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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 81, 2012

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 81, 2012

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Stored Products".
Proceedings of the meeting at Volos (Greece), 04. - 07. July, 2011.
Editors: Christos G. Athanassiou, Nickolas G. Kavallieratos, Phyllis G. Weintraub.
ISBN 978-92-9067-259-3 [XXVIII + 312 pp.]

 

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Mating disruption for controlling stored-product pests in practice
Jürgen Böye, Sandra Beier, Otto Mück

Abstract: Field trials were conducted from May to November, 2010 to assess whether the
commercial Allure MD pheromone dispensers can disrupt development of Ephestia spp. and
Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under practical in three flour mills and a
flat bulk grain storage in Germany. The monitoring traps in the untreated control caught on an
average six moths more than the ones in one flour mill (in two weeks) where catches remained
below one moth per trap during the entire observation period. In the untreated grain store, moth
catches went up to 200 after five weeks per trap and week while there were none to one in the
treated area. The other two mills did not show any influence of the treatment on moth
populations.

3-6

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Long term effectiveness of several grain protectants on wheat
Zlatko Korunic, Vlatka Rozman, Darka Hamel, Anita Liska

Abstract: This study was initiated in order to determine how long several grain protectants will
provide acceptable protection against the adults and the progeny of Sitophilus oryzae (L.),
Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), when applied to clean eastern
white winter wheat containing 13.6% moisture content. The following insecticides were in the
experiment: mixture of diatomaceous earth (DE) and deltamethrin (DM) (DE/DM insecticide)
applied at 100 ppm containing 90ppm of DE and 0.1ppm of deltamethrin active ingredient (a.i.);
spinosad technical 92% powder applied at 1ppm a.i.; mixture of chlorpyriphos methyl (CM) and
deltamethrin (DM), formulation Storicide II applied at 3ppm CM and 0.5ppm DM a.i.;
pirimiphos methyl, formulation Actellic 5 E applied at 10ppm ai. In the USA, Actellic 5E is
primary registered as a grain protectant on corn and Storicide II on wheat, however, in some
European countries, Actellic is registered on wheat, as well. Bioassays were initiated
immediately after treatment (zero day), 30, 120 and 180 days after the initial treatment and were
conducted under the same conditions. The results demonstrate that, under the grain storage
conditions and bioassays implementation, treatment of wheat with 100ppm of DE/DM mixture
and 3ppm of CM and 0.5ppm of DM (Storicide II) provided effective protection against the
adults and the progeny of S. oryzae, R. dominica and T. castaneum during the investigating
period of 6 months. However, 10ppm of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 5E) didn't control the adults
of R. dominica and T. castaneum, and 1ppm of spinosad didn’t control the adults and the progeny
of S. oryzae and T. castaneum, immediately after the treatment and 180 days after the grain
treatment, as well.

7-16

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Commercial application of modified atmospheres for the quality preservation
of stored agricultural products

Shlomo Navarro

Abstract only

17

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Detection of insect necrotic internal damage and aflatoxin reduction
in stored pistachio nuts

M. Georgiadou, A. Proshlyakov, A. Revithi, S. Tjamos, I. Stringlis, D. Tsitsigiannis, E. Paplomatas, J. Blahovec, S. Yanniotis

Abstract: In recent years, a commercial issue exists due to the occurrence of pistachio nuts with
kernel necrosis symptoms, which are considered of reduced quality and cannot be marketed.
Furthermore, results from our previous study concerning aflatoxin contamination of Greek
pistachios suggested higher probability of aflatoxin contamination in those nuts. Pistachios with
kernel necrosis symptoms are considered to be infected by the stigmatomycosis disease that
result from insect (hemipteran) feeding punctures before harvest that remain untill storage. The
objectives of this work were to investigate a) the cause pathogen of the kernel necrotic spot in
Greek pistachios. b) the correlation among pistachios with kernel necrotic symptoms, Aspergillus
sc flavi presence and aflatoxin contamination and c) the potential of X-ray imaging for detecting
nuts with necrotic spots in the kernel; there is not currently available a non-destructive method of
inspection and removal of such nuts.
To achieve these goals, three samples of stored dried pistachios with a high percentage of
kernels with necrotic spots were obtained. First sample (A) was assessed for the natural
occurrence of Aspergillus fungi as well as for the isolation and identification of the causal
pathogen of the kernel necrotic spot. X-ray images were acquired in 100 randomly selected
whole shelled pistachios from the second and third sample (B and C). Afterwards, colour pictures
of the kernels of each nut examined were taken. Kernels with and without necrotic symptoms
were analyzed for aflatoxin contamination separately in both samples (B and C.
The results for aflatoxin contamination showed that the pistachios with kernel necrotic spots
contained about 60 times more aflatoxin than the pistachios without spots in contaminated
samples. Also, necrotic spots could be identified in X-ray images as a darker gray area of a
distinctive shape. The development of an automatic separation method based on this technique
will eliminate these nuts and thus will reduce total aflatoxin amount up to 98% in aflatoxin
contaminated batches and will improve the quality in batches free of aflatoxin removing
pistachios with unacceptable defects.

21-29

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Mating disruption of Ephestia cautella (Walker) in chocolate factories
Sara Savoldelli, Luciano Süss, Pasquale Trematerra

Abstract: Field trials have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of the pheromone
(9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate (TDA) for mating disruption (MD) of almond moth, Ephestia
cautella (Walker). Tests were carried out in Italy during 2010 in two chocolate factory
departments: one of 650m2 (A), and another one of 300m2 (B). After a period to assess moth
population, MD dispensers (CheckMate® SPM type) containing TDA were placed in July.
Pheromone-baited traps, oil traps + pheromone, and water traps in the chocolate factory
department A, and pheromone-baited traps in the chocolate factory department B were used to
monitor the population of E. cautella during the entire experimental periods. In chocolate factory
department A the presence of MD dispensers notably reduced the number of adults found in the
traps; in chocolate factory department B, mating diruption kept the number of males in
pheromone traps low but was not able to eradicate the E. cautella population. The results of the
present work indicate that in chocolate factories the use of mating disruption is feasible against
E. cautella, and should be further evaluated as a component of an Integrated Pest Managementbased
control strategy.

31-38

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Efficacy of the SPTabs® Auto Confusion System for mating disruption
of the indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella

T. W. Phillips, R. Mahroof, M. M. Hasan, M. J. Aikins

Abstract only

39

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Laboratory test for mating disruption of the Mediterranean flour moth
Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

C. Adler, S. Beier

Abstract only

40

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Mating disruption of pyralid moths at different types of facilities in Greece, Italy and Czech Republic
C. G. Athanassiou, P. Trematerra, V. Stejskal, N. G. Kavallieratos, P. K. Giannoulis

Abstract only

41

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Aflatoxin contamination in pistachio nuts in Greece: A farm to storage study
M. Georgiadou, A. Dimou, S. E. Tjamos, E. Paplomatas, S. Yanniotis

Abstract only

42

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Evaluation of the SP-Tab auto confusion system for the control
of stored-product Pyralidae in Italy and Greece

P. Trematerra, C. G. Athanassiou, N. G. Kavallieratos, A. Palladino, C. Th. Buchelos

Abstract only

43

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Biology of Callosobruchus theobromae (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae),
a seed pest of edible legumes

D. R. Thakur

Abstract: Bruchids are cosmopolitan in distribution and completely associated with wild and
cultivated legumes worldwide. These chunky beetles spoil the valuable share of legume proteins
which otherwise be eaten by human being, thus competing with the normal life of the mankind
especially in the developing countries, where per capita consumption of animal protein is very
low. Callosobruchus theobromae (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infests developing pods and seeds
of Dolichos lab lab L. syn. Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet throughout the year and extended its
host range on other legume commodities in the stores. Adult breeds a few hours after their
emergence and gravid females preferred egg laying directly on seeds and some time on pods also.
First instar larvae hatched out from a fertilized egg and bored vertically into the host seed for
successive juvenile development, unless infected by idiobiont and koinobiont parasitoids. Uninfested
healthy larva undergo different moults inside the host seed and emerged an adult insect
after cutting an exit hole in seed coat from inside. This inner mode of infestation protects the pest
species from fluctuating environment and toxic pesticides and also responsible for their dispersal
in new locality due to anthropogenic import and export seed consignments. Perusal of literature
revealed that C. theobromae is a pest of D. lab lab, but present investigations have unveiled its
pest status on other edible legumes viz. Glycine max (L.) Merr., P. aureus Roxb. and V. sinensis
(L.) Walp. also. Developmental compatibility on different legume commodities and number of
generations completed in a year are also explored. Studies have been extended to observe the
phenotypic variations and phase dimorphism exhibited by pest species during different seasons of
a year.

47-56

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Mites as vector of Tulip Virus X in stored tulip bulbs
S. T. E. Lommen, C. G. M. Conijn, M. E. C. Lemmers, K. T. K. Pham, and M. J. D. de Kock

Abstract: Tulip virus X (TVX) is a Potexvirus causing economic losses in tulip. Potexviruses are
generally transmitted by mechanical contact and, indeed, several mechanical transmission
pathways for TVX have been identified during tulip bulb production. However, TVX
transmission does also seem to occur during bulb storage. Since mechanical transmission is
excluded in this period, a biological vector should be involved. The eriophyoid mite Aceria
tulipae, the acarid storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and the acarid bulb mite Rhizoglyphus
echinopus are the main arthropod pests of stored tulip bulbs. Therefore, we studied their putative
role in transmission of TVX during tulip bulb storage. We show that mites of each of these
species can carry TVX with them after feeding on TVX-infected bulbs. In addition, some of the
healthy bulbs acquired an infection with TVX when inoculated with mites. Although the current
setup of the experiments does not confirm which species of mite transmit TVX, we have strong
indications that mites are involved in transmission. Additional research with larger numbers of
independent replicates is required to further prove the vector status of each species of mite, the
efficiency, and mode of virus transmission. If our results will be confirmed, this would be the
first case reporting a Potexvirus to be transmitted by mites, and the first case of an association
between acarid mites and a plant pathogenic virus. Consequently, TVX control in tulip bulb
production should include an adequate control strategy of both eriophyoid and acarid mites.

57-67

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Mate choice in the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais
N. M. P. Guedes, R. N. C. Guedes, J. F. Campbell, and J. E. Throne

Abstract only

68

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Insect-fungus interactions in stored triticale on the example of the two pest insects
Sitophilus granarius and Oryzaephilus surinamensis and the two moulds
Aspergillus flavus and Penicellium griseofulvum

G. Grineva, C. Reichmuth, C. Buettner, G. Hagedorn, and C. Adler

Abstract only

69

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New habitats of Adistemia watsoni (Coleoptera: Lathridiidae) in Greece and
control measures to be taken

S. Ch. Papadopoulou, and C. Th. Buchelos

Abstract only

70

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Insecticidal activity of Eugenia aromatic L. against the Angoumois grain moth,
Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), in rice paddies

M. O. Ashamo, O. O. Odeyemi, and R. O. Aringbangba

Abstract: Insecticidal activity of clove, Eugenia aromatica L. against the Angoumois grain
moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) infestation in paddy rice was carried out in the laboratory at a
temperature of 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity of 75 ± 5%. Seed powder and seed oil extracts
obtained using different solvents (hexane, acetone, methanol and aqueous) were tested against the
eggs of S. cerealella at 1%, 2% and 4% seed oil concentrations. Results showed that
E. aromatica seed powder and extracts were effective against S. cerealella significantly reducing
adult emergence and prolonging developmental period when compared with control. However
this varied with the type of solvent used for extraction and the concentration used. At the highest
oil extract concentration of 4%, extracts obtained using hexane and acetone caused 100%
mortality of S. cerealella since there was no adult emergence. Adult emergence of 1.65%, 10%,
11.65% were obtained from extracts obtained using methanol, aqueous and powder equivalent
respectively which were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control (65%). This indicates
that extracts obtained from hexane was the most effective while the least effective was the
powder equivalent. Values obtained from water absorption capacity showed that there was no
significant difference (P > 0.05) between treated and untreated paddy seeds. Viability of the
paddy seeds was also not affected since the values from treated seeds were very close to those
obtained from the control.

73-81

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Postharvest control of stored date pests in Tunisia using Eucalyptus essential oils
Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa, Soumaya Haouel, Mohamed Larbi Khouja

Abstract: In south Tunisia, dates and its second rate products present a resource for oases and
have a major role in shoring the agriculture and developing regional economy. Nevertheless,
dates are prone to many insect pests that cause major economic losses and decrease their quality.
The almond moth Ephestia cautella Walker and the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia
kuehniella Zeller are among the most important and destructive insect pests attacking dates in
storage in Tunisia. Methyl bromide is used for the control of these insects for postharvest
treatment. However, due to the increasing environmental and human health concerns on the
harmful effects of insecticides, the implementation of alternatives effective and friendlier are
required. These technologies mainly include the use of botanical biopesticide namely, essential
oils. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess a postharvest treatment against adults of two
pyralid moths E. cautella and E. kuehniella using fumigant toxicity of essential oils from
Eucalyptus camaldulensus (Dehnh.) and Eucalyptus leucoxylon (F. Muell.).
Results showed that fumigant toxicity varied with the oil concentration and the exposure
time. Moreover, E. cautella was more sensitive to the oils than E. kuehniella. For E. camaldulensis
essential oil, the LC50 values were 11.07 and 20.46μl/l air, respectively for E. cautella
and E. kuehniella. Regarding E. leucoxylon essential oil, the respective LC50 values were 11.28
and 24.59μl/l air for E. cautella and E. kuehniella. In addition for the lowest tested concentration
13.16μl/l air, LT50 values were correspondingly 13.49 and 30.46h for E. cautella and E. kuehniella
when E. camaldulensis essential oil was used whereas respective LT50 values for
E. leucoxylon essential oil were 18.01 and 33.29h.
Results suggested that E. camaldulensis and E. leucoxylon essential oils could be used as an
alternative to the synthetic fumigant in postharvest treatment program for the control of stored
date moths.

83-88

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Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of Laurus nobilis (L.) essential oils
from Tunisia and Morocco against adults of the lesser grain borer,
Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae)

Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa, Chiheb Brinsi, Mohamed Larbi Khouja

Abstract: Historically, cereal production has always been an important component of Tunisian
and Moroccan agricultures. Durum wheat is the major crop and the most widely cultivated cereal.
During varied storage conditions, wheat grains are attacked by a large number of insect pests.
Among these, the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius. It is one of the most
important internal feeders of stored grain. It is a major, primary pest of stored products. Adult R.
dominica feed on many kinds of grains including rice, wheat, millet, and sorghum. This pest is
among the main stored-product pests in Tunisia and North Africa. The management of this insect
is mainly based on chemical control. However, serious problems have been identified for the
future of chemical methods of grain disinfestations. Thus, there is an urgent need to find out an
alternative strategy to control this pest. In this work, we report the assessment of repellent and
fumigant activities of Laurus nobilis essential oil from Tunisia and Morocco against adults R.
dominica and we investigate their chemical composition. Essential oils chemical composition
assessed via GC and GC/MS analysis showed 1,8 cineole (24.55-38.86%), linalool (17.67-
9.45%), eugenylmethylether (12.40-3.93%), isovaleraldehyde (9.65-10.47%) and α-pinene (2.52-
4.31%) were the major common compounds. The two essential oils exhibited important fumigant
and repellent activities against the pest. Activities varied with the oil concentration and the
exposure time. R. dominica was more sensitive to Moroccan oil than Tunisian oil. LC50 values
were respectively 3.58 and 4.31μl/l air whereas the LC95 values were 4.26 and 6.37μl/l air. In
addition, percentage repellency (PR) values were 60% and 72.5% after 24h of exposure at the
concentration 0.12μl/cm2 respectively for Tunisian and Moroccan oil.

89-96

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Additive antifungal and insecticidal activity of some essential oils against grain insect
and seed borne fungi: an actual alternative for contact insecticide use in France?

G. Gardiet, B. Fuzeau, and F. Fleurat-Lessard

Abstract only

97

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Effects of four species of herbs upon population processes in the rice weevil
Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

M. Kłyś

Abstract only

98

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Activity of acetylcholinesterase from Sitophilus oryzae and Cryptolestes pusillus strains
selected for tolerance to monoterpenoids

M. D. López, and M. J. Pascual-Villalobos

Abstract: In previous works tolerance (up to the 10th generation) to each of six monoterpenes,
linalool, S-carvone, geraniol, camphor, γ-terpinene and fenchone and two phenylpropanoids,
estragole and E-anethole, was selected for S. oryzae and C. pusillus in the laboratory. This
process could possibly have involved changes in physiological and/or biochemical characteristics
of the insects since one possible mode of action of monoterpenoids in stored product pests is by
inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The extraction and activity of the enzyme from
S. oryzae and C. pusillus strains from either susceptible or tolerant (to each monoterpenoid)
insect populations was carried out. Activity of the enzyme at different concentrations of substrate
(acetylthiocoline iodide) was measured by the Elman’s method. Overall C. pusillus gave more
amount of AChE extracted than S. oryzae. In both insects, the amount of enzyme extracted from
susceptible populations was greater than in the resistant strains, with the exception of
C. pusillus population tolerant to camphor, linalool or geraniol. In addition, the enzymatic
activity in monoterpenoid susceptible insect populations was superior to the resistant strains in
the two pests, although there were no significant differences among the majority of populations.

99-106

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Identification of pure volatile compounds in dried apple, dried apricot and almonds
attractive to Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

A. F. Ndomo, Ch. Ulrichs, Ch. Reichmuth, S. Huyskens-Keil, U. Detlef, and C. Adler

Abstract only

107

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Efficacy of Calneem oil from Ghanian neem seeds and neem seed oils
from two locations in Cameroon against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on maize

E. N. Nukenine, C. Tchiegang, A. A. T. Mekoue, K. H. Tofel, Ch. Adarkwah, and C. Adler

Abstract only

108

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Fumigant toxicity of some monoterpenoid compounds against confused flour beetle,
Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Ö. Sağlam, and N. Özder

Abstract only

109

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Relation between the composition of four essential oils from Algerian plants and their
insecticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Dalila Saheb, Fazia Mouhouche, Sidali Benazzedinei, Francis Fleurat-Lessard

Abstract: Several essential oils (EOs) from Mediterranean plants are known to present a
significant biological activity on insect pests. The insecticidal activity of essential oils extracted
by hydro-distillation from four aromatic plants from Algeria: spearmint (Mentha viridis), thyme
(Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), was
tested either from contact test exposure (dose range: 0.05-0.4μl/cm2) or vapour phase
exposure (single high dose: 0.582μl/cm3) against Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium confusum. The
respective methodology of the two bioassays was the impregnated filter paper disk bioassay in a
Petri dish and the closed chamber exposure. The chemical composition of the essential oils was
established by GC/MS analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the four EOs revealed
that their major chemical compounds were mainly monoterpenes. eucalyptus EO contained
83.3% of three substances simultaneously eluted: limonene, 1,8-cineole and p-cymene; rosemary
EO contained 15.3% α-pinene and 14.2% camphor; thyme EO contained 43.2% thymol and
34.4% carvacrol; spearmint contained 24.3% carvone, 8.3% 1,8-cineole and 8.1% limonene. In
contact toxicity test, the four EOs exhibited more or less a similar level of toxicity on both insect
species. At the highest concentration (0.4μl/cm²), all the four EOs had similar average activity
against S. oryzae with more than 88% mortality observed after 6 d exposure. For T. confusum,
thyme, spearmint and rosemary EOs induced more than 95% mortality meanwhile eucalyptus EO
caused significantly less mortality observed at 72.6%. Among the four tested EOs, rosemary and
mint EO showed the highest inhalation efficiency. The mortality rate reached 100% after 24h
exposure time, either on S. oryzae or T. confusum. The analysis of the relationship between
insecticidal activity level on the two target insects and qualitative composition of the different
essential oils showed that the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes was linked to higher
insecticidal activity. To expect a future development of botanicals as a tool for integrated
management of pest in stored products new studies will be focused on identified pure bioactive
compounds.

111-121

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Testing the insecticidal activity of five different essential oils against bean weevil
(Acanthoscelides obtectus [Say], Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) adults
under laboratory conditions

Stanislav Trdan, Tanja Bohinc

Abstract: Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis,
Laurus nobilis, Citrus bergamia, and Cinamomum camphora against Acanthoscelides obtectus
adults reared on common bean seeds was assessed. Properties of essential oils were tested at two
different dose rates (245 and 980μl/l). Insecticidal efficacy was tested at five different
temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and two relative humidity (RH) levels (55 and 75%).
Responses varied with type of essential oil, time of exposure, dose of essential oil, as well as with
temperature and relative humidity levels. Three days after treatment over 90% adult mortality
was achieved. An essential oil from rosemary gave over 94% efficacy after three days. At 75%
relative humidity essential oils were significantly more effective than at 55% relative humidity
level. The plant essential oils described in this paper could be useful for managing populations of
A. obtectus in warehouses.

123-131

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Evaluations of some bioagents against Sitophilus oryzae
under laboratory and store conditions

Magda Sabbour

Abstract: The effect of three microbial control agents Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacteria:
Bacillaceae), Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) and
Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) and three
botanical extracts, Taxodium distichum, Boswella carterii and Nigella sativa was evaluated on
the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under laboratory and store
conditions. Results showed that the LC50 obtained were 102, and 154 spores/ml after treating
S. oryzae with different concentrations of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, under laboratory
conditions; respectively. However, when S. oryzae treated with different concentrations of
B. thuringiensis the LC50 was 266Ug/ml. The accumulative mortality percentage was gradually
increased by increasing the period of exposure to foam treated with different extracts. N. sativa
oil had the highest accumulative mortality (78.15%), followed by T. distichum (50.17%) and
B. carterii (30.19%). N. sativa oil had the highest repellant activity against S. oryzae reaching to
61%. The reduction of the eggs laid per female was scored 95.3% eggs/ female after treatments
with N. sativa oil. Under store conditions the percentages of infestation were significantly
decreased to 7, 10 and 17% after treating the stock sacs with B. thuringiensis, B. bassiana and
M. anisopliae respectively compared to 98% in the stock sacs control. When the stock sacs
treated with different oils, the infestations percentages were 45, 55 and 37% after treating with
T. distichum, B. carterii and N. sativa; respectively. The gunny sacs paper followed by
polypropylene sacs provide more protection against S. oryzae.

135-142

5.00 €

 

Duration of pupal and adult stages of Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae) after exposure of immature stages to high temperatures

Christos G. Spanoudis, Stefanos S. Andreadis, Matilda Savopoulou-Soultani

Abstract: In this study, the effect of high temperatures on certain biological aspects of the
koinobiont endoparasitoid Venturia canescens Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) was
examined in the laboratory. Immature life stages of V. canescens (egg, 1st or 2nd instar larva and
pupa) were exposed to high temperatures for one hour and the developmental time of pupal stage,
as well as the adult longevity was measured. The tested temperatures were 38, 39, 40, 41 and
42°C. In all treatments the duration of the pupal stage increased significantly with increasing
temperature. Significantly shorter developmental time of the pupal stage was observed when
pupae of V. canescens were exposed to high temperatures compared to that observed when eggs
and 1st-2nd instar larvae were exposed to all testing temperatures except for 42°C. On the other
hand, exposure to high temperatures resulted in a decrease of adult longevity. When 1st or 2nd
instar larvae and eggs of V. canescens were exposed to 40°C for one hour adult longevity
decreased to 4.2 and 6.2 days, respectively. However, when pupae of V. canescens were exposed
to high temperatures the adult longevity was significantly longer than that observed when eggs
and 1st or 2nd instar larvae were exposed to high temperatures and it ranged from 10.2 to 13.4
days. Our results suggest that high temperatures on immature stages had a negative effect on
duration of pupal stage and adult longevity. These findings are of great importance for a better
understanding of the effects that high temperatures have on V. canescens.

143-146

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Biology and biocontrol of Caryedon crineus Arora (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
D. R. Thakur

Abstract: Caryedon crineus Arora (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infesting seeds and pods of Cassia
occidentalis and Cassia tora have been investigated for biology and biological control. Both
legumes are major weeds of Arachis hypogaea and Glycine max in southern USA and some parts
of the tropics, but are of significant importance in some Asian subcontinents where they are
edible and yield valuable medicines. Work has also been extended to study the bio control of
C. crineus by a koinobiont parasitoid, Eurytoma raoi Narendran (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae).
The potential biocontrol agent is short-lived, fast developing and complete its development at the
cost of host insects. Biocontrolling potential of some eurytomid parasitoids has been done, but no
work has been carried out so far on E. raoi to explore its efficacy on bruchid pests. Therefore, the
present work on biology of C. crineus on two different hosts, C. occidentalis and C. tora and its
biological control by a hymenopteran parasitoid has been worked out.

147-157

5.00 €

 

Virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates against Trogoderma granarium Everts
(Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

Slavimira Draganova, Evdokia Staneva, Doncho Obretenchev

Abstract: Trogoderma granarium Everts is one of the most important economic quarantine pest
on different kind of stored seeds and products. The control of this insect is very difficult because
of its biology and ethology. Bioassays with six isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus
Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. were conducted to active larvae (L2-4) and adults of
T. granarium. The treatment was indirectly with conidial suspensions (2x108 conidia/ml) of the
isolates. The lethal effect was evaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to
mycoses. The virulence of each fungal isolate was estimated by the values of the median lethal
time (LT50), calculated by probit analysis. Τhe highest lethal effect (100%) to adult insects of
T. granarium in the variant with isolate 501Bb of B. bassiana was recorded on the 13th day and in
the variants with isolates 559Bb and 433Bb on the 15th and 16th day, respectively. Isolates 559Bb
and 433Bb were with the highest virulence with values of LT50 varying within confidence
intervals from 4.845 to 5.391 days and from 4.914 to 5.719 days, respectively. No significant
difference was recorded between variants at p < 0.05. Results of conducted experiments with
active larvae (L2-4) of T. granarium showed that lethal effect didn‘t reach 100% in all variants
even on the 22nd day. Variants with the highest mortality were with isolates 513Bb (79.59% ±
5.84) and 433Bb (69.39% ± 5.14). Isolate 513Bb was with the highest virulence to the larvae of
the pest with LT50 values within confidence interval from 11.00 to 12.24 days, followed by
isolate 501Bb - from 12.44 to 13.96 days. The difference between both isolates was significant at
p < 0.05. The presented results of the experiments are the first announcement about bioassay of
entomopathogenic fungi to larvae and adult insects of T. granarium.

159-167

5.00 €

 

Development of insects in a flour mill treated with Holepyris sylvanidis
(Hym., Bethylidae) for biological control of the confused flour beetle,
Tribolium confusum (Col., Tenebrionidae)

Cornel Adler, Matthias Schöller, Sandra Beier

Extended abstract

169-170

0.00 €

 

Reproduction of the parasitoids Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) and
Lariophagus distinguendus (Forster) on small areas with the Coleopteran pests
Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica

C. Belda, J. Riudavets

Abstract only

171

0.00 €

 

A 1,4-Benzoquinone reductase of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana
is involved in the degradation of Tribolium castaneum defensive secretions

N. Pedrini, M. P. Juarez

Abstract only

172

0.00 €

 

Transformation and attachment of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin
(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) conidia on the cuticle of Sitophilus oryzae (L.)
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val
(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in conjunction with diatomaceous earth

V. K. Stephou, S. E. Tjamos, E. J. Paplomatas, C. G. Athanassiou

Abstract only

173

0.00 €

 

Host finding and utilization of the larval ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor
(Say, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a biological control agent of the
rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
in bagged and bulk stored rice

C. Adarkwah, C. Adler, C. Reichmuth, M. Schöller

Abstract only

174

0.00 €

 

Residual efficacy of thiamethoxam, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and
diatomaceous earth formulation against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
(Coleoptera: Bostrychidae)

W. Wakil, T. Riasat, M. U. Ghazanfar

Abstract only

175

0.00 €

 

Evaluation of isolations of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana,
Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea against Sitophilus oryzae

N. G. Kavallieratos, C. G. Athanassiou, M. M. Aountala, D. C. Kontodimas

Abstract only

176

0.00 €

 

Biological control of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) on wheat grain
using the mite predator Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans

N. E. Palyvos

Abstract only

177

0.00 €

 

Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae): its natural enemies in Greece
and the use of innovative means for its control

S. Ch. Papadopoulou

Abstract only

178

0.00 €

 

Effect of six entomopathogenic nematodes on Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera:
Anobiidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

C. I. Rumbos, C. G. Athanassiou

Abstract only

179

0.00 €

 

Hermetic and modified atmosphere storage of shelled peanuts to prevent
free fatty acid and aflatoxin formation

Hagit Navarro, Shlomo Navarro, Simcha Finkelman

Abstract: The development of free fatty acids (FFA), molds and aflatoxins formation was
studied on peanuts with 7.0% and 8.0% moisture contents stored under hermetically sealed
conditions or in an atmosphere of 99% carbon dioxide and in comparison to aerated storage at
30 ± 1°C for 3 months. The laboratory trials were carried out using 0.95l capacity mason jars
containing clean peanuts or peanuts with 3% broken peanuts at the two moisture content levels.
In addition, semi commercial trials were carried out using 20kg of sound peanuts stored in
hermetic SGBIIZ (GrainPro Inc.) bags at the same two moisture contents and the controls
containing 7kg of sound peanuts were stored in ordinary PE bags. Each trial was replicated 3
times. Moisture content, FFA (% of oleic acid), Colony Forming Units (CFU) of molds and B1,
B2 G1 and G2 aflatoxins were checked on the outset of storage and after 3 months. Respiration
rates based on the oxygen consumption of the microflora and the peanuts and the carbon dioxide
evolved were monitored periodically. The fastest respiration rate (oxygen depletion) obtained in
the jars was with 8% moisture content peanuts containing 3% broken nuts after 18 days while at
7% moisture content sound peanuts reduced its oxygen concentration to a level of 1% after 84
days. In the SGBIIZ hermetic bags, at the 8% moisture content, the oxygen was depleted after 44
days compared to the laboratory tests in jars which the lowest oxygen was obtained after 28 days.
In all trials, aflatoxins level was below the threshold limit (≤ 0.3μg/kg). In peanuts stored under
hermetic conditions the CFU formation (≥ 1.3*104) and FFA rise (≥ 0.57) were suppressed
compared to the aerated samples. Best quality preservation for peanut storage with low CFU
(≤ 9.7*101) and low FFA (≤ 0.77) was obtained under controlled atmosphere of 99% carbon
dioxide for both moisture contents in peanuts containing 3% broken.

183-192

5.00 €

 

Fumigation of fresh herbs with phosphine as a new quarantine treatment
Simcha Finkelman, Shlomo Navarro, Hagit Navarro, Gilad Ashbell, Uzi Glaser

Abstract: Introduction of new pests into new habitats is the main concern of all agricultural
quarantine authorities. To prevent these dangers all countries enforce quarantine regulations on
agricultural products demanding that the product will be free of live insect pests. To provide high
quality products the fresh spices growers must market the harvested herbs within 3 days kept at
temperature of about 4°C. Today exported herbs are fumigated with methyl bromide (MB) to
achieve a total mortality of all insect developmental stages found in the products, MB is highly
phytotoxic and only effective as a pesticide when the fumigation is carried out at temperatures
over 21°C. To develop fumigation technology that will be suitable and effective to replace MB,
experiments were carried out using phosphine. Experiments were carried out under laboratory
conditions at temperature of 4°C and for 24h exposure time. The tested herbs were: dill, parsley,
tarragon, basil, mint, sage, oregano, thyme and rosemary. The insect pests: Laphigma spp.,
Prodenia spp., Geometridae, thrips and Bemisia tabaci were collected at their adult and larval
stage with the herbs from the field and they were exposed to the phosphine fumigation treatment.
The effective concentration of the gas that was found suitable to attain complete mortality of all
groups of tested insects was 700ppm. It was also found that the treatment killed all
developmental stages of mites Tetranychus urticae. Most herbs had no quality deterioration due
to the treatment even after 14d of storage, except basil and mint which were found sensitive to
the treatment. These results indicated that phosphine fumigation can be an effective quarantine
treatment that can control field insect pests after exposure of 24 hours at the low temperature of
4°C and can be considered as MB alternative treatment.

193-197

5.00 €

 

Use of controlled atmosphere for pest control in climate chambers and silos
Nico Vroom

Abstract: The EcO2 Controlled Atmosphere treatment (CA) is an effective treatment to control
insects and vermin in post harvest commodities, structures, silos, and container cargo (imported
and exported and treated according Quarantine and Pre-shipment regulations). The CA principle
is based on low-oxygen in combination with increased temperatures. The CA treatments are
commercially used world-wide and have gained acceptance from both governments and
industries as the non-toxic fumigant technology for a variety of applications. EcO2 has developed
several CA applications that are available for the industry.
As a pest control method CA has many advantages over traditional fumigants like no pest
resistance can occur, products are free of residues and safe for people and the environment. The
treatments are independent of atmospheric influences. Beside this, CA can be used for quality
preservation purposes for long term storage of food and feed commodities. It does not
compromise the treated products in any way. In addition, installations equipped to carry out CA
treatments are yet available in 15 countries serving a wide variety of industries.
The use of CA on post harvest commodities is growing rapidly and replacing chemical
fumigants like Phosphine more and more. The phase out of Methyl Bromide has pushed the
increase of world-wide Phosphine use. Phosphine is easy to use and affordable although this
product needs a long exposure time to be effective. Unfortunately the product is meeting
increased levels of pest resistance and requires more investments to be applied on an acceptable
level.
The CA treatments are applied in airtight climate controlled environments like climate
chambers, barges or containers with the use of fixed or mobile installations. To apply CA in
existing silos, a pressure tests needs to be conducted in order to establish the level of gas
tightness of the silo.
CA has shown to be effective in controlling insects in all life stages in a wide variety of post
harvest commodities, like for instance dried fruit, nuts, cocoa, tobacco, rice, seeds, spices, pulses
and cereals.

199-204

5.00 €

 

Cold hardiness of immature and adult stages of the Mediterranean flour moth,
Ephestia kuehniella

Stefanos S. Andreadis, Panagiotis A. Eliopoulos, Leonidas Zois, Matilda Savopoulou-Soultani

Abstract: The cold hardiness profile of immature and adult stages of the Mediterranean flour
moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was investigated in the laboratory.
Supercooling point (SCP) of early instars, late instars, pupae and adults of E. kuehniella was
determined using a circulating bath with a cooling rate of 1°C/min. Mean SCP of pupae was
significantly lower (-23.3°C) in relation to early and late instars (-16.1 and -19.5°C, respectively),
but did not differ from adults (-21.6°C). Moreover, low temperature survival of eggs, early
instars, late instars, pupae and adults of E. kuehniella was estimated by cooling groups of 30
individuals (three replicates of ten individuals for each treatment) to -7.5 and -10°C for 30, 60, 90
and 120 min. Mean lethal time (LTime50) of eggs and early instars at -7.5°C was significantly
shorter (24.8 and 58.2 min, respectively) than that of late instars, pupae and adults (123.2, 143.6
and 119.9 min, respectively). A similar trend was achieved at -10°C. Exposure to lower
temperature (from -7.5 to -10°C) resulted in shorter LTime50 values for all treatments, but this
were significant only in late instars and adults based on non-overlapping confidence intervals.
Freezing injury above the SCP was well documented for all stages of E. kuehniella indicating a
pre-freeze mortality. Our results suggest that the pupae are the most tolerant stage after exposure
to sub-zero temperatures. Eggs and early instars appeared to be the most susceptible stages to low
temperatures below 0°C while adults and late instars had a moderate resistance to sub-zero
temperatures.

205-209

5.00 €

 

Long term protection and logistic advantages by high volume vacuum packaging
R. M. J. Luyten

Extended abstract

211-212

0.00 €

 

Walking behavior of phosphine susceptible and resistant strains of
Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae)

M. A. G. Pimentel, R. N. C. Guedes, L. R. D. Faroni

Abstract only

213

0.00 €

 

Effects of temporary cooling on larvae of Idaea inquinata (Scopoli)
(Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

Lidia Limonta, Daria Patrizia Locatelli

Abstract: Idaea inquinata develops on dried plants with a preference for medicinal plants. The
survival of second and fourth instars larvae of I. inquinata exposed to 6 and -18 ± 1°C, for
different periods of time, was observed. Groups of 20 larvae were placed at 6 ± 1°C, 60 ± 5%
R.H. for periods of 15, 18, 20, and 25 days and then put in thermostatic chamber at 26 ± 1°C,
70 ± 5% R.H. Tests were controlled after 1, 2, 3, 8, 15 and 23 days until adults emergence. The
same procedure was used for tests at -18°C with exposure times of 4, 8 and 24 hours. For all the
tested periods at 6 ± 1°C, mortality higher than 95% was observed in second instar larvae after 1
day at 26°C. A complete (100%) mortality was observed on the second day at 26 ± 1°C after
treatment at 6 ± 1°C for 18, 20, 25, on the third day for 15 days treatment. Few fourth instar
larvae, placed for 25 days at 6 ± 1°C, were alive after 8 days at 26 ± 1°C, but they didn’t emerge
as adult; when exposed for 15, 18 and 20 days few individuals developed to adult. Larvae of
I. inquinata were susceptible to the treatment at -18 ± 1°C. A complete (100%) mortality was
observed after 24 hours, when second and fourth instar larvae were treated for 4 hours at
-18 ± 1°C.

215-219

5.00 €

 

Combination of modified atmospheres with high CO2 content
and volatile bioactives for the control of the rice weevil

Mª José Pons, Cristina Castañé, Sonia Guri, Jordi Riudavets

Abstract: Current control of Sitophilus oryzae in grain cereals mainly rely on chemical
treatments. Among alternatives, modified atmospheres (MA) are a safe and environmentally
friendly pest control method, but sometimes are too slow for the requirements of the industry.
Volatile bioactives (VB) based on aromatic plants are known to have insecticidal effect and
favourable eco-toxicological properties. Also, the use of Natural Enemies (NE) is recently
receiving attention as a pest control alternative during the storage of cereals. Advantages include
that NE are innocuous to end users and harmless to the environment, but the presence of any type
of ’insects’ at the end of the storage period should be avoided.
In the present study, the combined use of a 50% CO2 MA and some VB have been assessed
for the control S. oryzae adults. Two essential oils (S-(+)-carvone and linalool) and one fatty acid
(propionic acid) were tested. The results obtained showed that the mortality of S. oryzae caused
by MA was enhanced with the addition of the three VB tested: the highest mortalities (> 99%)
were obtained when insects were exposed during 72h to the MA in combination with 11.4mg/l of
S-(+)-carvone or 34.2mg/l of linalool or 34.2mg/l of propionic acid. Doses of linalool causing
95% mortality in S. oryzae were also adequate to control two of its parasitoids, Lariophagus
distinguendus and Anisopteromalus calandrae. On the contrary, doses of S-(+)-carvone causing
95% mortality in S. oryzae were not effective for the control of any of these two species.

221-226

5.00 €

 

Susceptibility of two stored product insects, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller and
Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val to gaseous ozone

A. A. Işikber, S. Öztekin

Abstract only

227

0.00 €

 

Egg mortality of insects during pasta making
Luciano Süss, Sara Savoldelli

Abstract: Egg mortality of Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, Plodia
interpunctella (Hübner) and Lasioderma serricorne (F.) was tested in an experimental plant of
short and long pasta. Eggs were mixed with semolina before starting pasta making (20 eggs/kg
semolina for Coleoptera and 300 eggs/kg semolina for Lepidoptera). The vitality and hatching of
eggs were verified in the laboratory. Ninety days following production, long pasta (spaghetti) and
short pasta (striped penne) were verified. In all tests, no infestation of pasta was observed. It is
impossible for the eggs of rice weevil, confused flour beetle, indian meal moth and cigarette
beetle to survive during mixing, extrusion and drying of pasta.

229-233

5.00 €

 

Spinosad, a new, natural insecticide for the control of stored grain pests
A. S. Chloridis, L. E. Gomez, J. E. Dripps, D. L. Paroonagian, C. G. Athanassiou

Abstract only

237

0.00 €

 

Laboratory evaluation of inert dust against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
(Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in stored grain

Doncho Obretenchev, Evdokia Staneva, Firas Zidan

Abstract: Laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the efficacy of inert dust –
SilicoSec®, Diatomaceous earth (DE) (Bulgarian origin), talcum, calcium carbonate, dicalcium
phosphate, zoolite, bentonite and magnezite admixed with stored grain against Rhyzopertha
dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) The investigation was provided at Plant Protection
Institute, Bulgaria, from 2008 till 2010. The results showed that SilicoSec® at doses of 1.5 and
2.0kg/t caused 100% mortality to the adults on the 60th and 30th day after treatment, respectively,
followed by talcum and calcium carbonate with the same effect at doses 3.0 and 3.5kg/t on the
60th day, respectively. Diatomaceous earth and dicalcium phosphate showed same results at a
higher dose – 4.0kg/t. Zoolite, bentonite and magnezite at doses 4.0kg/t caused 87.8, 71.4 and
59.3% mortality for the same period, respectively. Among all tested dusts, SilicoSec® was most
effective against the hidden infestation in wheat grain (to – 28°C and r.h. 75 ± 5%). Only 27
insects emerged in F1 generation at a dose of 1.5kg/t and no insects developed by treating with a
dose of 2.0kg/t. DE and dicalcium phosphate gave similarly results at a dose of 4.0kg/t. No
progeny developed in F1 and F2 by treating of wheat grain with SilicoSec® at a dose of 2.0kg/t.
SilicoSec® was more effective in maize grain, followed by wheat and barley; 100% mortality of
adults was obtained at doses 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0kg/t, respectively.

239-249

5.00 €

 

Abiotic and biotic factors affect efficacy of chlorfenapyr for control
of stored-product insect pests

N. G. Kavallieratos, C. G. Athanassiou, A. N. Hatzikonstantinou, H. N. Kavallieratou

Abstract only

250

0.00 €

 

Insecticidal and residual effect of indoxacarb against three stored-product beetle species on
wheat and maize

D. E. N. Miliordos, C. G. Athanassiou, N. G. Tsiropoulos, C. T. Nakas

Abstract only

251

0.00 €

 

Effect of partial and complete treatments of wheat kernels with spinosad
on Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) adult mortality and egg-to-adult emergence

Bhadriraju Subramanyam, Dhana Raj Boina, Telaprolu Venkata Prasad

Abstract: Spinosad was registered in 2005 as a grain protectant in the United States at the
maximum label rate of 1ppm or mg (AI) kg-1 of grain. In a laboratory study conducted at 28°C
and 65% RH, the effects of treating the germ end, endosperm end and whole kernel of wheat with
liquid formulation of spinosad at 0.1 and 1mg (AI) ml-1 on responses of the lesser grain borer,
Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), were studied. The purpose was to show if treating a portion of a
kernel was as good as treating the entire kernel in terms of insect mortality and progeny
production. The low spinosad concentration of 0.1mg (AI) ml-1 resulted in spinosad deposition on
kernels that ranged from 0.72 to 1.20ppm, and the concentration of 1.0mg (AI) ml-1 resulted in
residues that were 5 to 10 times higher. Dipping portions of wheat kernels or the entire kernel at
the low rate resulted in 100% mortality of R. dominica adults within 7 to 14 days, and resulted in
complete to near complete suppression of adult progeny production and kernel damage. The eggto-
adult emergence of R. dominica was also effectively suppressed irrespective of the kernel
portions treatment. At the low spinosad concentration, ≥ 50% of the kernels needed to be
completed treated with spinosad to produce 100% of R. dominica adults.

253-262

5.00 €

 

Efficacy of liquid formulations of spinosad for controlling insects
infesting stored wheat

Edmond L. Bonjour, George P. Opit

Abstract: Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the efficacies of three liquid
formulations of spinosad as grain protectants on stored wheat. Evaluations were conducted on
grain that was held for 2 days and 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after pesticide treatments were
applied. Bioassays for adult mortality and progeny production were conducted at 28°C and ~65%
relative humidity. All three spinosad formulations effectively controlled adult Rhyzopertha
dominica and prevented progeny development for 48 weeks. Overall, all of the formulations had
limited effectiveness against Sitophilus oryzae adults and did not prevent progeny production,
probably because eggs are laid inside kernels where larvae are protected from pesticide exposure.
None of the liquid formulations were effective against Tribolium castaneum adults but progeny
production was significantly lower on these treatments than on grain that was untreated. Percent
egg mortality of Plodia interpunctella was similar for all treatments although overall progeny
production was significantly less on grain treated with liquid formulations than untreated grain
and through 36 weeks, grain treated with Contain and Contain II had significantly fewer progeny
than grain treated with Spinosad 0.5%. The type of liquid formulation of spinosad is critical in
controlling stored grain insects.

263-267

5.00 €

 

The effect of wheat seed coating on Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
and Sitophilus oryzae (L.)

G. J. Chintzoglou, C. G. Athanassiou

Abstract: The seed coating of wheat was evaluated against adults of the lesser grain borer,
Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) and the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.)
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Four wheat varieties, Simeto, Saragolla, Canyon and Sculptur were
tested; lots of these varieties were treated and the insecticide deltamethrin alone, or in
combination with a mixture of the fungicides carboxin and thiram. Adults of the above species
were introduced in the untreated (control) and the treated quantities, and mortality was evaluated
after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. For R. dominica, mortality was generally low after 7d of
exposure, but it was higher in the treated quantities than in the control. After 14d of exposure,
mortality was higher on the seeds treated with the mixture of deltamethrin with the fungicides in
comparison with the application of either deltamethrin or the fungicides alone. On the other hand,
for S. oryzae, the mixture of deltamethrin with the fungicides caused significantly higher adult
mortality even after 7d of exposures, as compared with the treatment of deltamethrin or the
fungicides alone. These results indicate a positive additive effect of the two substances, at least in
the case of S. oryzae. At the same time, there were significant differences among the varieties
tested. The current results clearly suggest that even fungicides, when used for seed coating, cause
stored-product beetle mortality. In fact, in some of the cases tested, the use of fungicides can
increase the insecticidal activity of deltamethrin, which is one of the main currently used grain
protectants globally.

269-276

5.00 €

 

Insecticidal and residual effect of spinetoram against Sitophilus oryzae (L.)
(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)
(Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat and maize

T. M. Ksoura, C. G. Athanassiou, N. G. Tsiropoulos, K. S. Liapis

Abstract only

277

0.00 €

 

Insecticidal effect of spinetoram against stored-product insect species on wheat
T. N. Vassilakos, Ö. Sağlam, C. G. Athanassiou

Abstract only

278

0.00 €

 

Comparison of spinetoram, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprol against life
stages of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on concrete

Ö. Sağlam, T. N. Vassilakos, C. G. Athanassiou

Abstract only

279

0.00 €

 

Efficacy of thiamethoxam and SilicoSec on the mortality and progeny emergence of
Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on different grain types

Waqas Wakil, Tahira Riasat, M. Usman Ghazanfar

Abstract: The efficacy of thiamethoxam at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75ppm with or without diatomaceous
earth (DE) formulation SilicoSec at the rate of 100ppm was evaluated against Rhyzopertha
dominica F. (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) under laboratory conditions. Three grain types wheat,
maize and rice were tested at 30°C and 65% r.h. Adult mortality was recorded after 24 and 48h, 7
and 14d post exposure while the progeny production was noted after 60d. The adult mortality
increased with increasing dose rates and exposure intervals. Thiamethoxam was more effective at
lowest dose rates compared with DE alone and more number of dead adults was recorded in
wheat. The progeny production was significantly reduced compared with untreated grains. The
results of the present study revealed the potential of combined treatments of thiamethoxam and
DE, but the efficacy varies among grain types.

281-288

5.00 €

 

Development of Integrated Pest Management of Stored-Product Pests for a Food Processing Plant
George P. Opit, Edmond L. Bonjour

Abstract: In December 2008, a study was conducted to determine whether three types of
packaging used by a food processing plant could be breached by Indianmeal moth (IMM), Plodia
interpunctella (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. In another study, an assessment of
integrated pest management (IPM) practices used by the food processing plant for the control of
stored-product pests was conducted. In the IPM study, sampling of all areas on the ground floor
of the food processing plant was conducted for approximately 1 yr from March 30, 2009 to
February 15, 2010. The goal of sampling was to enable the improvement of IPM measures that
existed at the start of the study or the development new IPM practices. Sampling was conducted
to detect stored-product pests that would be expected to be present at the plant. Sampling
provided data on the incidence of pests in different areas of the plant at different times of the
year. To accomplish the sampling, 29 and 22 locations for IMM pheromone baited flight traps
were used inside and outside the plant, respectively; 29 locations for Dome™ traps were also
used and these were near IMM flight trap locations inside the plant. Storgard® II Traps and
Dome™ Traps were used to sample IMM and stored-product beetle pests, respectively. Data
showed that 64% of all IMM trapped outside the plant were found in traps located in the southern
perimeter fence. In addition, data showed that 91% of the beetles sampled were found in traps
located in three adjacent positions inside the plant. The packaging penetration and insect
sampling data and implications of these data for stored-product pest management in the food
processing plant are discussed.

291-297

5.00 €

 

Improving rice storage practices in Brazil
F. A. Lazzari, S. M. N. Lazzari

Abstract only

298

0.00 €

 

Botanical pesticides for the management of pests on stored maize, their isolation,
identification and chemical characterization

P. Usha Rani

Abstract only

299

0.00 €

 

Diatomaceous earth: large scale use in Brazil
S. M. N. Lazzari, F. A. Lazzari, F. C. Ceruti, F. N. Lazzari

Abstract only

300

0.00 €

 

Integrated stored pests management: Traditional and modern approaches
D. R. Thakur

Abstract: Modern agronomy, plant breeding, organic fertilizers and technological improvements
have sharply increased yields, but at the same time chemical fertilizers and pesticides have
caused widespread ecological damage and loss of floral and faunal diversity. There has been a
great resurgence of interest recently in studying traditional agricultural methods and pest control.
The interest has been world -wide and has encompassed diverse areas of plant sciences such as
agronomical, soil testing, pest control, crop protection etc. and these studies have become
increasingly important in the light of world-wide efforts to seek alternative methods of pest
control and to evolve sustainable eco-friendly strategies in the limited land mass of the earth. Use
of broad spectrum insecticides has lead to eliminate the eco-friendly species of commercial and
economic important insects and distorted the natural food chain. The increasing public awareness
of the environmental contamination by toxic chemical residues has necessitated the research and
development of non-chemical methods of pest control. In the present study different stored grain
pests and relevant Traditional Knowledge (TK) belonging to a particular agro-ecological zone of
Himachal Pradesh, India along with modern pest control practices are being developed and
designed for safer and prolonged storage of agricultural products.

301-312

5.00 €

 
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