pilot tested, and now in the initial stages of being scaled up include the PHL low-cost moisture meter, 1- and 5-MT Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryers (SBHD), and ZeroFly® Hermetic Storage Bags. PHLIL Ghana progress and future plans are discussed.

19-24

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Losses of walnut, almond and hazelnut kernels as a result of Plodia interpunctella larval feeding
Snežana Tanasković, Sonja Gvozdenac, Filip Vukajlović, Snežana Pešić, Kristina Miljković, Dragana Predojević

Abstract: Plodia interpunctella is regularly present in stores and warehouses of dried and stone fruits throughout Serbia. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of consumed food during larval developmental of P. interpunctella, reared on broken kernels of walnut (Juglans regia), hazelnut (Corylus avellana) and almonds (Amygdalus communis). The experiment was set up in three series (walnut, almond, hazelnut) with 12 jars in each series. Each jar contained 100 ml of culture medium. The amount of consumed food during the larval development was measured on the first (initial) and the second (final) observation. The biggest consumption is registered on hazelnut - 3.85 g (8.29%), walnut - 3.31 g (6.91%) and almond 3.13 g (5.95%) in jars with 29, 25 and 35 larvae, respectively. The lowest kernel consumption was on almonds – 1.28 g (2.42%), hazelnut – 1.32 g (2.98%) and walnut – 1.73 g (2.75%) in jars with 20, 6 and 12 larvae, respectively. On almonds with the lowest number of larvae (19), the registered reduction in kernels weight was 4.24% (2.25 g). The average value of the consumed food per jar was 2.64 g on hazelnuts, 2.35 g on almonds and 2.22 g on walnuts. The average weight of consumed food per larvae was 0.08 g on almonds, 0.09 g on walnuts and 0.13 g on hazelnut. It can be concluded that the larvae are “poor” consumers of available food. The number of developed larvae statistically significantly differed among substrates. The biggest was on almonds (344), followed by walnut (285) and hazelnut (235). Direct damages are therefore negligible, but the indirect damages, that are visible as worm holes and the presence of larvae and moths, are reducing market value of these fruit products.

25-30

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Plodia interpunctella Hübner – primary or secondary pest of sunflower seeds in Serbia
Sonja Gvozdenac, Snežana Tanasković, Jelena Ovuka, Vladimir Miklič, Mladen Tatić, Dejan Prvulović, Filip Vukajlović

Abstract only

31

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Natural products as biopesticides for sustainable foodstuff pest control
Barbara Conti

Abstract: Foodstuff pests are a global issue and cause of the loss of huge quantities of preserved food worldwide. Currently, their control mainly relies on synthetic insecticides, which, however, are not environmentally sustainable and may affect human health. Thus, alternative eco-friendly and safe practices, are strongly encouraged.
Recently, strong efforts are being made to identify and characterize natural products with insecticidal and/or repellent activity against insect pests. Those products defined biopesticides are a broad group that include botanicals (essential oils and vegetal extracts), natural inert dusts as well as microorganisms derived compounds. Generally, their low toxicity, no residues in food, and high efficacy at low concentration make the use of biopesticides highly promising.
Currently, the relatively high cost and the variability of effectiveness make biopesticides a niche product in the insecticide market. However, new formulation strategies are being evaluated and, even if it is unlikely that biopesticides will replace chemical food protection within the next years, it is certain that the number of biopesticides-based products will increase and the costs will fall guaranteeing an increasing place in the market for them for the near future.

33-48

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Insecticidal and antifeeding activity of several botanicals against Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius
Sonja Gvozdenac, Dejan Prvulović, Vojislava Bursić, Snežana Tanasković, Mladen Tatić, Jelena Ovuka, Filip Vukajlović

Abstract: Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) is one of the most important pests of wheat during storage. It leads to reduction in quality, quantity and marketability of this crop. This is why the prevention of food losses during storage is of great economic importance. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of plant-based preparations (botanicals), as alternatives to chemical insecticides. The aim of this work was to assess the insectidical and antifeeding activity of Verbascum nigrum, Echium italicum and Erigeron canadensis (0.5, 1, 2%) ethanol extracts and botanical insecticides based on pyrethrin (0.01, 0.02, 0.05%) and azadirachtin (0.75, 1.5, 3%), on R. dominica adults. Insecticidal effects were determined in contact-digestive “No-choice” test on wheat grains, 24, 48, 72 h and 7 days after the treatment. Antifeeding effect was assessed based on the amount of consumed grains after 7 days, and according to AFI values. High mortality of R. dominica was recorded in treatments with pyrethrin (62.5-100%) and azadirachtin (74.5-100%), regardless on exposure periods and applied concentrations. Satisfactory mortality was after 24 h in treatment with 2% V. nigrum (43.7%), 48 h with E. italicum (42.0%) and after 72 h and 7 days in 2% V. nigrum (68.7, 75.5%, respectively), E. italicum (67.5, 88.0%, respectively) and E. canadensis (53.5, 63.5%, respectively). AFI values indicate that only 2% extracts of V. nigrum and E. italicum expressed slight antifeeding activity.

49-54

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Juniperus macrocarpa: a Mediterranean resource against stored food insect pests
Francesca Cosci, Stefano Bedini, Guido Flamini, Roberta Ascrizzi, Tiziana Lombardi, Andrea Bertacchi, Jessica Girardi, Rossella Bocchino, Barbara Conti

Abstract: Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Dryophthoridae) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Steph.) (Laemophloeidae) are, among Coleoptera, the most important primary pests of stored food. Essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, could represent a valid alternative to chemical repellents for the protection of stored foodstuff.
In this study, the essential oil extracted from Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Neirl (Cupressaceae) (JEO), native of Mediterranean sand dune habitat, was chemically analyzed and its repellent activity against S. oryzae and C. ferrugineus was evaluated by the area preference method.
The results showed that JEO was constituted mainly by mono and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. JEO major chemical was α-pinene, repeatedly reported as a very effective repellent against stored food insect pests. The bioassays indicated that JEO exerts a good repellency against S. oryzae and C. ferrugineus. Interestingly, C. ferrugineus is about 15 times more susceptible to JEO than S. oryzae. The obtained results showed that JEO could represents an effective, broad-spectrum bio-repellent to be used as sustainable alternative to synthetic insect repellents to fight the losses caused to stored food by insect pests.

55-60

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The three-year development of new natural insecticide formulations based on inert dusts and botanicals in Croatia
Vlatka Rozman, Zlatko Korunić, Josip Halamić, Anita Liška, Renata Baličević, Ines Galović, Pavo Lucić

Abstract: The authors describe a three-year research project financed by the Croatian Science Foundation, DIACROMIXPEST IP -11-2013-5570 on the development of natural insecticide formulation in Croatia in order to apply in the stored products protection. The significance of these formulations is the technology of mixing and various combinations of inert dusts based on Croatian diatomite with several Croatian plant substances. The synergy of physical and chemical mode of action of these formulations obtained better performance on insects compared with the same substances applied alone, but also slowed down the possible emergence of resistance. Given that all of the substances in the formulations of natural origin, there should be no concern about harmful residues of the insecticide in processed goods, on surfaces and in space.

61-67

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Green clay aromatized powder formulation for controlling Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) on stored chickpea
Soumaya Haouel-Hamdi, Olfa Bachrouch, Mariam Hedjal-Chebheb, Moez Amri, Chokri Massoudi, Ezzeddine Saadaoui, Emna Boushih, Jouda Mediouni-Ben Jemâa

Abstract: In Tunisia, the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is the most damaging pests of food legume stored grains mainly stored chickpea Cicer arietinum. Its control is based on the use of synthetic fumigants. However, these pesticides have various undesirable effects such as environmental pollution, pesticide residues, toxicity to non target organism and pest resistance, in addition to direct toxicity to users. Thus, safer alternatives are needed. This study reports the effectiveness of two green clay aromatized powder formulations fumigation against adults of C. maculatus and with the crude essential oils as reference. Two essential oils, namely Eucalyptus leucoxylon and E. lehmani, were used. The aromatized powder formulations efficacy was measured by pest mortality, fecundity and fertility. GC-MS analysis showed that α-pinene and 1,8-cineol were the major component of the two oils with respective percentage of 10.43; 22.48% and 54.64; 51.57% for E. leucoxylon and E. lehmani, respectively. Moreover, the aromatized powder formulations exhibited strongest adulticidal activities compared crude essential oils. Indeed, formulations achieved complete (100%) mortality against 76.6; 56.6% for E. lehmani and E. leucoxylon, respectively after 24 h of exposure at the highest concentration. In addition, significant reduction in both fecundity and fertility were observed between crude essential oils and aromatized powder formulations. In fact, fertility rate reached 74.87% for crude essential oils versus 31.05% for aromatized powder formulations. This result suggests the interest of applications of aromatized powder formulations for better pest management in storage structures. Indeed, in developing countries food legumes are major sources for human nutrition.

68-74

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Aromatic plant essential oils for the control of blowflies in the production of dry-cured meat
Stefano Bedini, Francesca Cosci, Jessica Girardi, Rossella Bocchino, Barbara Conti

Abstract: The control of insect pest is an important aspect of industrial and home-made dry-cured meat. Salted meats such as dry-cured ham, bacon and beef are susceptible to insect and mite pests during the processing and aging. The fly Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Calliphoridae), along with Piophila casei (L.) (Tephritidae), is the most important dipteran pest involved in the damage of home-cured meat products. In fact, C. vomitoria is known to be a vector of many foodborne pathogens and unintentional human ingestion of maggots by dry-cured meat consumption may lead to intestinal myiasis. In the cured meat production, C. vomitoria female oviposit on the meat immediately after the slaughtering, until the beginning of the aging. During the aging, newly emerged larvae, burrow deeply into the meat feeding on it and causing rots. As a consequence, the product is to be discarded with substantial economic losses.
The aims of this study, were to assess the oviposition deterrence of Allium sativum L., Salvia officinalis L., and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils (EOs) against C. vomitoria.
Results showed that the EOs are able to deter C. vomitoria oviposition on fresh meat starting from the dose of 0.5% (v/v).
Overall, this study showed the potential of the tested EOs for their use in the prevention of the infestation/contaminations by the blowfly C. vomitoria in the home-made and industrial productions of dry-cured meats.

75-80

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Selective activity of Cinnamomum verum essential oil against the rice weevils Sitophilus oryzae and its parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus in post-harvest pest management
Stefano Bedini, Francesca Cosci, Jessica Girardi, Rossella Bocchino, Guido Flamini, Roberta Ascrizzi, Barbara Conti

Abstract: Insect pests are a worldwide main cause of losses in stored food. Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Drypophthoridae) is one of the most widespread and destructive primary insect pests of stored cereals and shelved products. Currently, insect pests control mainly depends upon synthetic insecticides, which however, have undesirable effects on non-target organisms, environment and human health. As an alternative, insect parasitoids and predators may have a potential. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity (repellency/attractiveness) of the essential oil (EO), extracted from the bark of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl. against S. oryzae and its parasitoid, the wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Two-choice test Bioassays conducted in olfactometer showed that, at the same dosage, C. verum EO is attractive towards S. oryzae but repellent against L. distinguendus. These results suggest that C. verum EO, in appropriate doses, may be used in selective traps attractive to the insect pest in integrated pest management programs of warehouse stored-product pests’ infestation.

81-87

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Postharvest control alternatives for the management of the moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Pyralidae) in Tunisia: Essential oil fumigation and its impacts on date quality
Maha Ben Abada, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa

Abstract: The carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller is the most important and destructive insect pest attacking dates both in field and during storage in Tunisia. It caused yearly great economic losses and is considered as a serious biosecurity threat to Tunisian date’s production and industry. It caused loss of weight and downgrading of the commercial value of dates. Current available postharvest control methods are mainly based on the use of synthetic fumigants. However, most of the available fumigants have limitations in use due to various reasons including environmental drawbacks (residues, contamination …) and the development of resistance in pest species. Consequently, the use of such chemicals began to be restricted and even banned outright. Therefore, research on effective alternative methods is needed. This paper reported results of several trials conducted using some essential oils derived from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for the control of the last instar larval stage of E. ceratoniae. Last instars developing inside fruit were treated with R. officinalis essential oil at 15, 25 and 75 μl/l air and mortalities were assessed after 7, 15 and 30 days of storage. Moreover, the impact of the essential oil on physic-chemical and organoleptic proprieties was investigated. Results indicated that the oil exhibited strong fumigant potentialities. Moreover, the oil affected nutritional properties of dates. Furthermore, sensory analysis showed acceptability and appreciation of dates treated with R. officinalis oil. Our results suggest R. officinalis oil to be a potential date protectant for the carob moth E. ceratoniae management in stored dates.

88-97

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Catalase activity in two stored product pests exposed to Anethum graveolens L. essential oil
Miloš Petrović, Danijela Kojić, Aleksandra Popović, Jovana Šućur, Tijana Stojanović, Milica Aćimović, Đorđe Malenčić

Abstract only

98

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Efficacy of oxymatrine against Sitophilus granarius (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium confusum Du Val in wheat grain
Goran Andrić, Petar Kljajić, Marijana Pražić Golić

Abstract only

99

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Fumigation with Pistacia lentiscus essential oil: efficacy for the control of Tribolium castaneum and impact on the wheat flour quality
Olfa Bachrouch, Abdelkarim Aydi, Iness Jabri Karoui, Soumaya Haouel Hamdi, Jazia Sriti, Nithal Salem, Kamel Msaada, Majdi Hamami, Emna Boushih, Manef Abderraba, Ferid Limam, Jouda Médiouni Ben Jemâa

Abstract: In Tunisia, cereals present main economic products. Insects are considered as serious problems threating the biosecurity of cereals production and industries. They caused significant losses in both the quality and quantity. Protection is based mainly on the use of chemical pesticides and synthetic fumigants. Nevertheless, broad spectrum insecticides caused damage on human health and environment. Therefore, safer alternatives are recommended damage on human health and environment. Therefore, safer alternatives are recommended. This paper deals with the use of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil as natural fumigant against adults of Tribolium castaneum under mill scale. Insect mortalities, occupation space mortalities, occupation space conditions and wheat flour quality were investigated after 15 days of storage. GC/MS analysis revealed that Alpha-pinene (18.48%), 2-beta-pinene (13.50) and Beta-Myrcene (22.59%) are the major compounds of P. lentiscus essential oil. Moreover, results showed that mortality depends on occupation percentage and storage period. In fact, mortalities reached 68.7% and 56.6% respectively for occupation of 50% and 100% after 15 days of storage. On the other hand, wheat flour chromatic analysis indicated that volatile compounds absorption by the wheat flour varied with occupation space and affected insect mortality in a manner that more compounds are absorbed, more mortality are obtained; In dead, the total amounts of the absorbed major compounds attained 2.52% and 1.02% of the total of the oil for 50% and 100% occupation spaces, respectively. Results indicated that under mill conditions, T. castaneum management could be successful by using P. lentiscus essential oil and by optimizing occupation space and storage duration parameters.

100-103

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Fumigant effect of Tunisian essential oils on hidden C. maculatus individuals
M. Hedjal Ep Chebheb, A. Kellouche, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemaa, Larbi Mohamed Khoudja

Abstract only

104

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Efficacy of methanolic extract and essential oil of Lippia adoensis (Hochst. ex Walp.) against stored Bambara groundnut pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
E. N. Nukenine, C. Saidou, D. Nanguianan, K. H. Tofel, C. Adler

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105

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Biological control of stored products pests
Jordi Riudavets

Abstract: Biological control (BC) is applied worldwide during pre-harvest for arthropod pest management in a number of commercial crops. BC has been successfully adopted because it has been proved to be a technically and economically feasible alternative to the use of chemical control. Moreover, consumers are increasingly demanding free residue food products and legislation is promoting the use of more sustainable methods of pest management and a reduction in the use of synthetic pesticides. In comparison, BC is not yet considered an option during the post-harvest processing chain, and it is far from being adopted by the food industry, except in few examples in some countries. However, the increase resistance of many pest species to insecticides, the reduction in the number of active compounds registered and, the adverse impacts on the environment are also relevant reasons to develop alternatives to the use of toxic compounds for stored products pest control. The biology and control efficacy of a number of natural enemies of stored products pests have been studied in laboratory conditions but, in contrast, very little information is available of their performance in semi-practical or commercial situations. In spite of that, there are several positive facts that indicate us why BC can be considered an alternative when pesticides fail or are not available for stored products pest management and how BC will be applied in the future on a much larger scale than it is used nowadays.

107-109

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Use of predatory mites for the control of bruchids on stored chickpeas and beans
Rey D. Iturralde-García, Jordi Riudavets, Cristina Castañé

Extended abstract

110-111

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How to locate Tribolium larvae: Long-range attractants and contact cues mediate the olfactory host search of Holepyris sylvanidis
Benjamin Fürstenau, Monika Hilker

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112

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Efficacy of Turkish diatomaceous earth in combinations with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
Zehra Aydin, Ali A. Işikber, M. Kubilay, Özgür Sağlam, Inanç Doganay, Hasan Tunaz

Abstract only

113

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Delivering Beauveria bassiana with electrostatic powder for the control of stored-product beetles
Christos G. Athanassiou, Christos I. Rumbos, Maria Sakka, Olivier Potin, Clare Storm, Aoife B. Dillon

Abstract only

114

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Behavioural responses of Tribolium confusum to rice kernels: role of intra- and inter-specific competition on VOC emissions and female chemotaxis
Giulia Giunti, Orlando Campolo, Vincenzo Palmeri

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115

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Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for monitoring and management of nuisance pest problems associated with the invasive brown marmorated stink bug
William R. Morrison III, J. C. Bergh, T. P. Kuhar, J. Walgenbach, T. C. Leskey

Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug, or Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive species from southeast Asia, and has caused extensive agricultural damage in North America and Europe. Pheromone-based technology has been developed over the past 10 years, and when combined with appropriate traps, is highly effective at monitoring the species from April to October. This species also causes enormous nuisance issues for homeowners, ports, and the shipping industry when adults overwinter in anthropogenic structures in the fall, and then emerge in the spring. It was unknown whether this same pheromone technology in similar but smaller traps was effective at monitoring and/or managing H. halys in the winter (diapause) and early spring (post-diapause) periods of the year (roughly January to June) inside anthropogenic structures. This report summarizes two years of research examining the ability of pheromone-baited small pyramid traps to monitor and manage H. halys nuisance issues in buildings in the mid-Atlantic US.

116-122

5.00 €

 

Electrophysiological and behavioral studies to test attractant semiochemicals for Stegobium paniceum L. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)
Salvatore Guarino, Ezio Peri, Stefano Colazza, Mokhtar Abdulsattar Arif, Maurizio Sajeva, Giuseppe Braghieri, Nadia Zini, Marco Caimi, Francesca Tavella, Pietro Zito

No abstract

123-125

5.00 €

 

Effect of collection season, host species and incubation on the virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates from Adana, Turkey, against Rhyzopertha dominica adults
Mehmet Kubilay Er, Ali Arda Işikber, Hasan Tunaz

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126

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The peculiarities of Cry3Aa δ-endotoxin processing in midgut of tenebrionid storage product pests may have an impact on its toxicity
Zdeňka Svobodová, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Konstantin S. Vinokurov

Abstract: Economic losses caused by the storage product pests are considerable worldwide. The use of synthetic insecticides is limited due to the increased regulatory constraints and pest resistance. Biopesticides based on the δ-endotoxins (Cry proteins) from Bacillus thuringiensis are promising but some storage product pests show low sensitivity. To clarify the underlying mechanisms of such resistance, Tenebrio molitor (susceptible species) and Tribolium castaneum (resistant species) neonates were fed diet treated with Cry3Aa with subsequent analysis of mortality, fitness and in vivo Cry3Aa processing. LC50 of Cry3Aa for T. molitor was 110.2 mg/kg (after seven weeks of exposure). The sublethal Cry3Aa effects were manifested by the reduction of larval weight and increase of the developmental time. Tribolium castaneum tolerated the Cry3Aa doses as high as 2500 mg/kg. Such a difference in sensitivity between two closely related tenebrionid pests may be attributed to a difference in their life history strategies (faster development of T. castaneum). However, differences in Cry3Aa processing in the midgut lumen of both pests cannot be excluded. Analysis of Cry3Aa proteolysis in T. castaneum larval midgut revealed its efficient processing.

127-133

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Amblyseius swirskii for controlling dehydrated fruit pest
Maria Del Mar Morales-Amaral, Enric Vila Rifá

Abstract only

134

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The Bethylidae (Hymenoptera): a tool for biological control programmes in food industries
Marco Amante, Pompeo Suma, Matthias Schöller, Agatino Russo

Abstract: The importance of eco-friendly solutions to control pests is due to the pressure deriving from consumers and politics. Scientists are presenting solutions to match both the legal requirements and the need of industries producing organic food. Although Bethylidae have been less studied if compared to parasitoids belonging to other families, they represent a suitable tool for biological control. They actively search for hosts (pests) when released on the surface of infested stored products, quickly penetrate into cracks and crevices and typically paralyze more hosts than they effectively oviposit on, resulting in higher pest suppression. The Bethylidae as candidates for biological control can attack a large number of stored products pests and nowadays the most promising species are: Cephalonomia gallicola (Ashmead), Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead), Cephalonomia waterstoni Gahan, Holepyris hawaiiensis (Ashmead), H. sylvanidis (Brèthes), Laelius pedatus (Say) and Plastanoxus westwoodi (Kieffer). Among them, H. sylvanidis showed high value at the least in terms of longevity. Thus this parasitoid has been indicated as a good candidate for an inoculative release against Tribolium spp. Also C. waterstoni showed significant responses when tested in a four-chamber olfactomer, with a bouquet of odours deriving from the grain dust produced by the feeding activity of its host Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) supporting its potential usefulness in an IPM program.

135-138

5.00 €

 

Regular introduction of living Aspidiella hartii (Cockerell 1895) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on infested igname (Dioscorea spp.) tubers, imported as ethnic food in EPPO area
M. Salerno, G. Mazzeo, P. Suma, A. Russo, G. Pellizzari, F. Porcelli

Abstract only

139

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Mating disruption for management of stored product insects: Principals and practices
James F. Campbell

No abstract

141-143

5.00 €

 

Large-scale applications of phosphine in commercial facilities by using wireless phosphine sensors
V. Sotiroudas, P. Agrafioti, C. G. Athanassiou

Abstract only

144

0.00 €

 

Global uses for sulfuryl fluoride (ProFume® gas fumigant) for post-harvest pest control
Barbara Nead-Nylander, Ellen Thoms

Abstract only

145

0.00 €

 

Control of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) with vacuum
Cornel Adler

Abstract only

146

0.00 €

 

Acute and delayed toxicity effects of ozone on internal and external feeders of stored products
Rizana Mahroof, Barbara Amoah, Jewel Wrighton

Abstract: With the ban of methyl bromide, and the many problems associated with the use of other conventional control methods, the search for potential alternatives for the control of stored product insect pests has been ongoing. Ozone, a highly oxidizing gas, is one of such potential alternatives being studied for its use in the management of insect pests on stored products. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of ozone for controlling adults of Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), three important insect pests of stored products. We determined the mortality of O. mercator and L. serricorne exposed to 100-400 ppm at 50 ppm increments for one hour. We also determined the mortality of S. oryzae adults exposed to 200 ppm ozone at different depths within wheat mass in PVC pipes for 6, 12, 18, or 24 h. Mortality was recorded as percentage of insects that died by day 0 (immediately after ozone treatment), day 1, and day 2 post-treatment. Generally, mortality in O. mercator and L. serricorne increased with an increase in ozone concentration. Also mortality was generally higher when insects were treated in the presence of food compared to when treated in the absence of food. For each exposure duration investigated, higher mortality was recorded in S. oryzae adults at 5 cm depth compared to other depths. In addition, the longer the exposure period, the higher the mortality recorded at the various depths. The work reported suggests that ozone treatment could be a fumigant alternative for the management of adults of O. mercator, L. serricorne, and S. oryzae.

147-156

5.00 €

 

Control of stored product insects with high-pressure carbon dioxide treatments
Luciano Süss, Sara Savoldelli, Guglielmo Cassani, Francesca Lampugnani, Claudia Annetti, Leonardo Serrani, Paolo Filippini, Andrea Paparatto

Abstract: The test was carried out in a test-autoclave reproducing in small-scale the exact process conditions of industrial plants. Different treatments of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes exposure to a 20 bar carbon dioxide were performed on dried legumes, wrapped in typical industrial packaging materials. The effect on six species of Coleoptera and two species of Lepidoptera included in the packaging at different developmental stages (adults, pupae, larvae and eggs) was investigated. As a result, the 100% of mortality for Bruchus lentis was observed after 90 minutes, but an exposure of 120 minutes was necessary to achieve the complete control of Callosobruchus maculatus. In all other situations 100% of mortality was reached after 60 minutes in all tested packaging.

157-162

5.00 €

 

Effectiveness of a Turkish natural diatomaceous earth formulation against rice weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on wheat and paddy
Kamil Emre Kurtuluş, Nazife Eroglu Yalcin, Ahmet Güray Ferizli, Mevlüt Emekci

Abstract: A Diatomaceous earth formulation of Turkish origin, Turco-000, applied to wheat and paddy rice at different rates of up to 2 mg/kg, was evaluated against Sitophilus oryzae (F) on weekly basis for 21 days. Laboratory experiments were carried out at 25 °C and 55% R.H. using 9 replicates per dose rate and 20 adults per replicate. The GLM Repeated Measures ANOVA procedure was applied to the mortality results. Bonferroni multiple comparison test was employed to compare of means between the treatments at P < 0.05.
On wheat and paddy rice mortality of S. oryzae increased with dose rate and exposure time and reached to 69.85% and 45.45%, respectively, after 21 days of exposure.
LD50 values for S. oryzae adults exposed to DE treated wheat and paddy rice after 7 day exposure were calculated as to 1443.6 mg/kg and 3445.4 mg/kg, respectively.
We conclude that Turco-000, a Turkish natural DE deposit, was more effective against rice weevil on wheat than on paddy rice.

163-168

5.00 €

 

Insecticidal efficacy of Turkish diatomaceous earth deposits against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), adults on chickpea
Mehmet A. Gültekįn, Özgür Sağlam, Ali A. Işikber

Abstract only

169

0.00 €

 

Insecticidal potential of a Turkish natural zeolite formulation enhanced with silica aerogel against confused flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for short- and long-term applications
Nazife Eroglu Yalcin, Mevlut Emekci

Abstract: There were short- (7-28 days) and long-term (90 and 180 days) studies to evaluate Turkish zeolite toxicity to adult Tribolium confusum on two-row barley variety (Özdemir-05). The formulation contains natural unprocessed Turkish Zeolite (70%, w:w) from western side of Turkey enhanced with food grade silica aerogel (30%, w:w). Short-term studies got a control and 750 ppm dosage, total 250 adults in 10 replications at 24 °C and 60% R.H. on 50 g barley for each cup. Long-term applications cover a control, and 200 to 800 ppm dosages, total 250 adults in 10 replications at 25 °C and 55 ± 5% R.H. on 700 g barley. The outcome of the long-term applications suggests that Turkish zeolites has statistically significant effect on 90-day population management against T. confusum adults. There was statistical difference between two application times (90 and 180 days) of each dosage groups regarding survival of insects. Short-term studies with 750 ppm dosage suggest 100% population control after 3 weeks. In long-term studies of 90 days, the less number of adults noted with the more dosage that 81.6 adults found at 800 ppm level. However, there was no significant difference between the doses in the 180 days application that 545.7 adults recorded at 800 ppm dosage. It is estimated that the low efficacy of long-term storage condition is caused by the increase of relative humidity.

170-176

5.00 €

 

Role of the Imidacloprid and nano-Imidacloprid on Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) under store and laboratory conditions
Magda M. A. Sabbour

Abstract: The efficacy of Imidacloprid and nano-Imidacloprid were evaluated on Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) under store and laboratory conditions. Results obtained showed that when the target insect pests treated with Imidacloprid the percentages of larval mortality obtained 77% and 91% for C. chinensis and C. maculatus, respectively. The cumulative mortality percentage was gradually increased by increasing the period of exposure to foam treated with different Nano Imidacloprid. Data showed that nano-Imidacloprid had the highest repellant activity against the C. maculatus and C. chinensis reaching to 66% and 69%. The reduction of the eggs laid per female was scored 99.3% and 99.6 eggs/female after treatments with nano-Imidacloprid. Under store conditions the percentage of infestations was significantly decreased to 6% and 7% after treating the Nano Imidacloprid as compared to 98% in the sacs control (untreated).

177-184

5.00 €

 

Pathogenicity of Imidacloprid and its nano against Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) under laboratory and store conditions
Magda M. A. Sabbour

Abstract: The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) very harmful insect pests to cereals grain including wheat. Imidacloprid among the natural insecticide, so it tested against the target pests under laboratory and store conditions. Results showed that, the LC50 of Imidacloprid and nano imidclorprid recoded 80 and 32 conidia/ml. Also, results showed that the accumulative mortality percentage was gradually increased after increasing the period of exposure to foam treated with the two pathogens tested. Nano-Imidacloprid showed a highest accumulative mortality (89.5%), followed by Imidacloprid (50.1%).
The reduction of the eggs laid per female was scored 90.3% eggs/female after treatments with nano Imidacloprid. Under store conditions the percentage of infestations was significantly decreased to 8% and 19% after treating the stocks sacs with nano-Imidacloprid and Imidacloprid, respectively, as compared to 99% in the stock sacs control (untreated).

185-191

5.00 €

 

The effect of Imidacloprid and nano-Imidacloprid against Sitophilus granarius under laboratory and store conditions
Magda M. A. Sabbour

Abstract: The effects of some natural Imidacloprid and nano-Imidacloprid were tested against the grain weevil Sitophilus granarius under laboratory and store conditions. Results obtained show that the percentage of larval mortality of S. granarius was 59% and 89% after treated with Imidacloprid and nano-Imidacloprid compared to 0% in the control. When the grain weevil S. granarius was treated with the higher concentrations, at 3% the eggs laid/female for the corresponding tested Imidacloprid and nano-Imidacloprid were recorded as 31 ± 1.9, and 5 ± 1.4 eggs/female as compared to 199 ± 6.9 eggs/ female in the control.

192-198

5.00 €

 

Rapid insect disinfestation of dried figs by fumigation of propylene oxide as alternative to methyl bromide
Yeter Bilgili, Ali A. Işikber, Hasan Tunaz, Christos G. Athanassiou, Özgür Sağlam, Inanç Doganay, M. Kubilay Er

Abstract only

199

0.00 €

 

Residual efficacy of cypermethrin and pirimiphos-methyl against Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) in wheat grain
Marijana Pražić Golić, Petar Kljajić, Goran Andrić

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200

0.00 €

 

Use of modified atmospheres for the control of chickpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and its effect on commercial quality of grain and seed in Mexico
Francisco J. Wong-Corral, Jordi Riudavets, Jesús Borboa-Flores, Rey D. Iturralde-García

Abstract only

201

0.00 €

 

The efficacy of CA of the field test on the developmental stage of four primary pests species
Radek Aulicky, Vlastimil Kolar, Jan Plachy, Vaclav Stejskal

Abstract only

202

0.00 €

 

Mortality of stored-food beetle larvae exposed to a controlled atmosphere enriched with nitrogen and containing above-minimum levels of oxygen
Claudia Sotgia, Maria Cristina Reguzzi, Alessia Berzolla, Elisabetta Chiappini, Rinaldo Nicoli Aldini

Abstract: Insect pests of stored foodstuffs can cause different types of damage. The larval stage is often the chief culprit, causing serious damage to food commodities while being the most resistant to hypoxic treatments. Knowledge of the response to treatment during each development stage is necessary for pest management programs. This research aimed to evaluate the possibility of using a nitrogen controlled atmosphere as an alternative to biocide treatments against larvae of five important species of stored-food beetles (Coleoptera), and to improve the effects of hypoxia at above-minimum oxygen levels (O2 > 1%), with changing temperatures and relative humidity levels, given that several studies have shown that lowering the relative humidity and increasing the temperature improves the effectiveness of controlled atmosphere treatments. The species tested were Sitophilus granarius (Linnaeus), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus), Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus), Trogoderma inclusum LeConte and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Larvae were exposed to atmospheres containing low percentages of oxygen (3%, 5%), at four different relative humidities (15%, 35%, 55%, 75%) and two different temperatures (23 °C, 30 °C) for 7 days. Total mortality was achieved in very few cases, and only under the most unfavorable conditions of the lowest levels of relative humidity and oxygen content. Results varied from species to species, so it is evident that the efficacy of treatment by controlled atmosphere is species-dependent.

203-209

5.00 €

 

An entomological and economic analysis of heat treatment in Italian flour mills
P. Suma, A. La Pergola, A. Russo, G. Chinnici, S. Bella, B. Pecorino, G. Pappalardo

Abstract: Heat treatments (HT) for pest control represents a promising non-chemical method to control stored grain arthropods with a significant reduction of environmental impact compared to other chemical methods. For mills, pest control in post-harvest workspaces is considered as one of the activities that might highly affect the environment due to the chemicals used for that purpose. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of HT within mills that produce flour in Sicily (Italy). In this perspective, a mixed entomological and economic study was conducted in which the efficacy of the treatments in controlling food stored pests and the economic feasibility for the mills that adopted this technique, was assessed. The experiments were conducted in three mills of durum wheat and one mill of soft wheat, in late spring, evaluating the mortality rate of different life instars of T. confusum, S. oryzae, R. dominica, S. paniceum and E. kuehniella. The results obtained have shown a good effectiveness of this method in controlling pests' population; the economic analysis conducted, using precautionary assumptions, showed good performance of the Benefit-Cost Analysis’ financial indices. This eco-friendly method provide a good technical alternatives to chemical control method for stored food pests, finding a good applicability in the critical stages of the food chain.

210-216

5.00 €

 

Effect of microwave treatment with a new magnetron prototype on the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, John Chronopoulos, Dimitrios Ch. Kontodimas, George Karachalios, Luca Bernabei

Abstract: The use of microwave radiation against adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and adults and larvae of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), infesting stored wheat and maize, was investigated. Twenty individuals of each stored-product insect species/stage infesting different depths of maize and wheat were exposed from 5 to 120 sec to microwave radiation with a novel magnetron device at powers between 100 and 1200 W. We found that mortality of the tested species considerably increased with the increase of exposure interval at all power levels on both commodities reaching finally 100%. The results of the present study indicate that microwaves can potentially be used for the disinfection of stored products by noxious insects.

217-222

5.00 €

 

Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana and diatomaceous earth combined application against Sitophilus oryzae adults
Hasan Uslu, Mehmet Kubilay, Ali Arda Işikber, Hasan Tunaz

Abstract only

223

0.00 €

 

Insecticidal efficacy of Turkish diatomaceous earth deposits in stored paddy against rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.)
Önder Baytekin, Özgür Sağlam

Abstract only

224

0.00 €

 

Effects of bifenthrin formulation with natural zeolite on Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in wheat grain
Petar Kljajić, Goran Andrić, Marijana Pražić Golić, Marija Stevanović, Slavica Gašić

Abstract only

225

0.00 €

 

Efficacy of diatomaceous earth against stored product pests and its impact on the quality of the grain
Petr A. Yakovlev, Yakov B. Mordkovich, Natalia N. Karamysheva, Ekaterina G. Phetyukhina

Abstract: Results of laboratory bioassays with diatomaceous earth formulation DEBUZZZER for pre-stored treatment of wheat grain, Triticum aestivum L., against larvae of khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Ev., and warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ball., adults of grain weevil, Sitophilus granarius L., and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L., and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Duv., and larvae and adults of meal-worm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L., are presented. The DEBUZZZER was applied at dose 3 kg per ton. Untreated grain was used as a control. The experiment was carried out in triplicate. Mortality and weight loss of insects were assessed after 3, 6, 9, 14 and 20 days (d) post exposure. Grain quality indicators such as moisture, content of protein and gluten were analyzed after bioassays. Total mortality of adults’ grain weevil (S. granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzae) has been established on 6 and 14 d after treatment respectively with about 50% weight loss. Also diatomaceous earth treatment of grain has led to a 100 percent death of adults’ mealworm beetle (T. molitor) and confused flour beetle (T. confusum) after 6 and 14 d with 41.8 and 60.6% weight loss respectively. DEBUZZZER was not found to be effective against T. molitor larvae, but caused 100% mortality of hatched adults. Diatomaceous earth formulation was found to be ineffective against T. granarium and T. variabile larvae and has led to 11.7 and 3.3% mortality after 20 d of exposure, respectively. DEBUZZZER wasn’t found to influence on the content of protein, gluten and ash in the grain. However, a small decrease in the moisture content of the grain was detected. Decline of germination of treated seeds wasn’t observed.

226-231

5.00 €

 

Research on insecticidal efficacy of three different wood ashes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera, Curculionidae) adults under laboratory conditions
Tanja Bohinc, Jerneja Jelnikar, Aleksander Horvat, Petar Kljajić, Goran Andrić, Marijana Pražić Golić, Stanislav Trdan

Abstract: The effectiveness of three different wood ashes from black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were evaluated on maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) regarding adult (2-4 weeks old) mortality. Diatomaceous earth served as positive control. We have tested wood ashes as surface treatment (10 and 20 g/m2) and as admixtures (2.5 and 5 w%). Mortality of weevils, when wood ashes were applied as surface treatment was evaluated every day till 7th day of application, and every day till 14th day of application (as delayed mortality). When wood ashes were admixed, we have evaluated mortality after 7, 14 and 21st day. Research was performed at two different relative humidty values (55 and 75%) and at three different temperatures (15, 20 and 25 °C). Based on the results of our survey we conclude that mortality of Sitophilus zeamais adults was influenced by wood ash species, air temperature and relative humidity. As surface treatment, 99.69 ± 0.31% mortality was achived at treatment with Norway spruce on day 7 at 25 °C. When admixed, 100% mortality was achieved on day 14, when Norway spruce's wood ash has been applied at 25 °C.
Use of wood ash as stored product protectant proved to be efficient in our survey, although additional reseach should be made.

232-240

5.00 €

 

Effects of natural and synthetic zeolites against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera, Curculionidae) adults under laboratory conditions
Tanja Bohinc, Aida Dervić, Aleksander Horvat, Petar Kljajić, Goran Andrić, Marijana Pražić Golić, Stanislav Trdan

Abstract: Laboratory experiment was carried out to evaluate the impact of zeolites of different origin on the mortality of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) adults. We have tested the efficacy of natural zeolites (Slovenian and Serbian) and synthetic zeolites ('Asorbio'). Diatomaceous earth (product SilicoSec® was used as positive control). We have applied zeolites as surface treatment (at concentrations 10 and 20 g/m2) and as admixtures (at concentrations 450 and 900 ppm). Mortality of weevils, when zeolites were applied as surface treatment was evaluated everyday till 7th day after application, and everyday till 14th day after application (as delayed mortality). When zeolites were admixed, we have evaluated mortality after 7th, 14th and 21st day. Research was performed at two different relative humidty values (55 and 75%), and at three different temperature (15, 20 and 25 °C). We conclude that mortality of maize weevil adults was influenced by higher temperature values and lower relative humidity value. When we have applied 'Zeolite Slovenia' (at 900 ppm, 15 °C, 55% Rh) as admixture we have recorded 69.69 ± 7.04% after day 21, meanwhile mortality reached 83.66 ± 3.21% after day 21, when 'Zeolite Slovenia' was applied at 25 °C. 100% mortality of maize weevil adults was recorded, when 'Zeolite Slovenia' (after day 7 at 25 °C) was applied at surface. There was no impact of zeolite's dose on mortality of maize weevils. Mortality of weevils was alike in two natural zeolites (Slovenian and Serbian), meanwhile mortality of maize weevils was the lowest in treatments with 'Asorbio'. Use of natural zeolites proved to be efficient as stored product protectant in our research, although additional surveys should be made.

241-250

5.00 €

 

Efficacy of natural diatomaceous earth products from Serbia against the fifth larval instar of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
Filip Vukajlović, Dragana Predojević, Vesna Perišić, Snežana Pešić

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of natural diatomaceous earths (DE) from Serbia against the 5th larval instar of laboratory population of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813). We used two natural DE products mined in Kolubara region, S-1 (containing 78.8% of SiO2) and S-2 (containing 63.2% of SiO2). Registered product Protect-It® (containing 83.7% of SiO2) (Hedley Technologies Inc., Canada) was used for comparison. Evaluation of DEs efficacy was conducted on broken maize kernels, at 27 ± 1 °C and 60 ± 5% r.h., by following modified methods of OEPP/EPPO (2004). All three DE products were tested at rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg. Efficacy was evaluated after 2, 4, 7 and 14 days of larval contact with treated maize kernels. Two, four and seven days after the treatment, mortality was low (less than 10% in DE S-1 and S-2, and 30% in Protect-It® tests). The highest mortality was recorded 14 days after the treatment. Depending on application rate, it was found to range: 23.5-28.5% (DE S-1), 24.0-34.5% (DE S-2) and 34.0-66.0% (Protect-It®). The efficacy of tested DE products was affected significantly by exposure period, less by type of DE and the least by tested concentrations. Results indicate that two tested natural diatomaceous earth products from Serbia have low insecticidal potential for control of the 5th larval instar of P. interpunctella, due to fast larval change into the pupal stage, induced by the treatment.

251-257

5.00 €

 

Assessment of the efficacy of spinetoram and spinosad against adults of three Sitophilus species reared on four different winter wheat varieties
Stanislav Trdan, Tanja Bohinc, Martin Snoj, Marijana Pražić Golić, Petar Kljajić, Goran Andrić

Abstract: The efficacy of spinetoram and spinosad against 2-4 weeks old Sitophilus adults has been tested under laboratory conditions. Spinetoram and spinosad were applied at three different dose rates (0.5., 1 and 2 mg/kg). Experiment was performed at 25 °C and 65% rh, on four different winter wheat varieties. Mortality counts were assessed on day 7, day 24 and day 21. Our research demonstrated impact of grain type, dose of exposure, day of evaluation and Sitophilus species on mortality of weevils. Mortality of weevils was higher in treatments treated with spinetoram (90.19 ± 0.48%). After day 21, spinosad caused 91.64 ± 0.93% mortality, meanwhile 96.13 ±0.51% mortality was detected in spinetoram treatment after day 21. When applied spinosad as 2 mg/kg, 96.35 ± 0.44% was detected. Spinetoram caused 96.79 ± 0.38% at 2 mg/kg. Efficacy of spinosad (69.47 ± 1.87%) and spinetoram (78.23 ± 0.83%) was the lowest on variety 'Fidelius'. Spinosad caused the highest mortality in treatments with Serbian maize weevil (96.64 ± 0.31%), meawhile spinetoram prooved to be the most efficient in treatments with Serbian rice weevil (94.58 ± 0.77%) and Serbian granary weevil (94.07 ± 0.64%). Our resarch on the efficacy of spinetoram and spinosad against stored product insect pests is the first one for Slovenian agriculture. It presents good basics for further studies on implementation of tested insecticides as protectant of stored grains in Slovenia.

258-263

5.00 €

 

Biological effects of an exopolysaccharide of Trametes versicolor
Corrado Fanelli

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265

0.00 €

 

The root anti-microbial compounds as protectants for stored products
Azeddine Driouich, Romain Castilleux, Marc Ropitaux, Sophie Bernard, Isabelle Boulogne, Marie-Laure Follet Gueye, Maité Vicré

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266

0.00 €

 

Hermetic storage of paddy rice: the impact of relative humidity on fungi infection and on rheology of the pastes
Ana Magro, Anabela Raymundo, Patrícia Fradinho, Isabel Sousa, Maria Otília Carvalho

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate if under hermetic conditions, paddy rice can be stored during four months at different relative humidity, without losing grain quality. Trials were carried out from December to April 2016, using GrainPro® SuperGrainbag® Farm™ to store two rice varieties japonica and indica varieties, under three different relative humidity: 67.5%, 74.5% and 85.5% RH, at average temperature of 14.2 °C, both monitored by Hobo® Data loggers, with probe, placed inside the bags. Checkpoint II Portable O2 and CO2 Gas Analyzer were used to assess gas contents on the top and bottom of each bag. At the end of the trials, paddy samples were collected to analyze fungal infection, dehusked and milled, and the flour obtained used to estimate water activity (aw), using HygroPalm HP23, Rotronic, and to carry out rheological tests, performed on a MARS III controlled-stress rheometer. The isolated fungi were identified as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Trichothecium. From the analysis of the hermetic paddy bags one can see that there was no significant differences (p > 0.05) on aw values between the two varieties: from 0.47 aw at 67.5% RH to 0.58 aw 85.5% RH, which are secure values to avoid mycotoxins development. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) on gas content for the different RH: 67.5% (20.4% O2, 1.2% CO2), 74.5% (18.5% O2, 3.7% CO2) and 85.5% (5.9% O2, 18.9% CO2) indicating an increase of respiration rate with the increase of RH. In what the rheology of the rice flours is concerned, the increase of RH showed a decrease on the viscoelastic functions of the respective rice pastes, which is consistent with the increase on respiration rate, related to starch and protein damage by fungi growth.

267-274

5.00 €

 

Grain storage under N2 controlled atmosphere: An eco friendly method against mycotoxigenic fungi and pests
L. Moncini, S. Sarrocco, G. Pachetti, A. Moretti, M. Haidukowski, G. Vannacci

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275

0.00 €

 

Effects of antagonistic bacteria and their mixtures on Monilinia fructicola
Brankica Tanović, Jovana Hrustić, Milica Mihajlović, Goran Delibašić

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276

0.00 €

 

Quarantine and control storage and package pests: past and present
Vaclav Stejskal

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278

0.00 €

 

Susceptibility of Trogoderma granarium (Everts) to residual insecticides
Frank Arthur, Mukti Ghimire, Scott Myers, Thomas Phillips

Abstract: Trogoderma granarium (Everts), (khapra beetle), is one of the most destructive stored product insect worldwide. Most countries either have or are adopting quarantine restrictions on this insect. Increasing interceptions of this insect by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) at seaports and airports is prompting renewed concerns regarding potential for invasion and establishment of this species. The report summarizes initial results from a project to update control recommendations to prevent establishment and spread of this species.

279-285

5.00 €

 

A device for quick evaluation resistance of packaging films to penetration by storage insects
Shlomo Navarro, Hagit Navarro

Abstract: A quick test method was developed to evaluate penetration of storage insects through packaging films. The developed method consisted of two identical glass cylinders and a wire mesh placed on top of the film to be tested placed together among the two cylinders. The efficacy of the method was evaluated using Rhyzopertha dominica (L.), 10-15 d adults placed in the test device. Exposure periods of insects to the test films consisting of office paper (80 g/m2) (110 μm thick), flour package paper (150 μm thick), aluminum foil (20 μm thick), laminate (120 and 150 μm thick), Whatman No. 1 (200 μm thick), Whatman No. 44 (170 μm thick), Whatman No. 50 (110 μm thick) and polyethylene (10 and 20 μm thick) were 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 h in the cell with wire mesh (No. 25). Penetration was also evaluated for 24, 48, and 72 h. Penetration by R. dominica adults increased with increasing exposure periods. The thickness and the type of the films played an important role on resistance of insects to penetration. R. dominica penetrated to all tested films within 24 h exposure except the laminate of 150 μm. Significant differences were found in the ability of R. dominica to penetrate the films with and without using wire mesh in the test device. A possible explanation for the speed that insects penetrated may be because of the wire mesh positioned adjacent to the test film. Given test apparatus was simple to construct and less expensive than a device that used metal sections, since it enabled evaluation of the tested packaging films within extremely short exposure times.

286-294

5.00 €

 

Evaluation of phosphine resistance in stored-product insects from Greece using two assessment methods
Paraskevi Agrafioti, V. Sotiroudas, C. Götze, J. Allegra, G. Jacob, C. G. Athanassiou

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295

0.00 €

 

Further demonstration of widespread phosphine resistance in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) in Oklahoma
Charles E. Konemann, George P. Opit, Zhaorigetu Hubhachen

Abstract: In 2013, we established a discriminating dose for Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) to be 56.2 ppm of phosphine gas (PH3), based on a 20-h fumigation. During 2015 and 2016, eight populations of C. ferrugineus from Oklahoma grain storage facilities that were evenly distributed geographically were collected, and subjected to the discriminating dose to detect resistance to PH3. Results showed three of the populations had resistance frequencies > 90%, and these were populations from one terminal and two cooperative elevator storage facilities. Three populations had resistance frequencies in the range of 60.7-86%. The remaining two populations were from cooperative elevator facilities and had no detectable resistance (100% mortality); similarly and expectedly, mortality of individuals in samples of the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-S) was also 100%. Dose response tests were conducted over a 3-day period on the two populations of C. ferrugineus from Stillwater (Still) and a terminal elevator in Enid (Enid Term. 1) which had resistance frequencies ≥ 98%. LC99 values determined by probit analyses for the Lab-S, Still, and Enid Term. 1 were 7.3, 699.5, and 1,275 ppm, respectively, over a 3-day exposure period. The level of resistance in populations from Stillwater and Enid were 96.5 and 225 times that of the susceptible laboratory strain, respectively. Data from this study show that C. ferrugineus resistance to PH3 is widely distributed geographically within the state of Oklahoma with some populations highly resistant to PH3. This study demonstrates the need for a wider survey of PH3 resistance in stored grain insect pests in grain growing parts of Oklahoma and USA.

296-301

5.00 €

 

Determining phosphine resistance in Sitophilus oryzae (L.) populations from different geographical regions of Turkey
Ali A. Işikber, Özgür Sağlam, Hüseyin Bozkurt, İnanç Ş. Doğanay

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302

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Phosphine resistance to some coleopteran pests in stored grains across Turkey
Erhan Koçak, Abdullah Yilmaz, Yasįn Nazim Alpkent, Saįt Ertürk

Abstract: Coleoptera order has important pests as Sitophilus oryzae, S. granarius (Curculionidae) and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Silvanidae) on stored grains in Turkey. The most effective control method is fumigation with phosphine against the pests. However, many pests developed resistance to phosphine in the world. In this study, 28 strains of S. oryzae, 26 strains of S. granarius and 16 strains of O. surinamensis were supplied from 14 provinces of different regions across Turkey. All strains were tested with bioassays by using two-three weeks old F1 adults to determine the phosphine resistance of adults to discriminating phosphine concentrations of 0.04 mg/l for S. oryzae and O. surinamensis and 0.07 mg/l for S. granarius during 20 hours. Later, the bioassays showed that resistance occured between 3.11 and 200.54 fold in 11 strains (39.3%) of S. oryzae; 3.48 and 5.26 fold in five strains (19.2%) of S. granarius and 388.98 and 459.57 fold in three strains (18.7%) of O. surinamensis. It can be said that phosphine resistance is common and serious in Turkish strains of the coleopteran pests except S. granarius in stored grains.

303-310

5.00 €

 

Phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) populations from Turkey
Abdullah Yilmaz, Erhan Koçak

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311

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Evaluation of phosphine tolerance in stored product insects in Europe
Maria Sakka, Jonny Allegra, Gerhard Jacob, Carolin Götze, Vasilis Sotiroudas, Christos G. Athanassiou

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312

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Integrated Pest Management in the protection of cultural heritage: museums, archives and libraries
Pascal Querner

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314

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Damages of Gastrallus pubens Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in a library
Sara Savoldelli, Francesca Cappitelli, Paolo Cortesi, Marco Saracchi, Federica Troiano, Federica Villa

Abstract: Gastrallus pubens Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) was recently found in a library in northern Italy, where 1800 books were located. Aesthetic and structural damages were observed on 4.5% of books, especially the oldest one. The deep galleries on the books were due to the action of larvae while circular holes were made by new-emerged adults. Most of damages were observed near the volume bounds.

315-317

5.00 €

 

Five years of preventive pest management in the Historical Archives of the Diocese of Lodi
Claudia Sotgia, Maria Cristina Reguzzi, Alessia Berzolla, Elisabetta Chiappini

Abstract: The preservation of cultural heritage has always been a topical issue in Italy. Nowadays, much greater emphasis is given to prevention, early detection of insects through monitoring and inspection, and thus on specific targeted treatments. A relative small percentage of insects has the potential to become serious biodeteriogen and to cause irreparable damage to library materials in a relatively short time. The Historical Archive of the Diocese of Lodi is object of an entomological monitoring since 2010. It contains approximately 800 linear meters of paper material. Food availability is not a factor limiting insect pest development because the presence of a variety of materials (leather, starch, dead insects as well as mold or fungi), which can provide support to many different insect species. The monitoring program is carried out through various types of insects-traps and through the aid of microclimatic data detectors for the control of temperature and humidity conditions of storage environments. All the relevant information which can be related to any possible insects presence have been collected. Pests were periodically identified in laboratory. The entomological monitoring of the Archive has reached the fifth consecutive year, bringing significant results in terms of "preventive pest management”. The prevention of the damage with a regular monitoring, inspection programme and early identification provides one of the best long-term strategy for insect pest control in archives.

318-323

5.00 €

 

Commercial application of non chemical fumigation in museums
Hagit Navarro, Shlomo Navarro

Abstract: Among stored product insects, non food pests are common in museums artifacts and wood products. Since the phase out of methyl bromide and since it harms rubber products non chemical fumigations were applied indoor to treat museums' valuable products such as stuffed animals, woods oriented from Far East and other valuables. Treatments were applied in controlled conditions of 25 °C for 12 days to control Lyctus spp. and Anthrenus verbasci beetles. The museum artifacts consisted of various stuffed wild animals collected by the Human and Animal museum, Ramat Gan and were on display inside show-window. All items were placed inside a 13 m3 gastight and flexible fumigation chamber at three levels shelves. CO2 was applied from a pressurized cylinder using a high pressure resistant tube attached to the bottom of the fumigation chamber while at the top an opening of about 15 cm was left open. The purging of CO2 was carried out directly using a siphon cylinder. The dosage of 2 kg/m3 was applied while gas concentration was monitored during purging and until 100% concentration was reached. Measurements were carried out immediately after application and before opening. Fumigation was done using low permeability flexible liners equipped with zip-lock zipper. During the fumigation the chamber was heated to maintain 25 °C. Results obtained complete mortality of both species. CO2 fumigation being applied indoor with controlled temperature is a suitable, successful and comfortable way of application with no need of handling the valuable, sometimes heavy, art crafts to a special gastight chamber, normally located far from museums.

324-333

5.00 €

 

Determination of residual contact toxicity of semi-synthetic spinosyn insecticide, Spinetoram, against 3-4 nymph stages of American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana L.
Mehmet Ramazan Rişvanli, Özgür Sağlam, Hasan Tunaz, Ali Arda Işikber, Kadir Özcan, Mehmet Kubilay Er

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334

0.00 €

 

Efficient by nature: The biological control method for the common furniture beetle with Spathius exarator
Judith Auer, Alexander Kassel

Abstract: The common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) is the most frequent wood pest in historical buildings in middle, north and eastern Europe, causing devastating damage disintegrating the wooden interior. We present here a new biological control method of A. punctatum using its most frequently found antagonist, the braconid wasp Spathius exarator (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). The 5 to 9 mm large female tracks down the pest species within the galleries by perceiving the movements of the furniture beetle larva. It pierces its ovipositor through the timber and initially paralyzes the larva. Then it presses the flexible egg through the ovipositor and places it onto the larva. Within a few days, a larva of the parasitic wasp hatches and feeds on the paralyzed furniture beetle larva. At that time, the destruction of the timber by feeding activities of the furniture beetle larva has already stopped. S. exarator larvae pupate and adult wasps hatch through a 0.5 mm wide exit hole which can be easily distinguished from the 2 mm wide holes caused by A. punctatum.

335-344

5.00 €

 

Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils and selectedmonoterpenoid components against 1-3 nymph stages of American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)
Yasemin Bengü Şahan, Ali A. Işikber, Hasan Tunaz, M. Kubilay

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345

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Evaluation of novel ecofriendly synergists for insecticide formulations against Blattella germanica (L.)
Olga Chiesa, Michela Panini, Maria Cristina Reguzzi, Claudia Sotgia, Emanuele Mazzoni

Abstract: Blattella germanica (L.) is a common pest of anthropic environments. Cockroach infestations are associated with poor sanitation, particularly around food-handling facilities, causing damages and contaminations. Furthermore, this species is responsible for transmitting microorganisms which implicate medical and hygienic problems. In this study, carried out in the framework of the European project "Ecosyn" (Ecofriendly synergists for insecticide formulations, funded by the 7th Framework Program of the European Union, contract no. 605740), the synergists PBO and some of its new derivatives were combined with two insecticides to assess any possible effect. The cypermethrin was assayed using a contact test in vials, leaving the insects with the products for 30 minutes, evaluating the knock-down effect every 5 minutes. Then, cockroaches were transferred in untreated vials and mortality was assessed 24 hours later. In general, the synergists did not influence the knock-down effect but caused a significant increase in mortality compared to the insecticide used alone. The S-methoprene effect was evaluated feeding virgin females for a week with moist baits containing insecticide and synergist. After mating with untreated males, every day mortality and appearance, abortion or hatching of ootheca were assessed. Although differences among various synergists were observed, the treated cockroaches showed a delay in ootheca production, an increase in its abortion and a reduction in the number of births.

346-351

5.00 €

 

Preventive conservation and IPM: their sustainability for cultural properties protection
Maria Cristina Reguzzi, Claudia Sotgia, Gabriele Canali, Alessia Berzolla, Elisabetta Chiappini, Giulia Pezzini

Abstract: While in Europe IPM standard has just been published, in Italy restoration culture still represents the main conservation practice because of the high visibility for both the property itself and the conservation institution, as well as for public and private sponsors. This research was carried out in Northern Italy institutions “hosting” different properties that realized a restauration activity due to insect damage. For each of them costs due to ordinary organizational management, restoration, and IPM were investigated in order to compare and analyse them and verify the sustainability of preventive conservation measures. This research shows not only a very limited disposability to provide internal, financial data but also the tendency to have incomplete data recording. For these reason it is very difficult to verify the convenience of different management strategies. Furthermore, it confirms the general absence of preventive conservation programs due to the ignorance of the existence of an IPM standard procedure and the lack of prepared staff. In the only case in which an IPM program has been part of the standard management since many years, its annual cost represents only the 0.2% of the estimated value of the collection. The effective prevention plans with an IPM project are definitely a small matter compared to assets value. It would be desirable that institutions support the prevention costs to create long-term solutions rather than a single restoration.

352-356

5.00 €

 

Insect pests of insulation wool panels
Maria Cristina Reguzzi, Claudia Sotgia, Valentina Cinieri, Emanuele Zamperini

Abstract: The spread of sustainability theories in architecture are leading to an increasing use of natural materials and to buildings designed and constructed in accordance with environmentally friendly principles. Sheep’s wool has interesting thermal and acoustic properties and it represents a renewable resource due to the recycle of a by-product. However wool is subject to insect attack, consequently technical precautions are required for its correct use. The existing literature about insulating materials did not address the use of sheep’s wool, so lacking technical knowledge about this material, builders transpose the conventional technique to bio-products but this can easily produce errors from design up to installation phase. In Italy cases of severe infestations mainly due to Tineola bisselliella on wool insulating panels have been observed. Furthermore Dermestid beetle infestations were found. The signs of insect infestation can be seen only when it is already at an advanced stage and it is very difficult to identify it without invasive and costly inspections on the walls. Emerging adults reach the interior of the buildings where environmental conditions are stable and food sources are easily available. It’s important, therefore, to apply planning precautions for a proper use of these interesting natural materials, in order to avoid risk from attack by insects. This work critically analyses the current treatment procedures and the constructional methods for the use of insulating wool panels, highlighting the observed defects and proposing some alternative solution.

357-360

5.00 €

 

Future trends and needs in stored product entomology pest management
Frank Arthur

Abstract: Insect pest management in stored products, and in particular the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), has different meanings depending on one's viewpoint of IPM. One of the difficulties in stored products is adequately sampling large bulk bins or silos of raw stored grain or large milling and food production facilities. This sampling difficulty has led to the adoption of management in stored product as a component-based strategy rather than a decision-based strategy. Selected components will be explored in detail, and needs for future research will be presented as discussion points. Research data will be used to illustrate specific points.

362-374

5.00 €

 

Development of Tribolium castaneum on dust
Lidia Limonta, Sara Savoldelli, Paola Girgenti, Daria P. Locatelli

Abstract: Stored product pests cause economic and qualitative losses in warehouses and food industry where they find favorable environmental condition and rearing media. Modern control techniques are based on IPM, which considers prevention as an important tool, such as careful cleaning, in order to hinder pests. Nevertheless, periodic cleanings in high areas of food plants are difficult to perform and accumulated dust could represent a rearing media for stored products pests. Samples of dust, collected at different heights (7.5 m; 15 m) in a pasta plant, and semolina were characterized. Proximate analyses highlighted similar amounts of proteins, fats, and sugars in dust and semolina. The ash content in dust collected at 15 m was higher than in dust collected at 7.5 m and in semolina. Metal content analyses showed the presence of aluminum, iron, chrome, cobalt, arsenic, and lead in the samples of dust. T. castaneum development was seemingly unaffected by the high metal content in the dust.

375-379

5.00 €

 

Survival of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at 43% and 50% relative humidity
George Opit, Abena Ocran, Kandara Shakya

Abstract: The psocid species Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein), Liposcelis decolor (Pearman), Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and Liposcelis paeta Pearman are well recognized stored-product pests that infest grain storage facilities and warehouses worldwide. Psocids are pests of substance and their economic importance is documented. Pest management practices designed to control coleopteran and lepidopteran pests have been less successful against psocids. Psocids are quite sensitive to low relative humidity. Therefore, moisture management and dehumidification can be effective alternative tools for their control. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 43 and 50% relative humidity on the survival of the above mentioned four Liposcelis species. Survival of all life stages of the four species of psocids at 43 and 50 and at 75% RH was determined after 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 d at 30 °C. At 43% RH, 100% mortality of all stages of L. entomophila, L. decolor, L. bostrychophila, and L. paeta occurred after 8, 8, 10 and 12 d, respectively. At 50% RH, 100% mortality of all life stages of L. entomophila, L. decolor, L. bostrychophila and L. paeta occurred after 10, 12, 14 and 16 d, respectively. Over the 30-d period of the experiment, at 75% RH, numbers of nymphs and adults of all the four species increased. These data indicate that dehumidification has good potential for use in psocid management under specific conditions where it can be effectively and practically deployed.

380-386

5.00 €

 

The Journal of Stored Products Research: the living history of stored product protection
L. Dries-Zhang, Frank H. Arthur, G. J. Daglish, Christos G. Athanassiou

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387

0.00 €

 

FoodMC: a COST Action to promote modeling in food science and industry
Alberto Tonda

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388

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Remarks on Integrated Pest Management in food chain
Pasquale Trematerra

Abstract: A team of authors has published a review paper on the European Union’s eight principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The paper provides researchers, advisers and farmers with an approach for applying these legal requirements intelligently to promote local innovation while reducing reliance on pesticides and associated risks. The process envisioned therefore requires learning, adaptation, and tweaking of a number of farm management practices. It also requires attention to non-technical aspects such as the social environment in which farmers operate collective learning and farmer’s inclination for step-wise rather than drastic changes. Also the food industry has been moving away from structural fumigations and calendar-based chemical pesticide applications towards IPM. This shift has been driven by the loss of pesticides such as methyl bromide, consumer demand for reduced pesticide usage, and development of ‘precision-application’ technologies and pest guidelines. These somewhat antagonistic trends (less reliance on and use of pesticides, and the demand for perfect food products) highlight one of the main challenges faced by the food industry.

389-394

5.00 €

 

Could host adaptation and host alternation be suitable alternatives for safer control of the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus during storage?
Soumaya Haouel Hamdi, Meriem Labidi, Mariam Hedjal-Chebheb, Moez Amri, Ali Ouji, Emna Boushih, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa

Abstract: In Tunisia, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus is the major pest of stored chickpea Cicer arietinum. Its control is mainly based on the use of synthetic fumigants. This work aims to investigate the possibility of using host adaptation and host alternation as safer alternatives for the postharvest control of C. maculatus. For that, three hosts namely chickpea (Amdoun 1 and Beja 1 varieties), Lentils Lens culinaris (Ncir variety) and cowpea Vigna unguiculata (variety Black eye) were used. The cowpea seeds were provided from Algeria since this primary host is not cultivated in Tunisia. The host adaptation test consists in a survey on the development of a C. maculatus strain selected on chickpea, to determine the level of its acceptability and suitability on the three hosts during six generations and its evolution over time and successive generations in terms of pest fertility and host infestation levels. In addition, the effects of alternation of the three hosts on the pest fecundity and hosts weight loss were studied after six generations. A no-choice test was carried out in a completely randomized design, factorial scheme, with all hosts combinations and three replications. Results showed that host adaptation could limit C. maculatus population on lentils and cowpea compared to chickpea for storage periods not exceeding three months. Indeed, after one month of storage, infestation levels reached 69.33%, 50.66% for chickpea (Amdoun 1 and Beja 1 varieties respectively) toward 2.15% and 16.32% for lentils and cowpea. Regarding alternation of hosts’ trials, results showed significant reduction in C. maculatus fecundity within hosts’ combinations. Moreover, significant decreases in weight loss were observed.

395-400

5.00 €

 

Seasonal dynamics of lepidopteran stored grain pests in Central Slovenia
Primož Žigon, Jaka Razinger, Špela Modic

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401

0.00 €

 

The effect of various grains to adult body size and life cycle parameters of Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Oliv.)
Aleksandra Ignjatović Ćupina, Petar Kljajić, Goran Andrić, Marijana Pražić Golić, Mihaela Kavran, Dušan Petrić

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402

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The impact of walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts as a nutrient medium on larval development of Plodia interpunctella
Snežana Tanasković, Sonja Gvozdenac, Filip Vukajlović, Snežana Pešić, Kristina Miljković, Dragana Predojević

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403

0.00 €

 

Using novel, low-cost sequencing technologies to improve genomic resources for stored product pests
Erin D. Scully

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404

0.00 €

 
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