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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 86, 2013

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 86, 2013

Working Group "Biological Control of Fungal and Bacterial Plant Pathogens".
Proceedings of the meeting at Reims, France, 24 - 27 June 2012.
Edited by Ilaria Pertot, Yigal Elad, Essaid Ait Barka, and Christophe Clément.
ISBN 978-92-9067-264-7 [XIX + 368 pp.]

 

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The influence of soil biotic factors on the ecology of two Trichoderma biocontrol agents
Alison Stewart, Kirstin L. McLean

Abstract: The sensitivity of Trichoderma atroviride and T. hamatum biocontrol agents to a range
of common soil fungi and actinomycetes was tested in co-culture on agar medium, sterile and
non-sterile soil. Six test fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosum,
Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Daldinia eschscholzii) inhibited both
Trichoderma species to varying degrees. In general, T. atroviride was more sensitive than
T. hamatum and inhibition observed in agar culture and sterile soil was greater than that observed
in non-sterile soil. Our results suggest that Trichoderma populations would be maintained in the
soil when exposed to field levels of these test microbes and that biocontrol activity would not be
compromised.

1-7

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Control of Botrytis cinerea in blackcurrants using biocontrol as part of an integrated programme with conventional fungicides
Angela Berrie, Karen Lower, Thomas Passey

Abstract: The efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Serenade, Prestop, Trianum P and
Boniprotect Forte, applied as 4 or 5 spray programmes starting pre-flowering or at first flower for
control of Botrytis cinerea fruit rot on blackcurrant cultivars Ben Hope and Ben Tirran was
compared to a standard fungicide programme at similar timings and an untreated control.
Programmes based on fungicides for the first 3 sprays followed by one, two or no sprays of
Serenade were also included. The incidence of B. cinerea was assessed on green fruit samples on
paraquat agar and on harvested fruit following 7 days damp incubation. The incidence of
B. cinerea fruit rot pre-harvest on bushes was negligible. The incidence of B. cinerea in green
fruit samples varied from 0-100% B. cinerea and in post-harvest tests varied from 0-70%. For
Ben Tirran the incidence of Botrytis in post-harvest in untreated fruit was around 12%. All
treatments, including the BCAs, significantly reduced the incidence of B. cinerea rot compared to
the untreated. Best control was achieved by treatment 2 (4 x fungicide treatments) and 7 (3 early
fungicides + 2 late Serenade). Replacing the fourth fungicide with two treatments with the BCA
Serenade appeared to have some benefit in B. cinerea control. B. cinerea rot incidence was more
variable on fruit from Ben Hope most likely due to the drier weather and hence lower botrytis
risk, when this cultivar was flowering. This made the data more difficult to interpret. The lowest
incidence of Botrytis in the post-harvest tests was recorded in fruit from treatment 2 (4 x
fungicide treatments).

9-14

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Impact of individual and combined antagonist application towards Rhizoctonia solani on lettuce and on indigenous microbial rhizosphere community
Rita Grosch, Simone Dealtry, Susanne Schreiter, Gabriele Berg, Leda Mendonça-Hagler, Kornelia Smalla

Abstract: The soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is responsible for serious damages
on a wide range of important crops worldwide. Efficient control strategies against R. solani are
urgently required. Application of individual biocontrol strains has often resulted in inconsistent
performance in the field. Consequently biocontrol activity was assessed by combining biocontrol
strains with different modes of action to overcome this problem. The bacterial antagonist
Pseudomonas jessenii and the mycoparasite Trichoderma viride were selected as promising
control agents against R. solani the causal agent of bottom rot on lettuce. Growth chamber
experiments were performed to investigate the biocontrol efficacy of individual and coinoculation
treatments of these biocontrol agents in the presence and absence of R. solani on
lettuce. Additionally, the impact of the inoculants on compositions of bacterial and fungal
communities in the rhizosphere of lettuce was studied by analyzing with 16S rRNA and ITSbased
fingerprinting methods. Biocontrol efficacy was improved in co-inoculants treatment of
P. jessenii and T. viride compared to individual inoculant application. DGGE analysis revealed a
more pronounced effect on the bacterial and fungal community in the treatment with both
inoculants compared to individual bacterial and fungal inoculant application. In summary, the
applied cultivation-independent methods provided insights into the complex interaction in
response to the pathogen presence and to biocontrol strains inoculation.

15-22

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Encapsulation materials and methods suitable for biocontrol of plant pathogens
Anant Patel

Abstract only

23

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Development, stability and biocontrol activity of a formulation based on Pseudomonas fluorescens Ps06
Jenny Carolina Ruíz, Luisa Fernanda Izquierdo, Carlos Andrés Moreno, Martha Isabel Gómez, Laura Fernanda Villamizar

Abstract: A Colombian strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ps06 was formulated as a powder
which stabilized cells viability during six months at 8°C ± 2. This formulation significantly
reduced (P < 0.05) incidence and severity of first symptoms of tomato crown rot in 86% and
50%, respectively. Developed biopesticide could be a useful tool to control F. oxysporum in
tomato crop.

25-30

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Dynamics of yeasts in the phylloplane of strawberry
Jane Debode, Wendy Van Hemelrijck, Piet Creemers, Martine Maes

Abstract: Examination of the dynamics of the phylloplane yeast populations revealed immature
fruits showed significantly larger populations than mature fruits or leaves. The dominant yeasts
belong to the genera Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, as well as Sporobolomyces and showed
resistance to the two major fungicides applied to strawberry cultures. This suggests potential use
of phylloplane yeasts in the integrated control of fungal diseases in strawberry.

31-32

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Characterization of an alkaline serine protease of Aureobasidium pullulans involved in the biocontrol of postharvest diseases
Davide Spadaro, Dianpeng Zhang, Angelo Garibaldi, Maria Lodovica Gullino

Abstract: An alkaline protease gene was amplified and characterized from genomic DNA and
cDNA of Aureobasidium pullulans PL5. Expression of ALP5 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)
yielded an homogeneous recombinant ALP5 which hydrolysed the substrate casein and inhibited
the mycelial growth of the pathogens. This study provided the direct evidence that extracellular
proteases secreted by the antagonist A. pullulans PL5 played a role in the biocontrol activities
against some postharvest pathogens of apple and peach.

33-35

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What if it doesn't work? An example for a promising biological control agent that negatively influence the plant instead of helping it
Tami Gat, Beni Kirshner, David Ezra

Abstract: Plants were inoculated with the endophytic Penicillium sp. and then appeared to be
over sensitive to phytopathogens, which is quite original in terms of biocontrol. In this case the
inoculated plants displayed stronger symptoms than the control. On the other hand an extraction
of the growth medium was found to be active and provided protection to plants against
pathogens. It is likely that the benefit coming from the described endophyte will not be due to
introduction of the endophyte into the plant rather using its secondary metabolites as "natural
pesticides".

37-38

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Effectiveness of beneficial bacteria-mediated ISR against Botrytis cinerea in relation to priming of defense responses in grapevine
Patricia Trotel-Aziz, Bas Verhagen, Charlotte Gruau, Maryline Magnin-Robert, Michel Couderchet, Christophe Clément, Fabienne Baillieul, Aziz Aziz

Abstract: Plants have evolved the ability to enhance their basal resistance after perception of
specific stimuli, such as root colonization by selective rhizobacteria or derived microbialassociated
molecular patterns. In this study, we examined the differences and similarities in term
of the effectiveness of various bacteria with different origins to trigger ISR and to induce or
prime some defence responses in grapevine. We especially focused on oxidative burst in
grapevine cell suspensions and systemic production of stilbenic phytoalexins, trans-resveratrol
and its dehydrodimer ε-viniferin in plants.

39-43

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First evidence of a Lysobacter member as a biological control agent of Plasmopara viticola
Gerardo Puopolo, Emmanuel Jourdan, Marc Ongena, Ilaria Pertot

Abstract: With the climate change, the temperature is going to play a key role in the
effectiveness of microbial biocontrol agents. The influence of this environmental factor on the
ecology and biocontrol activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain S499 has been investigated
in this work. On this purpose, the effect of temperature on the ability to move onto solid surface,
to form biofilm, to persist onto plant rhizosphere and to induce systemic resistance in plants have
been evaluated in vitro and in vivo.

45-48

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Biocontrol of fruit postharvest diseases by Aureobasidium pullulans
Marta Mari, Wafa Rouissi, Camilla Martini, Alice Spadoni

Abstract: The activity of a biological control agent, strain LL, previously identified as
Aureobasidium pullulans, was tested for the first time on peach, apple and orange artificially
inoculated with Monilinia laxa, M. fructicola, M. fructigena (peach) and Botrytis cinerea,
Colletotrichum acutatum, Penicillium expansum (apple) and P. digitatum, P. italicum (orange).
The washed cells of the antagonist were effective against all eight pathogens, inhibiting decay by
over 94%; in particular the antagonist completely controlled M. laxa, M. fructicola, C. acutatum,
P. digitatum and P. italicum. To our knowledge this is the first study considering the biocontrol
of eight postharvest fruit pathogens with an A. pullulans strain in the same experimental
conditions. Under postharvest conditions, in peaches inoculated with Monilinia spp., treated with
the antagonist and stored at 0°C for 21 days plus 7 days of shelf-life, the antagonist was able to
completely inhibit M. laxa and M. fructicola. In the same way, blue mould caused by
P. expansum was significantly reduced on apple, after 120 days at 0°C, plus 7 days at 20°C. In in
vitro trials, the VOCs released by the antagonist significantly inhibited the growth of all seven
tested pathogens compared to the control, although with a different rate depending on the
pathogen. These preliminary data, showing the efficacy of the A. pullulans LL strain in the
control of the main postharvest fruit diseases, are promising for the development of a
biofungicide for postharvest applications on a wide range of species and pathogens.

49-54

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Efficacy of a biological control agent and four fungicides in the control of postharvest decay in the pear cultivar Forelle
Pieter Janse van Rensberg, Cheryl Lennox

Abstract: Main pathogens isolated from symptomatic Forelle pears were Botrytis cinerea,
Penicillium expansum and Alternaria spp. Iprodione and pyrimethanil significantly reduced total
decay in 2010. In 2011 fludioxonil, iprodione, pyrimethanil and pyrimethanil plus imazalil were
also efficient. These fungicides decreased Penicillium expansum, Alternaria spp. effects and
secondary decay caused by Botrytis cinerea. The biological control agent Cryptococcus albidus
significantly reduced decay associated with a combined group of minor pathogens in 2011but
was not efficient against the major pathogens in either year, indicating that postharvest fungicides
tested are effective in controlling postharvest decay of pear fruit surface. However, these
fungicides do not control calyx end decay caused by latent infections of Botrytis cinerea. In this
context Cryptococcus albidus does not appear as an effective biological control agent for
postharvest decay of Forelle pear.

55-57

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Induced systemic resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by biochar soil amendment
Yael Meller Harel, Zeraye Haile Mehari, Yigal Elad, Dalia Rav-David, Menahem Borenstein, Ran Shulchani, Ellen R. Graber

Abstract: Grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a major fungal disease of tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum
) world-wide. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular pathways involved
in the induced resistance against B. cinerea in tomato plants grown on biochar amended medium.
We observed that similar pathways of induction of defence-related gene expression take place in
leaves of plants grown in biochar-amended medium independently of the biochar type and that
the effect of biochar on gene expression increases with incubation time. In addition, a mutant
def1, deficient in jasmonic acid lost its induced resistance ability when grown in a greenhouse
biochar amended soil. This correlated with a loss of induction of expression of the genes
belonging to the salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways. We conclude that Induced resistance by
biochar amendment in tomato against grey mould depends on jasmonic acid synthesis.

59-64

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Genomic/transcriptomic studies to optimize the biocontrol effect of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila
Mohammadali Alavi, Christin Zachow, Henry Müller, Gabriele Berg

Abstract: The genus Stenotrophomonas is of high medical, ecological and biotechnological
interest due to the versatility of the different species. For example, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila
is a model for a rhizosphere- and phylloplane- competent, salt-tolerant biocontrol agent. One of
the most effective strains S. rhizophila DSM 14405T showed biocontrol activity on various crops
(e.g. pepper, oilseed rape, cucumber) under salinated conditions in greenhouse and field trials.
Strain DSM 14405T does not only show rhizosphere competence and antagonistic activity; it also
produces high amounts of osmoprotective substances allowing it to survive under saline
conditions. New insights into its mode of action are presented from transcriptomic studies based
on the genome. Furthermore, this information will be used to optimise the fermentation,
formulation and efficiency of the biocontrol agent.

65-69

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Understanding patulin role in blue mould of apples as a tool to improve its biological control
Simona Marianna Sanzani, Massimo Reverberi, Marta Punelli, Antonio Ippolito, Corrado Fanelli

Abstract: Patulin ecological role has never been elucidated. Gene disruption was used to alter the
sequence of 6-methyl-salicylic acid synthase. Disrupted mutants were significantly less
pathogenic and virulent on apples. Mutants were more susceptible to the antioxidant quercetin
than the wild type. Patulin seems to have a role in blue mould pathogenic development on apples.

71-73

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Molecular strategies in biocontrol: Monitoring and optimization of the use of Trichoderma harzianum
Josefa Blaya Fernández, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Eva Lloret Sevilla, Margarita Ros Muñoz, Jose Antonio Pascual Valero

Abstract: The use of specific biological control agents (BCAs) has been revealed as a suitable
alternative to the intensive use of fungicides in agriculture. Despite the use of these BCAs, the
control of diseases in nursery plants often fails. In this work, we will present several strategies so
as to improve and optimize the use of one of the most efficient antagonist, Trichoderma
harzianum.
The development of molecular methods such as qPCR and qRT-PCR, has provided
powerful tools for monitoring both active and non-active forms of T. harzianum in pure cultures
and nursery substrates. Moreover, proper isolates of T. harzianum have been screened and
selected according to the highest biocontrol potential and effectiveness against the target disease.
To enhance the biocontrol effect of T. harzianum, enrichment with chitin-rich wastes has been
successfully applied, decreasing the incidence of the pathogen.

75-79

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Loose smut of barley and wheat: biology and approaches for non-chemical control
Eckhard Koch, Jan Wunderle, Marc Orlik, Hartmut Spieß

Abstract: Hyphae of Ustilago nuda and U. tritici were observed to invade the shoot apical
meristem and leaf primordia of barley and wheat respectively, already during the first days after
the onset of germination. In a screening performed in vitro, a number of microorganisms and
plant extracts inhibited the germination of teliospores of U. nuda. However, in field experiments
with barley and wheat sufficient and reliable control of loose smut by seed treatment with
selected agents was not obtained. On oat, seed treatment with ethanol (70%) provided a level of
75-80% control.

81-82

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Influence of soil substrate on the biocontrol capacity of Pseudomonas CMR12a against Rhizoctonia root rot on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Gia Khuong Hoang Hua, Jolien D´aes, Katrien De Maeyer, Monica Höfte

Abstract: Biocontrol control effect of Pseudomonas CMR12a, a rhizospheric bacteria which is
able to produce phenazines and biosurfactants, was investigated in different soil-sand
combinations. According to statistics, disease suppressive capacity of phenazines and
biosurfactants was substrate-dependent and disease severity increased with the proportion of
sand. In substrate containing 50% or 75% of potting soil, the presence of either phenazines or
biosurfactants was sufficient to suppress bean root rot. However, in substrate containing 25% of
potting soil, the involvement of both compounds was required to achieve successful biocontrol
activities.

83-85

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Influence of antagonists on Verticillium dahliae on strawberry plants
Isabella Linda Bisutti, Dietrich Stephan

Extended abstract

87-88

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Control of Fusarium wilt in cape gooseberry by Trichoderma koningiopsis and PGPR
Andrés Díaz, Alexander Smith, Paula Mesa, Jimmy Zapata, Diana Caviedes, Alba Marina Cotes

Abstract: Two native isolates of rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas migulae Pf014 and Bacillus
amyloliquefaciens Bs006), were selected for their effectiveness as plant growth promoters and
biocontrol against Fusarium oxysporum in cape gooseberry in nursery, while T. koningiopsis
Th003 only expressed biocontrol activity. However, when they were formulated and applied in
field, Th003 was the most efficient biocontrol agent (5% incidence, compared to 20% in the
untreated control), although rhizobacteria increased yield up to 48%.

89-94

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Biological control of Fusarium Head Blight under field conditions
Sabrina Sarrocco, Lorenzo Moncini, Giampaola Pachetti, Antonio Moretti, Alberto Ritieni, Giovanni Vannacci

Abstract: Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is one of the most economically devasting disease of
wheat, causing losses in yield and quality due to the presence of Fusarium damaged kernels and
their associated mycotoxins such as the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON). Biological control,
including treatment of crop residues with antagonists, alone or in combination in a multitrophic
approach, to reduce pathogen inoculum of FHB, holds considerable promise. Trichoderma gamsii
6085 has been selected for its ability to grow in presence of DON and to reduce “in vitro” growth
and mycotoxin production by F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Pythium sp. SC1-14a has been
investigated for its antagonistic and competitive ability against FHB causal agents. When tested
in a field trial as biocontrol agents on wheat, either as soil or spikelets inoculant, both antagonists
were able to reduce the FHB incidence. DON and other trichothecenes were at very low levels in
control plots, so no information on mycotoxins reduction by the antagonists are available.

95-100

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Screening of different biofungicides and optimizing the way of application to control Botrytis cinerea in tomato
Sarah Van Beneden, Jasper Carrette, Johan De Koker, Monica Höfte, Geert Haesaert

Extended abstract

101-102

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Study of the microbial populations on vineyards
Cátia Pinto, Remy Cardoso, Valéria Custódio, Sara Sousa, Susana Sousa and Ana Catarina Gomes

Abstract: Vitis vinifera has a naturally complex microbial community including fungi, bacteria,
phytoplasma and viruses. A wide variety of phytopathogenic and beneficial microorganisms cohabits
with grapevine and interacts with each other. Such interactions occur both at the vineyard
and during the wine fermentations and the study of the structure and the dynamics of these
microbial communities have been neglected over the last years. Moreover, it is important to note
that the presence of specific microbial community will influence the wine production and quality.
In this study, we investigated the composition of the natural grapevine microbiome from Tinta
Roriz variety during the vegetative cycle, using a biodiversity based metagenomics’ approach.
A high diversity of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic population was uncovered. Interestingly,
grapevine displays a major occurrence of the eukaryotic Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic
Enterobacteriaceae. Our results expose a high and dynamic biodiversity during the grapevine
vegetative cycle.

103-107

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Transcriptional reprogramming of the mycoparasitic fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis during host recognition
Stefanos Siozios, Lorenzo Tosi, Alberto Ferrarini, Alessandro Ferrari, Paola Tononi, Diana Bellin, Monika Maurhofer, Cesare Gessler, Massimo Delledonne, Ilaria Pertot

Extended abstract

109-110

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Plant signalling pathways and bacterial determinants involved in the induction of systemic resistance triggered by Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639
Laura García-Gutiérrez, Houda Zeriou, Antonio de Vicente, Alejandro Pérez-García

Extended abstract

111-112

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Isotopic-labelling assisted metabolomics of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma
Rainer Schuhmacher, Maria Doppler, Bernhard Kluger, Susanne Zeilinger, Rudolf Krska

Extended abstract

113-114

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Antifungal 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol is responsible for the biocontrol ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1606
Claudia E. Calderón, Eva Arrebola, Jose A. Gutiérrez-Barranquero, J. Ignacio Crespo-Gómez, Antonio de Vicente, Francisco M. Cazorla

Abstract: The biocontrol rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1606 has strong
antagonistic activity against many soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi, including Rosellinia
necatrix, the causal agent of white root rots of many plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
radicis-lycopersici, which causes the tomato foot and root rot The relevant characteristic of this
bacterium is the production of the antifungal antibiotic 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR).
Analysis of this genomic clone resulted in the presence of five homologous to dar genes with an
organization that resembles to that previously described on P. aurantiaca BL915. The role of
those dar-homologous genes in HPR production, and in the biocontrol activity is described in this
work.

115-121

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Biostimulation of the bacteria degrading quorum-sensing (QS) signals for quenching the QS-dependent expression of the virulence symptoms caused by Pectobacterium on potato plants
Anthony Kwasiborski, Nicolas Mothe, Yannick Raoul des Essarts, Amélie Beury-Cirou, Denis Faure

Extended abstract

123-125

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Effect of a fungal infection on the volatile compounds emitted by barley’s roots and their roles in the interactions in the rhizosphere
Marie Fiers, Fanny Barsics, Georges Lognay, Jean-Paul Wathelet, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, M. Haïssam Jijakli

Extended abstract

127-128

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Dissecting the tripartite interaction between Vitis vinifera, Plasmopara viticola and the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum T39
M. Cristina Palmieri, Michele Perazzolli, Vittoria Matafora, Angela Bachi, Ilaria Pertot

No abstract

129-131

5.00 €

 

Detoxification of the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone is an important trait of Clonostachys rosea in biocontrol of Fusarium foot rot of barley
Chatchai Kosawang, Magnus Karlsson, Birgit Jensen, Heriberto Vélëz, Peter Have Rasmussen, David B. Collinge and Dan Funck Jensen

Abstract: The fungus Clonostachys rosea ‘IK726’ has proven to be effective in biological
control of a range of plant diseases. Among these are fusariose caused by Fusarium graminearum
or Fusarium culmorum – pathogens known to produce mycotoxins such as zearalenone (ZEN)
and deoxynivalenol (DON). It has been shown that the zhd101 gene in C. rosea encodes
zearalenone lactonohydrolase (ZHD) which breaks down the Fusarium mycotoxin (ZEN) to less
toxic derivates in vitro. However, it has not been determined previously whether ZEN
detoxification plays a role in biocontrol of F. graminearum on plants. Here we show that
C. rosea, via detoxification, counteracts exposure to ZEN during biological control interactions
with F. graminearum on barley seedlings and that this is an important trait for the efficacy of
biological control performance.

133-136

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The Trichoderma atroviride Eng18B ENGase gene product is essential for in vitro antagonism against Botrytis cinerea
Mukesh K. Dubey, Wimal Ubhayasekera, Mats Sandgren, Dan Funck Jensen, Magnus Karlsson

Abstract: The recently identified phylogenetic subgroup B5 of fungal glycoside hydrolase
family 18 genes encodes enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-N-acetyl-β-Dglucosaminidase
(ENGase)-type activity. In the current study, the Trichoderma atroviride
Eng18B ENGase gene was deleted and the resulting phenotypes studied, with emphasis on its
role in fungal growth and antagonism. Eng18B deletion strains had significantly reduced growth
rates but higher conidiation rates compared to the wild-type strain. However, growth rates on
abiotic stress media were significantly higher in Eng18B deletion strains compared to the wildtype
strain. In addition, we determined that Eng18B is required for the antagonistic ability of
T. atroviride against the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea in dual cultures and that this
reduction in antagonistic ability is partly connected to a secreted factor. The phenotypes were
recovered by re-introduction of an intact Eng18B gene fragment in mutant strains. A putative role
of Eng18B ENGase activity in the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway
of endogenous glycoproteins in T. atroviride is discussed in relation to the observed phenotypes.

137-141

5.00 €

 

The use of ozone in strawberry post harvest conservation
Yaseen Thaer, Anna Maria D’Onghia, Alessandra Ricelli

Abstract: In this work the effect of ozone treatment during post-harvest period on the
development of fungi, yeasts and bacteria present on the surface of strawberry fruit cv. Candonga
was investigated. Moreover the effect of ozone treatment on strawberries shelf life was evaluated
using McKinney index. Ozone was applied in air at 5ppm for 24h, or in water at 0.8ppm for
2min, strawberries were conserved in ventilate or in a passive refrigeration chamber. The aim of
the work was to investigate if ozone can control the development of the microorganisms present
on the surface of the considered fruits in order to extend their shelf life. The results show that
ozone treatment plays a control effect on microorganism contamination and increases shelf life.

143-148

5.00 €

 

Importance of surfactin for plant resistance induction by Bacillus isolates
Hélène Cawoy, Martin Mariutto, Emmanuel Jourdan, Philippe Thonart, Marc Ongena

Extended abstract

149-150

0.00 €

 

Screening ELISA method to assess the in vitro efficacy of essential oil against damageable European phytopathogens
Olivier Parisi, Abdesselam Zhiri, Dominique Baudoux, Haissam Jijakli

Extended abstract

151-152

0.00 €

 

A combined oligochitosan and oligopectin elicitor triggers plant defense and confers protection against a wide range of plant pathogens
Géraldine van Aubel, Raffaele Buonatesta, Pierre Van Cutsem

No abstract

153-159

5.00 €

 

The lactoperoxydase system, a natural and biological control of potato late blight
Françoise Bafort, Jean-Paul Perraudin, Nicolas Flament, M. Haïssam Jijakli

Extended abstract

161-162

0.00 €

 

Relationship between the aggressiveness of Botrytis cinerea on tomato and the efficacy of biocontrol
Marc Bardin, Morgane Comby, Claire Troulet, Philippe C. Nicot

Abstract: The development of BCAs represents an attractive alternative to fungicides for the
protection of crops against plant pathogens but the durability of this method has not been studied
in details. The objective of the present work was to estimate the risk of loss of biocontrol efficacy
towards Botrytis cinerea, by evaluating the sensibility of various isolates of the pathogen to the
biocontrol agent Microdochium dimerum. The protective efficacy of M. dimerum was evaluated
on tomato plants against 41 strains of B. cinerea differing in their geographic origin and host of
isolation. To this end, whole tomato pruning wounds and detached stem sections were
concomitantly inoculated with B. cinerea and with M. dimerum. Lesion expansion was recorded
daily from the 3rd to the 7th day after inoculation. Due to the very high level of efficacy against all
tested strains of B. cinerea when M. dimerum was used at the recommended dose, it was
necessary to reduce the dose of application 10-fold to assess the diversity of sensitivity of
B. cinerea to this BCA. In these conditions, a wide range of sensitivities were observed among
strains of the pathogen tested with protection levels ranging from 0 to 100% (mean = 53 ± 4%;
median = 49%). A correlation was observed between the level of aggressiveness of a strain to
tomato and its sensitivity to the biocontrol agent (assessed by the protection level). It reveals the
importance of considering several strains of the pathogen when screening for biocontrol agents,
to obtain a good representation of the pathogen population and thus take into account the
potential durability of biocontrol.

163-168

5.00 €

 

Endophytic ability of Trichoderma spp. as inoculants for ornamental plants innovative substrates
Domenico Prisa, Sabrina Sarrocco, Maurizio Forti, Gianluca Burchi, Giovanni Vannacci

Abstract: Due to the reduction of peat in ornamental substrates, great attention is focusing on
setting up new and innovative substrates for this market. In the present work, Trichoderma spp.
isolates were selected for endophytism and plant growth promotion in Limonium sinuatum,
Cupressus sempervirens and Camelia sinensis. Ten isolates (out of 162) for Limonium, 9 (out of
162) for Cupressus and 8 (out of 202) for Camelia resulted endophytic in roots. From a
successive round of inoculation three Trichoderma isolates, among which T2046 was in common
for all the tested species, confirmed the best endophytic performance and improved growth. In
addition, the antagonistic activity of selected strains against fungal plant pathogens such as
Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizoctonia solani have been evaluated.
The three Trichoderma isolates, and first of all T2046, could be taken into account as inoculants
for innovative substrates for ornamental plants.

169-174

5.00 €

 

Optimisation of time of application of Trichoderma bio-control agents for grapevine pruning wound protection
Cheusi Mutawila, Francois Halleen, Lizel Mostert

Extended abstract

175-176

0.00 €

 

Induction of systemic resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus and bacterial speck pathogen by Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 in Arabidopsis and tobacco
Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy, Md. Motaher Hossain, Masafumi Shimizu, Mitsuro Hyakumachi

Abstract: Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2, was evaluated for its ability to induce resistance
against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) in
Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco plants. All plants treated with BGI of GP17-2 or its culture
filtrate showed a significant reduction in disease severity compared control plants. RT-PCR
results showed that multiple defence pathways were involved in GP17-2-mediated resistance to
CMV and Pst.

177-184

5.00 €

 

Screening of bacteria and fungi antagonist to Phytophthora and Pythium species pathogenic of forest trees
François Lefort, Thibaut Pralon, Justyna Nowakowska, Tomasz Oszako

Extended abstract

185-186

0.00 €

 

Population of antagonistic actinomycetes and bacteria against Fusarium oxysporum in the rhizosphere of cucumber and Welsh onion
Yoko Suzuki, Masafumi Shimizu, Mitsuro Hyakumachi

Extended abstract

187-188

0.00 €

 

Trichoderma harzianum 6776, a promising biocontrol agent and plant growth promoter
Sabrina Sarrocco, Lorenzo Moncini, Giampaola Pachetti, Giovanni Vannacci

Abstract: Trichoderma harzianum 6776 has shown a biological control activity against
Rhizoctonia solani on radish under two different inoculation procedures. When tested on tomato
seedlings, it is able to stimulate plant growth under greenhouse condition. In addition, biocontrol
activity against soil-borne pathogens (R. solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and
F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici) has been evaluated on tomato, showing positive results
and suggesting a future employment of this strain as biopesticide.

189-194

5.00 €

 

Increasing efficacy of Ampelomyces quisqualis against powdery mildew pathogen
Dario Angeli, Krishna Saharan, Monika Maurhofer, Cesare Gessler, Ilaria Pertot

Extended abstract

195-196

0.00 €

 

Efficacy of some Bacillus antagonist for controlling Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of Chinese kale leaf spot
Boossaracum Udomsak, Sureeporn Bua-art, Nuttima Kositcharoenkul, Buranee Puawongphat, Warangkana Sae-Uang

Abstract: Efficacy tests of Bacillus antagonists were investigated under laboratory, net house
and field trials. In the laboratory, one hundred and thirty five isolates of Bacillus sp. isolated from
soil, manual and planting material, were tested on a A. brassicicola fungus for growth inhibition
character by dual plate technique. The results revealed that 90 isolates could inhibit the
A. brassicicola mycerial growth on PDA medium and 5 isolates showed high effectiveness. In
screen house test, spraying with cell suspension of the 5 Bacillus sp. isolates showed that all of
them could reduce leaf spot symptom on Chinese kale when compared to water spraying
treatment. Among them, isolate 20W12 showed the highest effectiveness in controlling Chinese
kale leaf spot. Under field condition, cell suspension spraying test were conducted during dry
period (December, 2010 to February, 2011) and rainy period (June to August, 2011) at
Kanchanaburi province. Eight treatments with 4 replications in RCBD; spraying with each of 5
cell suspension of Bacillus sp. isolates, A. brassicicola inoculation (C+), water spraying (C-) and
spraying with solution of 40 grams of mancozeb 80% WP in 20 liters of water, on 35 days old
Chinese kale plants, 48 hours before and 48 hours after A. brassicicola inoculation were used.
During January to March, 2012, the 5 Bacillus sp. isolates in the form of wettable powder
suspension were conducted at the same field as previous trials. The results showed that in dry
period, 5 isolates of Bacillus sp. cell suspension could reduce the disease better than water
spraying treatment, but they have no statistical difference when compared to mancozeb treatment.
These 3 isolates which showed the highest efficacy in dry period were 17G18 20W5 20W1 and in
rainy period were 20W4 20W1 and 20W12. The results from applying with wettable powder
formulation of isolates 20W1 20W5 and 17G18 showed highly effective. Identification of those 5
Bacillus isolates by API technique revealed that 20W5 20W12 20W4 and 20W1 were B. subtilis
and 17G18 was B. licheniformis.

197-200

5.00 €

 

Brazilian diversity of Trichoderma spp. and isolate selection for biological control of white mold on common bean crops
Murillo Lobo Junior, Maia Geraldine Alaerson, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes, Lidianne Lemes Da Silva, Elder Tadeu Barbosa, Renata Silva Brandão, Andrei Stecca Steindorff, Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes Coelho, Cirano José Ulhoa, Roberto Nascimento Silva

Extended abstract

201-202

0.00 €

 

Trichoderma harzianum seed treatment combined with biofumigation by Brassica carinata meal to reduce lettuce damping off by Pythium ultimum
Stefania Galletti, Pier Luigi Burzi, Stefano Cianchetta, Claudio Cerato

Abstract: Seed treatment by biological control agents, like the filamentous fungus Trichoderma
spp. represents a valuable option to control those pathogens which attack seedlings, causing preand
post-emergence damping off, like Pythium spp. Another sustainable tool for the control of
soilborne pathogens is represented by the biofumigation technique which is based on the soil
amendment with Brassicaceae derived products, through the green manuring of cover crops or
seed meal amending. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of combining the seed
treatment by Trichoderma harzianum isolate with the biofumigation by Brassica carinata meal,
to control damping off of lettuce. The experiments were carried out in two types of soil,
artificially inoculated by a pathogenic isolate of P. ultimum. The T. harzianum isolate was
previously selected for tolerance to biofumigation compounds and it was applied to seeds as
conidia suspension or liquid culture. In the first type of soil only liquid culture seed treatment
significantly increased the percentage of healthy plantlets, irrespective to biofumigation,
suggesting a role for the metabolites produced during T. harzianum in vitro growth. These results
were substantially confirmed also with the second type of soil.

203-208

5.00 €

 

Trichoderma harzianum T39 biocontrol activity against downy mildew: cytology of the direct and plant-mediated mechanisms
M. Cristina Palmieri, Michele Perazzolli, Ilaria Pertot

Extended abstract

209-210

0.00 €

 

Role of Verticillium tricorpus in the interaction of Verticillium longisporum with cauliflower
Lien Tyvaert, Soraya C. França, Jane Debode, Monica Höfte

Extended abstract

211-212

0.00 €

 

Biocontrol of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seedlings and Glomerella cingulata on strawberry seedlings by endophytic Streptomyces spp.
Masafumi Shimizu, Mitsuro Hyakumachi, Masaharu Kubota, Katsutoshi Kuroda

Abstract: Endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain MBCN152-1 which was isolated from cabbage
greatly reduced disease severity on plug-seedlings of cabbage after spray-inoculation with
Alternaria brassicicola. Furthermore, amendment of growing medium with MBCN152-1
strongly inhibited the incidence of damping-off of cabbage seedlings raised from seeds
artificially infested with A. brassicicola. Microscopic observation revealed that hyperparasitism
is one of the modes of action of strain MBCN152-1. These results indicated that strain
MBCN152-1 is a suitable candidate for the biological control of A. brassicicola. Endophytic
actinomycetes, isolated from strawberry plants, were tested for inhibition of anthracnose, caused
by Glomerella cingulata, on detached leaflets and plug seedlings of strawberry. Streptomyces sp.
strain MBFA-172 strongly inhibited symptom development on the detached leaflets and
significantly reduced disease incidence on strawberry plug seedlings. Strain MBFA-172 provided
higher level of protection than a commercial biofungicide (Talaromyces flavus) and comparable
level with a chemical fungicide (propineb) under greenhouse conditions. A spontaneous
thiostrepton-resistant mutant of MBFA-172 colonized aboveground parts of strawberry plants at
mean population densities of 3.2 × 103 to 7.2 × 105 cfu/g (fresh weight) even after 21 days of
foliar application. These results indicated that MBFA-172 has a great potential as a biocontrol
agent for strawberry anthracnose.

213-218

5.00 €

 

The effect of the biological control agent Trichoderma harzianum T-22 on spot blotch disease in Libyan barley cultivars in a field experiment
Abdallah M. Aada, Ethan Hack

Abstract: Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus) is a
serious disease of barley in Libya. A small-scale field experiment was carried out in the UK to
test the effectiveness of Trichoderma harzianum T-22 for controlling spot blotch in two Libyan
barley cultivars, Nibola and Rehan. Nibola was significantly more resistant to spot blotch than
Rehan. Two methods of applying T-22, foliar spray and seed coating, were tested individually
and in combination. There was some reduction in disease severity with all three application
methods, but the combined treatment most consistently reduced disease severity and increased
yields of both cultivars. The results provide evidence that combining disease resistance with
biological control may be beneficial for spot blotch management.

219-225

5.00 €

 

Development of a TaqMan® probe-based real-time PCR approach to track the biological control agent Pseudomonas poae RE*1-1-14
Gabriele Berg, Heidemarie Pirker, Henry Müller, Ralf Tilcher, Christin Zachow

Abstract: The sugar beet endophyte Pseudomonas poae RE*1-1-14 is a component of an
antagonistic cocktail developed to control root rot diseases in sugar beet. Based on an extended
screening process the microbial compilation also includes the rhizobacteria P. fluorescens
L13-6-12 and Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18. To assess cell numbers during the seed treatment
procedure, subsequent storage of the inoculated seeds and, finally, in course of plant
development, a quantitative real-time PCR method was established for the model strain P. poae
RE*1-1-14. For cultivation-independent monitoring of the population dynamics of the strain, we
developed a pair of SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) primer for a specific
580 bp fragment derived from a comparative U-PCR approach. In combination with a strainspecific
probe, the primer set was suitable to be employed in a TaqMan® real-time PCR assay.
The described system allows the accurate detection and quantification of the antagonist in sugar
beet seed coatings and ad planta under greenhouse conditions.

227-231

5.00 €

 

Enhancement of biological control properties naturally present in soil
Joeke Postma, Mirjam Schilder

Extended abstract

233-234

0.00 €

 

Effect of plant essential oils and biocontrol agents on infection of groundnut by Aspergillus flavus
Azawei Alamene, Stephen Rossall

Abstract: Aspergillus flavus is a major pathogen of groundnut in many countries, including
Nigeria. Infection can result in contamination of groundnut seed with the mycotoxin, aflatoxin,
which poses a potent threat to the health of individually consuming infected nuts. In preliminary
experiments twelve plant oils were screened for inhibition of A. flavus on amended PDA plates.
Only four extacts; clove, camphor, garlic, and galangal oils showed high inhibitory effects. Clove
oil and camphor oil also significantly suppressed infection of groundnuts by A. flavus in amended
compost, when applied as seed treatments. Biological control based on use of Trichoderma spp.
(T. harzianum, T. viride and T. asperellum), Bacillus amyloliquifaciens (isolates MBI 600, 62P
and 66P) and Pseudomonas chlorophis was also evaluated. In vitro assays on agar plates showed
the Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus isolates 62P and 66P were the most active. These same
organisms were also effective in improving emergence when applied as a seed amendment to
seed sown in Aspergillus-inoculated compost. When applied as a preventative treatment to
groundnut pods, the Trichoderma spp. were also effective in suppressing infection, when the
pods were subsequently inoculated with A. flavus. A strategy may be therefore be possible which
provides control of A. flavus on groundnut, using BCAs and plant extracts, applied alone or in
combination.

235-240

5.00 €

 

Development of suppressiveness to root rot caused by Cylindrocladium spathiphylli in container media amended with marine residues
Wagner Bettiol, Alexandre Visconti

Abstract: This study aimed at evaluating the potential of fish hydrolyzed (FH), fish emulsion
(FE), shrimp peel powder (SP), Sargassum seaweed powder (SW) and mussel shell powder (MS)
to induce suppressiveness against Cylindrocladium spathiphylli in container media. In the
container media, naturally infested, FH and FE at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% (v/v)
of the volume of water required to reach the water retention capacity of the container media, and
SP, SW and MS at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (v/v) were incorporated. The mixtures
were incubated for 10 days at room temperature. Afterwards, the mixtures were transferred to
plastic pots of 300 ml, followed by the planting of one plug of Spathiphyllum ‘Opal’/pot. When
planting, at 90 and 180 days of cultivation, microbial respiration, carbon microbial biomass
(MBC), and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA) were determined. The incidence was
evaluated after 180 days and disease severity was assessed weekly throughout until 180 days. To
confirm the causal agent of disease in plants, root fragments were placed in Petri dishes
containing PDA + streptomycin, kept in a growth chamber. Fish hydrolyzed, FE, and SP reduced
the incidence and the area under curve of progress disease (AUCPD). Fish emulsion at 20%
showed the highest dry matter and the lowers recurrence of the pathogen in 180 days. Hydrolysis
of diacetate of fluorescein, respiration of container media, and carbon microbial biomass showed
quadratic effect at concentrations of FH, FE and SP, with the inflection point at 25, 20 and 3%,
respectively. We concluded that FE at 20% (v/v) promoted the greatest suppressiveness to
C. spathiphylli, as well as increased plant development.

241-245

5.00 €

 

Effects of phenazines on Pseudomonas sp. CMR12a cell physiology under microaerobic conditions
Chien-Jui Huang , Katrien De Maeyer, and Monica Höfte

Extended abstract

247-248

0.00 €

 

Chitinase isoforms in zucchini leaves treated by Nostoc sp. extract
Roberta Roberti, Pier Luigi Burzi, Hillary Righini, Carolina Perez Reyes, Stefania Galletti, Guillermo Garcia-Blairsy Reina, Agostino Brunelli

Abstract: Cyanobacteria are components of commercial fertilizers which may interfere with plant
physiology, making plants less susceptible to biotic and abiotic stress. A peculiar extract of the
Nostoc sp. BEA 0300B demonstrated to induce systemic resistance in zucchini plants against
Podosphaera leucotricha in previous biological and biochemical assays. The aim of this research
was to investigate the behaviour of different chitinase isoforms in zucchini plants treated by foliar
application of Nostoc sp. BEA 0300B extract. Chitosan was used as positive control, since it is a
well-known resistance inducer, while untreated plants were used as negative control. Nostoc
extract (2g/l) was applied by spraying one of the 2 cotiledonar leaves. Total proteins were
extracted from untreated cotiledonar leaves sampled after 1, 2 and 3 days from the treatment, and
were examined with isoelectric focusing analysis. The specific assay for chitinases showed three
isoforms with 4.4, 4.6 and 4.7 isoelectric points that were enhanced by Nostoc treatment,
depending on the sampling time.

249-252

5.00 €

 

Elicitation of grapevine defense responses against Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew
Moustafa Selim, Gregor Langen, Beate Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Karl-Heinz Kogel, Danièle Evers

Extended abstract

253-254

0.00 €

 

Utilization of solid and liquid Trichoderma harzianum formulations to biocontrol Pyrenochaeta lycopersici
Soledad Sánchez, Rodrigo Herrera, Ximena Besoain, Luz María Pérez, Jaime R. Montealegre

Extended abstract

255-256

0.00 €

 

Preliminary tests in field conditions of alternatives substances against grape downy mildew in organic farming
Ingrid Arnault, Marc Chovelon, Sylvie Derridj

Abstract: Within the context of research of alternatives to the use of copper against the
grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), screening tests have been carried out to assess
the activity of potential products either as fungicidal or as elicitors of plant defense and/or
resistance. Three hydroalcoholic solutions of plant extracts Salix alba, Equisetum arvense,
Artemisia vulgaris and three aqueous ones of Frangula alnus, Rheum palmatum and of microdoses
of D-fructose (100ppm) were sprayed single on leaves or associated with 100g/ha of
copper hydroxide. Their efficacies were evaluated versus 600g/ha of copper hydroxide and an
untreated control. The trials were randomized and carried under shading nets on two vine
cultivars planted in individual pots: Vitis vinifera cv. Alphonse Lavallée grafted onto110 Richter
and V. vinifera cv Muscat de Hambourd grafted onto 161-149 Couderc. In 2011 the product
efficacies expressed by the attack frequencies and intensities of P. viticola, showed that the
solutions of F. alnus, E. arvense and of D-fructose associated with copper 100g/ha, were as
effective as copper hydroxide 600g/ha. They significantly reduced attack rates versus the
untreated control. A. vulgaris extract had no visible effects. Further experiments will be
conducted in 2012 to corroborate these interesting data.

257-262

5.00 €

 

Development of a biopesticide prototype based on the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Lv316 for controlling Botrytis cinerea in blackberry
Jimmy Zapata, Laura Villamizar, Andrés Díaz, Liz Uribe, Carol Bolaños, Martha Gómez, Alba Marina Cotes

Abstract: A biopesticide prototype based on a strain of Rhodotorula glutinis Lv316 that exhibit a
high biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea was formulated as a concentrate suspension.
A culture medium was developed to reach a yield of 6×109 cell/ml in batch fermenter for both
13-l. Two biopesticide prototypes were developed, one of them was supplemented with an optical
brighteners which conferred a high UV-B protection (62%). Both presented high biocontrol
activity since their efficacy ranged from 55 to 65% in a blackberry commercial crop, compared
with 45 and 26% disease reduction using a chemical treatment difenoconazol and carbendazim,
respectively.

263-269

5.00 €

 

Biocontrol and biofertilizer activities of the Streptomyces anulatus S37: an endophytic actinomycete with biocontrol and plant-growth promoting activities
Olivier Couillerot, Parul Vatsa, Souad Loqman, Yedir Ouhdouch, Hubert Jane, Jean-Hugues Renault, Christophe Clément and Essaïd Ait Barka

Abstract: Streptomyces anulatus S37 is an actinomycete able to colonize grapevine in-vitro
plants and inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea. This strain has also a great potential to produce
antifungal metabolites. These results indicate the potential of developing effective actinomycetes
from Moroccan habitats for the biological control of B. cinerea. Further studies are ongoing to
better understand the activity of each of the purified molecules.

271-276

5.00 €

 

Performance of biocontrol products in protecting tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea under controlled conditions
Gisèle Barbeyron, Jérôme Guerrand, Adeline Picot, Sonia Hallier

Abstract only

277

0.00 €

 

Effects of UV-B radiation on the antagonistic ability of Clonostachys rosea to Botrytis cinerea on strawberry leaf disc
Wagner Bettiol, Lúcio B. Costa, Marcelo A. B. Morandi, Drauzio E. N. Rangel

Abstract: Human activities are altering the concentrations of ozone in the troposphere and hence
in the incidence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) on Earth’s surface. Although representing only five
percent of UV-B radiation striking the Earth's surface, this radiation has the potential to cause
effects on biologically active molecules. Sensitivity to UV-B radiation is one of the limitations of
biological control of plant pathogens in the field. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the
effects of UV-B on several isolates of Clonostachys rosea, and the ability of an isolate of
C. rosea, previously selected for its tolerant to UV-B radiation, to control Botrytis cinerea on
strawberry leaves in controlled conditions (strawberry leaf discs). The germination of C. rosea
conidia was inversely proportional to the irradiance. The most tolerant strain (LQC62) had
relative germination of about 60% after irradiation of 4.2kJ/m2, and this strain was selected to be
used in the subsequent studies. The data showed that even with exposure to UV-B radiation,
C. rosea LQC62 controlled the pathogen. Conidial concentrations of strain LQC62 above 105
conidia/ml showed higher tolerance to UV-B radiation and increased ability to control more than
75% of the B. cinerea even with exposure to radiation. According to our results, in addition to
showing less growth under UV-B, conidia of C. rosea had lower antagonistic ability. Further
studies are needed to observe the tolerance of B. cinerea conidia to UV-B radiation and thereby
prove that an environment with increased UV-B radiation may be favoring the pathogen due to a
lower ability of C. rosea to control the pathogen in conditions of increased UV-B.

279-285

5.00 €

 

Psychrophilic Trichoderma isolates from Subpolar Russia: in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani
Tatiana Suprunova, Natalya Shmykova, Daria Shumilina, Larisa Sherbakova, Tatyana Smetanina, Boris Borisov, Alina Aleksandrova, Daniel P. Roberts

Abstract: Trichoderma isolates were isolated from soil samples collected at the Nenets
Autonomous Area, a region of Russia with extremely cold climatic conditions. Nine Trichoderma
isolates were evaluated for their antagonistic properties against Rhizoctonia solani using an in
vitro challenge plate assay and incubation temperatures ranging from 12 to 22°C. Four isolates
with psychrophilic properties were selected for further study as potential biological control
agents. Study of the mechanisms of antagonism by these isolates is ongoing.

287-292

5.00 €

 

Insights on the role played by temperature on the biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain S499
Gerardo Puopolo, Emmanuel Jourdan, Marc Ongena, Ilaria Pertot

Abstract: With the climate change, the temperature is going to play a key role in the
effectiveness of microbial biocontrol agents. The influence of this environmental factor on the
ecology and biocontrol activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain S499 has been investigated
in this work. On this purpose, the effect of temperature on the ability to move onto solid surface,
to form biofilm, to persist onto plant rhizosphere and to induce systemic resistance in plants have
been evaluated in vitro and in vivo.

293-296

5.00 €

 

Influence of combined environmental parameters on survival of the biocontrol agent Penicillium oxalicum 212 in different soil types
Inmaculada Larena, Gema Vázquez, Antonieta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, and Naresh Magan

Abstract: In order to optimize the practical application of Penicillium oxalicum strain 212 as a
biological soil treatment, and to achieve an optimal biocontrol efficacy, it is essential to
understand how the physical environment (temperature, water availability and soil texture)
influences the biocontrol agents’ growth and survival. The combined method, i.e., the counting of
colony forming units (CFU) on semi-selective medium and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR),
used in this work are useful for tracking PO212 in different soil types. PO212 grew in all studied
soils, temperatures and water potentials, although its growth was better in soil with low water
availability than in those soils with medium and high water availability.

297-303

5.00 €

 

Evaluation of treatments to control ripe rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds in blueberry
Julija Volkova, Anna Bazenova, Regina Rancane

Extended abstract

305-306

0.00 €

 

Enhancement of biocontrol efficacy against Botrytis cinerea through the manipulation of nitrogen fertilization of tomato plants
Manzoor Ali Abro, François Lecompte, Marc Bardin, Magali Duffaud, Philippe C. Nicot

Abstract: Although nitrogen fertilization is known to affect plant susceptibility to certain
pathogens, little is known on its possible effect on the efficacy of biological control. In the
present study we examined the effect of five levels of NO3- nutrition on the efficacy of two
biocontrol agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Microdochium dimerum) to protect pruning
wounds of tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Plants were grown for two months in a greenhouse
with a soil-less drip-irrigation system. Differential nitrogen nutrition was applied for the last four
weeks prior to pruning, treatment of wounds with the biocontrol agents and inoculation with two
strains of B. cinerea. They were then incubated in conditions conducive to disease development.
Plant fertilization had a highly significant effect on disease development for both strains tested
and it significantly influenced the efficacy of both biocontrol agents. High nitrogen fertilization
generally decreased disease severity and also enhanced the efficacy biocontrol.

307-311

5.00 €

 

Prediction of transcriptional regulatory elements for systemic resistance induced by a plant growth promoting fungus
Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 based on microarray data

Yohei Yoshioka, Naznin Most. Hushna Ara, Ayaka Hieno, Masafumi Shimizu, Mitsuro Hyakumachi, Yoshiharu Y. Yamamoto

Abstract: The plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF) Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2
induces systemic resistance against fungal and bacterial pathogens. The induced systemic
resistance (ISR) signalling involves multiple plant hormone mediated paths, including salicylic
acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction of GP17-
2-mediated ISR by microarray and comprehensive cis-regulatory elements prediction. The
prediction provided the candidates of various putative ISR and also plant hormone-responsive
elements. Signalling cross-talk among GP17-2 and plant hormone responses including salicylic
acid, hydrogen peroxide and abscisic acid were detected by comparative microarray analysis and
cis-regulatory elements prediction. These results provide that new knowledge of transcriptional
network of GP17-2-mediated ISR and plant hormone signalling.

313-317

5.00 €

 

A rapid test to detect exo-chitinase activity for soil microorganisms using 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide
Alberto Pellegrini, Noemì Herrero, Ilaria Pertot

Extended abstract

319-320

0.00 €

 

Development of mass production technology for a new strain of Ampelomyces quisqualis for use as mycopesticide
Krishna Saharan, Dario Angeli, Cesare Gessler, Ilaria Pertot

Abstract: The mycoparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis strain ITA3 is a biocontrol agent of
powdery mildew disease but the mycelium and conidia production of the fungus still needs to be
developed. The objective of this research is to find out the optimum conditions for high
mycelium and conidia production of the strain ITA3. At submerged-fermentation stage
(vegetative growth), the nutrition factors (carbon source, nitrogen source and C/N ratio) were
optimized whereas at solid surface-fermentation stage (sporulation) culture nutrient medium was
optimized for lower cost. The results showed that, out of three kinds of carbon source, sucrose
(jaggery) gave the highest mycelia growth compared to dextrose and glucose. The organic
nitrogen sources (i.e. potato extract, yeast extract, malt extract, urea) gave a better significant
growth for A. quisqualis strain ITA3 (P < 0.001) compared with the inorganic nitrogen source
(sodium nitrate, ammonium chloride). The C/N ratio and agitation speed were also optimized for
higher mycelium growth of the fungus. It was observed that the harvested mycelium from
stationary growth phase of ITA3 (6 days) transferred into a solid potato extract agar plate gave
higher sporulation (4 days) in comparison to transferring it into solid jaggery and potato dextrose
agar plates. At this optimum condition the strain ITA3 produced an average of 5 x 108 conidia per
g of mycelium after 96 hours. These outcomes indicate that the higher mycelium and spore
production of A. quisqualis strain ITA3 can be achieved with a two-step fermentation system by
the short period with cheaper culture medium.

321-326

5.00 €

 

Targeted screening of iron-containing metabolites (siderophores) from Trichoderma spp., A. alternata and A. niger using LC-HR-MS/MS on an LTQ Orbitrap XL
S. M. Lehner, N. K. N. Neumann, L. Atanasova, R. Krska, M. Lemmens, I. S. Druzhinina, R. Schuhmacher

Extended abstract

327-328

0.00 €

 

EU-project CO-FREE: Innovative strategies for copper-free low input and organic farming systems
Annegret Schmitt, Ilaria Pertot, Jürgen Köhl, Aimilia Markellou, Didier Andrivon, Jolanta Kowalska, Krotoum Konate, Markus Kelderer, Edith Lammerts van Bueren, Christian Bruns, Jo Smith, Annabel Simon-Levert, Philippe Pujos, Marc Trapman, Rogier Doornbos, Pierre Van Cutsem, Rune Pedersen, Sergio Caceres, Hubertus Kleeberg, Arne Peters, Lucius Tamm

Extended abstract

329-330

0.00 €

 

Improving biocontrol activity of Bacillus subtilis UTB1 against Aspergillus flavus using gamma-irradiation
Hamideh Afsharmanesh, Masoud Ahmadzadeh, Abbas Majdabadi, Keyvan Behboodi, Mohammad Javan-Nikkhah, Farahnaz Motamedi, Houda Zeriouh, Diego Romero and Alejandro Perez-Garcia

Abstract: Wild type strain Bacillus subtilis UTB1 isolated from Iran had shown antagonistic
activity against Aspergillus flavus in pistachio. In a previous study, we found that this strain
produces lipopeptides and is able to degrade Aflatoxin B1, a toxin produced by A. flavus. In this
work, we are interesting in improving the antagonistic activity of the strain UTB1 against
A. flavus. To do so, we designed a random mutagenesis of UBT1 using gamma irradiation. We
evaluated the effects of different doses of irradiation (from 100Gray to 3000Gray) and studied
500 colonies against A. flavus in dual culture assay. We found that 45 colonies exhibited higher
inhibition activity compared to the non-irradiated wild type. Then we selected six mutants out of
the 45 based on the different polymorphism patterns obtained by rep-PCR (ERIC and BOX). The
six strains demonstrated significant differences with wild type UTB1 in terms of production of
biosurfactants and also swarming motility. TLC chromatograms have shown overproduction of
lipopeptides surfactin, fengycin and iturin compared to the wild type. These results suggest that
these strains would be promising biocontrol candidates against of A. flavus in pistachio.

331-336

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Investigation of the volatile metabolome in conidiating and non-conidiating cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma virens using HS-SPME-GC-MS
Alexandra Parich, Bernhard Kluger, Susanne Zeilinger, Prasun Mukherjee, Frankie Crutcher, Charles Kenerley, Rainer Schuhmacher

Extended abstract

337-338

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Use of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) for the study of trophic interaction among pathogen and antagonists
Alberto Pellegrini, Paola Elisa Corneo, Federica Camin, Solveig Tosi, Ilaria Pertot

Extended abstract

339-340

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The SLU Centre for Biological Control: Generating new knowledge on sustainable application of biocontrol
Ingvar Sundh, Hanna Friberg, Sebastian Håkansson, Mattias Jonsson, Margareta Hökeberg

No abstract

341-342

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Characterization and effect of bioactive compounds from luminescent mushroom, Neonothopanus nambi Speg. on root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood) of vegetables
Sureeporn Bua-art , Boossaracum Udomsak, Nuchanart Tangchitsomkid, Weerasak Saksirirat, Somdej Kanokmedhakul, Ratsami Lekprom

Abstract: Dry mycelium and culture filtrate from 3 isolates (PW1, PW2 and KKU) of
luminescent mushroom (Neonothopanus nambi) were extracted in order to obtain bioactive
compounds. Extraction using dry mycelium derived bioactive compound powder more than using
culture filtrate with extraction efficiency of 8.7-12.9%. The effect of bioactive compound was
investigated on infectious larvae (J2) of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in
laboratory. The result showed that bioactive compound at concentration 500mg/l caused 100%
mortality of J2 in 1 min. Concentrations of 100 and 50mg/l affected J2 causing significantly
mortalities of 100% in 30 min and 48h, respectively. Effect of this bioactive compound on J2 was
also confirmed in screened house experiment and found that concentrations of 100 and 500mg/l
suppressed evidently J2 without root-knot symptom on tomato plants. Root-knot score 1 was
detectable on tomato plants treated with the compound of 10 and 50mg/l. However, it was
significantly (P < 0.05) from control treatment, which exhibited root-knot score 4. The
mushroom spawn was also tested on control of root-knot nematode with chili plant under greenhouse
condition. Spawn of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 40g/plant were infested in chili plants grown in
pots. Galling percentage was evaluated on 30 days after treated with spawn. The result indicated
that all rate of spawn suppressed root galling. In particular, the treatment of 10g/plant reduced
significantly (P < 0.05) 85% (galling index 12%). While in control and chemical treatments,
galling indexes were 75 and 60%, respectively. This study suggests the efficiency and potential
of the application of bioactive compound from N. nambi for control root-knot nematode.

343-349

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Potential biocontrol against sclerotial fungi using a mycoparasite, Paraconiothyrium minitans CM2
Sang Yeob Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Hang Yeon Weon, Jeong Jun Kim

Extended abstract

351-352

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Priming for plant defence reactions in tomato roots by the biocontrol strain Fusarium oxysporum 47
Sébastien Aimé, Claude Alabouvette, Christian Steinberg, Chantal Olivain

Abstract: An in vitro method enabling to inoculate tomato roots with Fusarium oxysporum 47
and 48h later with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 8 was developed. Results show that
colonization of tomato roots by Fo47 is able to induce a primed state of roots, which results in a
higher expression level of defence-related genes (GluA, Chi3, PR1a) upon pathogenic
F. oxysporum attack.

353-358

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Effect of arabinogalactan proteins from the root caps of Pisum sativum and Brassica napus on Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore chemotaxis and germination
Marc Antoine Cannesan, Caroline Durand, Carole Burel, Christophe Gangneux, Patrice Lerouge, Karine Laval, Marie-Laure Follet-Gueye, Eric Nguema-Ona, Azeddine Driouich, Maïté Vicré-Gibouin

Extended abstract

359-360

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Potential for biological control of plant pathogens by isolates from suppressive soils
F. Carretero, F. Diánez, F. Marín, M. A. Martínez, J. A. Yau, C. Rodrigo, M. Santos

Extended abstract

361-362

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Animal origin wastes as new sources of resistance inducers against wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici)
Lubomir Vechet, Karel Kolomaznik, Jana Hanzalova, Nadezda Vrchotova

Abstract: Elicitors of animal origin were tested on wheat as inducers of resistance to powdery
mildew. Their effect was compared with the inducer of chemical origin benzothiadiazole and
with inducers of plant origin. Effect of animal- and plant-origin elicitors on disease severity
differed in two years of experiments under field conditions. Inducers of animal origin could be
potential sources of plant- induced resistance to diseases.

363-368

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