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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 80, 2012


IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 80, 2012

Working Group "Integrated Control in Protected Crops, Mediterranean Climate".
Preceedings of the meeting at Catania, Sicily (Italy), 09 - 12 October, 2012.
Edited by: Cristina Castañé, Rosa Gabarra, Judit Arnó, Luciana Tavella and Giovanna Tropea-Garzia.
ISBN 978-92-9067-258-6 [VIII+ 344 pp.]


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Prospects and challenges for biological pest control in protected crops
in the Mediterranean

Karel Bolckmans

Abstract: The Mediterranean is a major producer of protected crops. Especially during the past
six years the uptake of biological control of pests has increased rapidly in the Mediterranean. The
key challenges for growers are pesticide resistance management, residue management, regulatory
requirements, risk management and cost-effectiveness. Suggestions are provided for continued
research on improving biological control.


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Biological and integrated protection in the Mediterranean greenhouse:
is disease management the weak link?

Philippe C. Nicot, Marc Bardin

Abstract: While biocontrol is commonly used for the protection of greenhouse crops against
arthropods, continued reliance on chemical control against diseases is often considered as a
hindrance to integrated protection. This paper presents a review of currently available biocontrol
products and other alternatives to pesticides for use against plant diseases in the Mediterranean
greenhouse. At least 12 biological active substances (micro-organism or plant extract) are
commercially available for the control of soilborne pathogens and 14 against foliar diseases, in
one country or more in the Mediterranean Basin. Future prospects and challenges are presented.


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Natural antagonists and insect control: a new perspective
Francesco Pennacchio

Abstract: The astonishing biodiversity of parasitic Hymenoptera and the large variety of
strategies they use to colonize and exploit their insect hosts offer a wealth of molecular tools that
can be profitably used for pest control. The virulence factors encoded by parasitic wasps and their
associated symbionts are able to suppress the immune response of the host and to disrupt its
physiological and reproductive processes. These molecules can directly target insect pests, and,
by disrupting their immune response, they can also enhance the value of the ecological services
offered by natural antagonists. The use of these natural bionsecticides is highly dependent on the
development of targeted delivery strategies, which have to be designed to enhance both the
efficacy and safety. The fast expansion of molecular technologies opens new avenues of research
and makes possible the development of innovative pest control technologies, based on the use of
parasitoid-derived molecules and/or on strategies mimicking their effects on insect hosts.


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Integrating community ecology theories for optimizing IPM
Nicolas Desneux

Abstract only


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Survey of host plants and natural enemies of Drosophila suzukii in an area
of strawberry production in Catalonia (northeast Spain)

Judi Arnó, Jordi Riudavets, Rosa Gabarra

Abstract: A new invasive pest, the fly Drosophila suzukii, is threatening several fruit crops in
Europe. This pest is native to Asia and was first recorded in Europe in 2008. The first
documented damage in our area occurred in 2011, mainly affecting cherries and strawberries. In
this study, we aimed to determine which cultivated and non-cultivated plants host D. suzukii in an
area in which heavy infestations on protected strawberry crops have occurred. Strawberries,
raspberries, Arbutus unedo and Solanum luteum have been infested with D. suzukii. To our
knowledge, the last two species had not previously been described as hosts of this fly. Evidences
of the presence of the pest in unripe fruits were recorded. Some potential biological control
agents in the local area were also identified. Four Hemiptera predator species were found in
infested fruit samples: Orius laevigatus, Cardiastethus nazarenus, C. fasciventris and Dicyphus
tamaninii. Further research is needed in the role of these natural enemies in the control of this


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The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) –
is it becoming a serious pest on pepper and tomato in Montenegro?

Sanja Radonjić, Snježana Hrnčić

Abstract: In the last few years, increases in the damage to pepper and tomato fruits caused by the
cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera have been noticed in the southern part of Montenegro,
the country’s main pepper and tomato production area. This includes the area around the city of
Podgorica (Zeta and Bjelopavlići) and the Montenegro seacoast (Ulcinj) where these two cultures
are grown both in greenhouses and outdoors. From July to September in 2010 and 2011, eight
tomato and six pepper greenhouses in the Zeta and Bjelopavlići area were visually inspected.
Two tomato greenhouses, one open-field tomato crop and one open-field pepper crop were
visually inspected in 2011 in the Ulcinj area. As well as a visual inspection, the intensity of attack
was also calculated for the pepper and tomato crops. The results of this study showed that larvae
of H. armigera were found on pepper and tomato fruits in most of the inspected greenhouses and
also on tomato fruits in the open field. More damaged pepper and tomato fruits were observed in
2011 than in 2010.


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A three-year survey of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) population trends
in Sardinian tomato greenhouses

Mauro Nannini, Fabrizio Atzori, Michele Coinu, Riccardo Pisci, Francesco Sanna

Abstract: Since 2008 Tuta absoluta has established in Sardinia (Italy) as the key pest of
greenhouse tomatoes. With the aim of monitoring tomato borer population trends after its
introduction in one of the most important fresh market tomato production areas of the island,
from February 2009 to January 2012 we surveyed ten to fifteen commercial greenhouse crops per
year. In each crop we assessed monthly the mean number of live T. absoluta larvae per tomato
plant, the percentage of plants infested by larvae, the mortality and parasitism of 2nd-4th-instar
larvae, and noted the treatment schedules. The highest levels of tomato borer infestation were
observed in spring of 2009 (averaging 86 larvae/plant) and, to a lesser extent, in spring of 2010
and 2011 (55 and 41 larvae/plant, respectively). While pest density generally declined in summer,
it increased moderately during autumn, not exceeding on average 8 larvae/plant, and was
maintained in winter. In most cases the highest levels of larval mortality were recorded between
May and July. Except in a few cases, the contribution of larval parasitism to tomato borer
mortality was poor. The insecticides most commonly used by growers for pest management were
initially abamectin, azadirachtin and spinosad, but during the survey period the latter two
products were gradually replaced by Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides and emamectin


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Tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta, and insecticide resistance:
a new challenge for control strategies

Khalid Haddi, Madeleine Berger, Pablo Bielza, Dina Cifuentes, Linda M. Field, Kevin Gorman, Martin S. Williamson, Chris Bass, Carmelo Rapisarda

Abstract: The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera), is a significant pest of tomatoes
that has undergone a rapid expansion across Europe, North Africa and parts of Asia during the
past six years. One of the main means of controlling this pest is through the use of chemical
insecticides. In the current study leaf-dip bioassays were used to determine the susceptibility of
T. absoluta strains established from field collections to several insecticides. Additionally, the
para-type sodium channel and acetylcholinestaerase gene from T. absoluta were cloned and
sequenced. This revealed the presence of three kdr/super-kdr-type mutations (M918T, T929I and
L1014F) in the sodium channel gene and mutation (A201S) in the acetylcholinesterase gene. To
assess the prevalence of these mutations in 27 field strains from 12 countries high-throughput
TaqMan diagnostic assays were developed. The results showed the presence of these mutations at
high frequency in T. absoluta populations world-wide and suggests pyrethroids and organophosphates
are likely to be ineffective for control. These results also support the idea that the
rapid expansion of this species over the last six years may be in part mediated by the resistance of
this insect to chemical insecticides hence adding new challenges to control strategies for this pest.


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Promising native candidates for biological control of Tuta absoluta in Italy
Chiara Ferracini, Barbara L. Ingegno, Marco Mosti, Paolo Navone, Luciana Tavella, Alberto Alma

Abstract: Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), native to central America, has been first
reported in Europe in Spain in 2006 and in southern Italy in 2008, and by now it has become one
of the major pests on tomato, its main host plant. In the two-year period 2009-2010, nine species
of indigenous parasitoids emerged from tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta collected in
horticultural areas of Liguria, Sardinia and Sicily (Italy). The most abundant species were
Necremnus near artynes and N. near tidius, which appeared to be promising as biological control
agent. Furthermore, in tomato plantations infested by T. absoluta in Piedmont (Italy), a generalist
predator, Dicyphus errans (Heteroptera: Miridae), was largely found. Therefore, the two
parasitoids and the mirid bug were tested in controlled conditions to evaluate their effectiveness
in controlling the exotic pest. Both Necremnus species proved to control efficiently first- and
second-instar larvae by host feeding and parasitism. Also D. errans revealed to be an effective
biocontrol agent of the tomato borer, preying mainly on eggs and first-instar larvae. Further
investigations are needed to evaluate their potential role as biological control agents in
commercial tomato plantations.


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Survey on indigenous parasitoids of the invasive exotic pest Tuta absoluta in Southern Italy
Lucia Zappalà, Umberto Bernardo, Antonio Biondi, Arturo Cocco, Salvatore Deliperi, Gavino Delrio, Massimo Giorgini, Paolo A. Pedata, Carmelo Rapisarda, Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Gaetano Siscaro

Abstract: The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, is an invasive pest native to South-America and since
its arrival in Europe the tomato production has faced severe yield loss. The composition of the
indigenous parasitoid complex of the leafminer was monitored in Southern Italy (Campania,
Sardinia and Sicily) during 2009-2011. The parasitoid collection was carried out by exposing
sentinel tomato infested plants and by sampling open field and protected greenhouse crops, as
well as Solanum nigrum, a T. absoluta wild host. The parasitoids found developing on the
leafminer were mostly generalist idiobionts belonging to 12 genera and 6 families (Ichneumonidae,
Braconidae, Eulophidae, Elasmidae, Pteromalidae and Trichogrammatidae). A prompt
shift of native parasitoids to the new invasive host was observed and the parasitoid complex
recovered on T. absoluta seems to follow the typical pattern of parasitisation on exotic pests,
being characterized by a relatively low number of species mostly represented by generalist
idiobionts, performing low levels of parasitisation in open field. This study highlighted the
suitability of sentinel plants for indigenous parasitoids surveys in case of heavily treated crops,
since the majority of the species were collected on sentinel plants (16 out of 23 totally
recovered). The data recorded up to now lead to be rather optimistic with reference to the
perspective of T. absoluta natural biocontrol in the Mediterranean basin.


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Can recently found Brazilian hemipteran predatory bugs control Tuta absoluta?
Vanda H. P. Bueno, Flavio C. Montes, Ana M. C. Pereira, Juracy C. Lins Jr., Joop C. van Lenteren

Abstract: The tomato borer Tuta absoluta, native to western South America, is an extremely
devastating pest in tomato crops in most of South America, Europe and Africa North of the Sahel
and the Near East (Asia). Without control, the pest causes yield losses up to 100% and decreases
fruit quality in open field and greenhouse crops. In Brazil two other serious lepidopteran pests
occur in tomato, as well as thrips, whitefly, mites and aphids. For control of these pests, frequent
applications of pesticides of up to 5 times per week are needed, and these resulted in the
appearance of resistant populations to a number of active ingredients and caused a strong
reduction of natural enemies. Biological control may offer a better opportunity for pest
management. Mirid predatory bugs are currently used with success in Europe to control
T. absoluta and other pests. In Brazil, three mirid predators of T. absoluta have been found and
are now evaluated together with two other hemipteran predators, Geocoris punctipes and Orius


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Natural parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by native Aphelinidae
(Hymenoptera) parasitoids in tomato greenhouses in Mersin, Turkey

Kamil Karut, Cengiz Kazak, İsmail Döker, Amir Abdullahi Yousif Malik

Abstract: The survey study was conducted to determine the natural parasitism of Bemisia tabaci
in tomato greenhouses in the Adanalıoğlu, Kazanlı and Kocahasanlı counties of Mersin in the
period 2008-2010. Samples were collected from commercial tomato greenhouses in the spring
and autumn seasons. Most of the surveyed greenhouses (≥ 95%) were infested with B. tabaci.
Overall, population densities of B. tabaci were higher in Adanalıoğlu and Kazanlı than in
Kocahasanlı. B. tabaci infestation rates were higher in autumn than in spring, in both years. Er.
mundus was more abundant in autumn than in spring at all locations and Er. mundus was more
abundant than En. lutea. Parasitism rates of Er. mundus ranged from 12.3 to 37.1% throughout
the survey.


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Detection of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Iran
Ahmad Cheraghian

Abstract only


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Implementation of a biological control programme in greenhouse crops in Iran
Vali Baniameri, Ahmad R. Mohandessi, Shahram Farrokhi

Abstract only


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Morphometry and biology of a new anthocorid Montandoniola indica,
a potential predator of Gynaikothrips uzeli

Chandish R. Ballal, Tripti Gupta, Sunil Joshi

Abstract: A new anthocorid predator, Montandoniola indica was recorded for the first time as a
predator of Gynaikothrips uzeli infesting Ficus retusa in Karnataka (India). The morphometry
and biology of this predator were studied. M. indica nymphs and adults could be reared on UV
irradiated eggs of the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica. The feeding potential of M. indica nymph
was 27 C. cephalonica eggs and in the case of adult male and female, 38 and 56 eggs,
respectively. The adults of M. indica were provided with thrips and pollen in addition to
C. cephalonica eggs, for better survival. The adult male and female longevity was 23 and 31
days, respectively and fecundity 37 eggs per female.


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Morphometry and molecular markers to discriminate between
Macrolophus pygmaeus and Macrolophus melanotoma

Cristina Castañé, Núria Agustí, Judit Arnó, Rosa Gabarra, Jordi Riudavets, Jordi Comas, Óscar Alomar

Abstract: Macrolophus melanotoma (= M. caliginosus) and Macrolophus pygmaeus have been
referred to as important predators of pests in vegetable crops in the Palaearctic region. Due to
their high morphological similarity, these two mirid species have been confused, with important
consequences for their use in inoculative and/or conservative biological control programmes. In
this study we review the taxonomic characters that proved reliable to separate the two species, as
the profiles of cuticular hydrocarbons, a discriminant function of four morphometric ratios of
males, and specific primers to distinguish both species through conventional PCR. We also
discuss the correct assignation of Macrolophus species in historical records. All the tested
Macrolophus samples from the IRTA’s old lab colonies were identified as M. pygmaeus, showing
that the articles we have previously published on “M. caliginosus” using laboratory colonies
should have referred to M. pygmaeus. When samples from comercial companies were analyzed
using the previously mentioned specific primers , in all cases, the species was identified as
M. pygmaeus. This result shows that in most cases the species being commercially released is
M. pygmaeus. We can therefore hypothesize that most of the field work done on ‘M. caliginosus
in the Mediterranean Basin, and presumably also in the rest of Europe, which has mainly focused
on tomato crops, could probably have referred to M. pygmaeus. The identification of native plants
that are sources of the predator that colonises the tomato crop is a key element in the implementation
of conservation biological control programmes for this crop. However, most of the host plants for
both species still remain largely unknown.


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Influence of phytophagous behaviour on prey consumption by Macrolophus pygmaeus
D. Maselou, D. Perdikis A. Fantinou

Abstract: Omnivorous Heteroptera constitute an important component of predatory guilds with
high potential for biological control. Understanding the relative effects of plant feeding on the
suppression of prey by omnivores could be an important element for improving biological control
strategies. In the current paper, the effects of different plant food sources on the predation rate of
the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae) were examined. In all the
experiments, second instar nymphs of the aphid Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) were
used as prey at different densities. First, we evaluated the rate at which the predator preyed on
M. persicae at various prey densities on pepper and eggplant leaves. Then, using eggplant
flowers or pollen as additional food sources, we estimated predator efficiency for three different
prey densities. The predation rate was not affected by the type of plant leaf used. However, the
results showed that the predation rate of M. pygmaeus was significantly reduced when flowers or
pollen were provided at high prey densities. The importance of these results in understanding the
influence of phytophagy on predation rates of omnivorous predators is discussed.


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Effect of supplemental food on the fitness of four omnivorous predator species
Marta F. Oveja, Judit Arnó, Rosa Gabarra

Abstract: The predators Orius laevigatus, O. majusculus, Macrolophus pygmaeus and
Nesidiocoris tenuis are extensively used in biological controls in vegetable crops. The fitness and
local density of these predators, which are omnivores and feed on arthropods and plants, may be
enhanced by the provision of supplemental food, especially when prey is scarce, and this may
improve biological control results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of four
supplemental foods: Ephestia kuehniella eggs, dry Artemia sp. cysts, the mite Tyrophagus
putrescentiae and commercial multifloral bee pollen, on the reproduction and longevity of these
four predators. Our results show that using dry cysts of Artemia sp. as factitious prey had positive
effects on the reproduction of the predators O. majusculus, O. laevigatus, M. pygmaeus and
N. tenuis. Furthermore, dry commercial multifloral bee pollen improved the longevity of the
females of O. laevigatus, O. majusculus and M. pygmaeus as much as eggs of E. kuehniella. Dry
cysts and dry pollen need little or no handling to prepare them for use, are very easy to disperse
in the crop and maintain their quality for a reasonable time. Further experiments need to be
conducted under semi-field conditions to better evaluate the positive effect of these two
supplemental foods on predator establishment in the crop. It will also be important to evaluate the
effect of these foods on life parameters of pest species and on intraguild relationships among


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Analysing predation of Orius majusculus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)
in lettuce crops by PCR

Priscila Gómez-Polo, Oscar Alomar, Cristina Castañé, Nuria Agustí

Abstract: Orius majusculus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important generalist predator
known to feed on two of the main pests in lettuce crops, Frankliniella occidentalis
(Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Diagnostic
molecular gut-content analysis has been conducted to study predation of O. majusculus on these
pests, as well as on the springtails of the genus Entomobrya sp. (Collembola), the most abundant
non-pest prey in lettuce crops of the studied area. Two pairs of specific primers were designed for
N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis, amplifying 331 bp and 277 bp fragments of the mitochondrial
Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI) region, respectively. Collembola detection, was conducted with a
pair of a group-specific primers previously designed that amplify an amplicon of 177 bp of the
18S rDNA region. Prey was detected in 100% of predators immediately after prey consumption
(t = 0h). PCR analysis of O. majusculus collected in the field revealed a strong relationship
between prey density in the crop and consumption. Sixty per cent of these field-collected
O. majusculus were positive for N. ribisnigri in spring (when this pest species was present) and
up to 40% were positive for F. occidentalis in summer (when the density of this pest was the
highest). Collembolan detection ranged from 9.4% to 28.2% depending on the season and
predator stage. A higher proportion of immature O. majusculus ingested more than one prey
species simultaneously compared to adults of the same predator species. These findings suggest
that O. majusculus is an important predator for the control of both lettuce pests, being springtails
an important alternative prey, which could maintain O. majusculus populations when both pest
species are not present in the crop or are not abundant enough.


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The effect of pollen on the predation of Polyphagotarsonemus latus
by the predaceous mites Amblyseius swirskii and Euscelis scutalis

Huda Al-Beiruti, Yael Lubin, Phyllis G.Weintraub

Abstract only


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Do oviposition substrates and different materials as hiding-places
influence reproductive parameters of Orius insidiosus?

Flávio C. Montes, Vanda H. P. Bueno, Juracy C. Lins Jr, Adriana A. Menezes, Ana M. Calixto, Nazaré Moura

Abstract: Orius insidiosus is a commercially produced natural enemy used as a biological
control agent of thrips in greenhouses. Mass production is strongly influenced by the type of
oviposition substrate, as well as by hiding materials that reduce the contact between individuals
and avoid cannibalism in the rearing unit. The objective of this study was to evaluate two
oviposition substrates, bean sprouts and bean pods of Phaseolus vulgaris, and different types of
materials (rice hulls, popcorn, shredded paper towel and Styrofoam white flakes) to provide
hiding places and prevent cannibalism in the rearing system of O. insidiosus. Bean sprouts were
accepted and more suitable for O. insidiosus females as an oviposition substrate in the laboratory.
The total number of eggs/rearing unit/30days, the number of eggs/female/day/rearing unit and the
number of emerging adults were significantly higher with bean sprouts as oviposition substrate
compared to bean pods. No significant differences were found in the number of eggs and number
of emerging adults/rearing unit with different types of materials to provide hiding-places and
avoid cannibalism.


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Do earthworms increase oviposition of the tiger-fly, Coenosia attenuata
(Diptera: Muscidae)?

Elisabete Figueiredo, Susana Leal, Joana Martins, Célia Mateus, Teresa Rebelo

Abstract only


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Prevention of diapause induction in a Japanese strain of Aphidoletes aphidimyza
Eizi Yano, Masafumi Yamane

Abstract: The aphidophagous gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a
dominant natural enemy of aphids, is used in many countries to control aphids in greenhouses.
Since developmental arrest during diapause reduces the effectiveness of natural enemies, we
studied the effect of photoperiod and temperature on the incidence of diapause in a Japanese
strain of A. aphidimyza by examining diapause induction under different day-length and
temperature conditions. The critical day length for diapause induction was 12.7h at 20°C.
Diapause incidence was completely prevented at 30°C, even under a photoperiod of 11L13D.
Diapause induction in A. aphidimyza could be prevented by providing light during the scotophase
in the laboratory. However, diapause induction was not prevented by providing light for 1h at
night in the field experiments from September to November 2011.


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A comparison of three Encarsia species as controlling agents
for Bemisia tabaci in greenhouses

Dan Gerling, Nelly Rejouan

Abstract: The study constitutes part of an effort to locate potentially efficient agents for
biological control against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Three parasitoid species, Encarsia inaron,
E. lutea and E. sophia, which attack B. tabaci under natural conditions were studied
comparatively in order to evaluate the most suitable species for use as a biological control agent
against Bemisia tabaci in greenhouses. The tested parameters were: developmental durations,
longevity and oviposition characteristics. All three species lived ca. 20 days each and the two
former ones developed to adulthood within ca. 14 days and E. lutea, within 15. The differences
between oviposition rates were not significant (66 ± 36.27, 32.84 ± 26.19 and 42.73 ± 21.74
average and standard deviation of the mean respectively for E. inaron, E. lutea and E. sophia,
respectively). Encarsia inaron had the highest percentage of females that lived longest whereas
E. lutea had a higher semelparity. Our findings failed to reveal the superiority of one species over
the others as candidates for the intended biological control. Additional parameters, including their
competitive behavior and compatibility with other natural enemies in the greenhouse, should thus
be considered.


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Biology and behaviour of the indegenous parasitoid Bracon nigricans
on the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta

Antonio Biondi, Gaetano Siscaro, Nicolas Desneux, Edwige Amiens-Desneux, Lucia Zappalà

Abstract only


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Dispersal of TSWV by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
in presence of natural enemies

Belén Belliure, Juan Antonio López-Adánez, Alberto Fereres, M. Ángeles Marcos-García

Extended abstract


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Effects of selected factors on the reproductive fitness of the predatory mirids
Macrolophus pygmaeus and Nesidiocoris tenuis (Heteroptera: Miridae)

Mauro Nannini, Michele Coinu, Giovanni Murgia, Riccardo Pisci, Francesco Sanna

Abstract: The use of the predatory mirids Macrolophus pygmaeus and Nesidiocoris tenuis for
the control of arthropod pests on greenhouse tomatoes is at present limited in some
Mediterranean regions by factors of an economic and technical nature. To assess the influence of
the production and distribution process, the availability of a supplementary food source and
seasonal climatic trends in the reproductive fitness of the two mirid species, some laboratory and
semi-field experiments were conducted during the last year. The adverse effects of the stress
experienced by commercially supplied insects have clearly emerged through the investigation,
but at different levels of intensity for the sources tested. The supply of Ephestia kuehniella eggs
has shown pronounced effects on the reproductive fitness of the predatory mirids, in some cases
allowing a partial recovery of fertility in stressed individuals and confirming the suitability of
supplementary food sources in improving mirid performances. Furthermore, the results of the
tests carried out appear to indicate that M. pygmaeus is more suitable for winter releases in
Sardinian tomato greenhouses, whereas N. tenuis is to be preferred for autumn releases.


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Use of the predators Orius laevigatus and Aeolothrips spp. to control
Frankliniella occidentalis populations in greenhouse peppers
in the region of Monastir, Tunisia

Mohamed Elimem, Brahim Chermiti

Abstract: The use of Orius laevigatus and Aeolothrips spp. to control Frankliniella occidentalis
in greenhouse peppers in Tunisia produced different results according to predator species and
different doses and release frequencies. In the case of the predator bug Orius laevigatus, the most
effective dose was 1 individual per m² repeated three times with an interval of one week.
Although O. laevigatus releases caused F. occidentalis populations to decrease for only one
week, the predator was able to become installed in the crop and to proliferate. In the case of the
predatory thrips Aeolothrips spp., no individuals were recorded in the pepper greenhouse even
after the third release. However, the F. occidentalis population decreased to low average values
of 0.42 and 0.06 thrips per flower as a result of the spontaneous colonization of individuals of
O. laevigatus from other greenhouses.


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Effect of Orius laevigatus and Amblyseius swirskii releases
on Frankliniella occidentalis populations in pepper crop greenhouses
in the Bekalta region of Tunisia

Mohamed Elimem, Brahim Chermiti

Abstract only


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Evaluation of four lacewing species for aphid control in sweet pepper
Gerben Messelink, Chantal Bloemhard, Hans Hoogerbrugge, Jeroen van Schelt

Abstract: Four species of lacewings were evaluated for control of the peach aphid Myzus
persicae in sweet pepper. Chrysopa perla was very effective in controlling aphids, probably
because the adults also consume aphids. All other lacewings did not reduce aphids’ numbers
sufficiently. Chrysoperla lucasina was establishing better than Chrysoperla affinis. The
hemerobiid Micromus variegatus seems to prefer the lower plant parts. Since this species is
relatively small, more individuals are needed to control aphids. Preliminary releases in large
greenhouses suggest that none of the lacewing species establish well when released as adults.
Further research is needed to trigger them to stay and oviposit into a sweet pepper crop.


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Improved biological control of ‘problem’ aphids on protected herbs
Jude Bennison, Tom Pope, Joanna Greetham, Tracie Evans, Heather Maher

Abstract: Hawthorn-parsley aphid, Dysaphis apiifolia and mint aphid, Ovatus crataegarius are
‘problem’ aphid species on protected parsley and mint respectively. Grower experience has
indicated that these aphids are not parasitised by the three aphid parasitoid species available until
recently, i.e. Aphidius colemani, Aphidius ervi and Aphelinus abdominalis. A new mix of six
parasitoid species is now available, including the above three species and in addition, Aphidius
matricariae, Ephedrus cerasicola and Praon volucre. In laboratory bioassays, all six species
except for A. ervi parasitised hawthorn-parsley aphid, and A. matricariae, E. cerasicola and
P. volucre parasitised mint aphid. In semi-field glasshouse cage experiments, A. colemani and
A. matricariae parasitised and reduced numbers of hawthorn-parsley and mint aphids
respectively on parsley and mint.


5.00 €


Experimental studies of the biological control of aphids
in protected strawberry crops in France

Yannie Trottin-Caudal, Véronique Baffert, Jean-Michel Leyre

Abstract: Integrated pest management is increasingly used by growers in France in protected
strawberry crops due to difficulties with chemical control, especially on soilless crops. Various
different pests can attack strawberries, including: aphids, mites, thrips, tarsonemids, mirid bugs
and, more recently, Drosophila suzukii. A survey was carried out from 2010 to 2012 in the southeast
of France that confirmed the presence of up to six aphid species. Since 2008, promising trial
results from aphid control have been obtained in experimental tunnels, based on the efficiency of
lacewings that were released onto aphid-infested plants and parasitism by certain parasitoids
adapted to aphid species.


5.00 €


Possibilities for integrated control of citrus mealybug
in commercial ornamental greenhouses

Juliette Pijnakker, Ada Leman

Abstract: Since the 2000’s, the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri has become a key pest in
integrated ornamental greenhouse crops in The Netherlands. While adopting a more integrated
approach toward controlling other pests, growers have abandoned regular applications of broad
spectrum pesticides, thereby allowing mealybugs to become more widespread. The benefits of
both inundative and inoculative releases of (commercially available) natural enemies of this pest
have been studied. Three encyrtid parasitoid species: Coccidoxenoides perminutus, Leptomastix
dactylopii and Anagyrus pseudococci were tested on potted plants Epipremnum aureum infested
with citrus mealybug Planococcus citri. Parasitoid performance was evaluated under confined
conditions in large cages. Weekly release of L. dactylopii and A. pseudococci supressed the
development of small hot spots and prevented the spread of mealybug from infested plants to
healthy plants, but did not result in pest eradication. Most Epipremnum plants treated by these
two parasitoids were marketable. C. perminutus gave insufficient control. The relevance of
introducing natural enemies for controlling mealybugs in greenhouse ornamentals is discussed.


5.00 €


Biological control of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
in protected tomato crops in Argentina

M. Gabriela Luna, Patricia P. Pereyra, Norma E. Sánchez

Abstract: We present results of a ten-year research project on life history traits and field interaction
of two main Tuta absoluta indigenous larval parasitoids, Pseudapantales dignus and Dineulophus
phtorimaeae. These natural enemies naturally coexist in cropping conditions, show positive
characteristics as biological control agents against T. absoluta by means of augmentative releases in
argentinean greenhouse tomato.


5.00 €


Releasing syrphid larvae (Diptera: Syrphidae) as an effective aphid
biocontrol strategy in Mediterranean sweet-pepper greenhouses

Rocco Amorós-Jiménez, Belén Belliure, Lucía González Franco, Águeda Pose-Pardiñas, Alberto Fereres, M. Ángeles Marcos-García

Abstract only


0.00 €


Multi-stage dynamic model for prey-predator interaction: Application
to Spodoptera exigua (Lep.: Noctuidae) and Nabis pseudoferus (Hem.: Nabidae)
under greenhouse conditions

M. Gámez, Z. Sebestyén, Z. Varga, J. Garay, J. R. Gallego, F. J. Fernández, T. Cabello

Abstract only


0.00 €


Insecticides and beneficial predators:
side effects on Orius spp. on IPM pepper and strawberries

Lara Bosco, Nicola Bodino, Michele Baudino, Luciana Tavella

Abstract: The species of the genus Orius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) are well-known as
generalist predators able to control thrips outbreaks on different crops, such as pepper and
strawberries. The assessment of the compatibility of various insecticides with predatory activity
is a key for the success of IPM strategies, including Orius releases on crops. During 2011,
experiments were carried out in Piedmont (northwestern Italy) on four commercial pepper and
strawberry tunnels. Toxicity of the most used insecticides were also evaluated in laboratory
bioassays on wild Orius spp. Abamectin, λ-cyhalothrin, and acrinahtrin proved to be not
compatible with these predators, both in field and laboratory experiments. Azadirachtin was
almost harmless for Orius spp. whereas spinosad induced high levels of mortality in laboratory
bioassays but seemed to be safe in field experiments. Etofenprox gave contradictory results in the
field and laboratory experiments, corroborating the need of multiple testing methods in evaluating
the effects of pesticides on beneficial insects.


5.00 €


Chlorantraniliprole (Rynaxypyr®, Coragen®, Altacor®) key features
for sustainable control of Tuta absoluta

Andrea Bassi, Jean Luc Rison, Emmanouil Roditakis, Luigi Sannino

Abstract: Chlorantraniliprole (Rynaxypyr®) is a novel diamide insecticide by DuPont with
outstanding performance on Tuta absoluta and an extremely low mammalian toxicity profile.
Tested on T. absoluta since 2002 in Brasil at the DuPont R&D Station in Paulinia, early results
indicated a new standard of T. absoluta control, even on insecticide-resistant populations. Since
2007 numerous field and laboratory studies have been carried out in the Mediterranean region by
DuPont and independent researchers. These studies have contributed to in-depth knowledge of its
features and to finalize the recommendations for use in a European IPM context. This review
provides a selection of field and laboratory observations relative to the product selectivity to key
natural enemies and the baseline sensitivity of T. absoluta populations from the Mediterranean
countries and the product best use strategy for IRM (Insecticide Resistance Management).


5.00 €


Testing for non-target effects of some fungicides and insecticides
on western flower thrips and their predator Amblyseius swirskii
under plastic tunnel conditions

Halil Kutuk, Mehmet Karacoglu

Abstract: The compatibility of four pesticides (Chlorantraniliprole, Pymetrozine, Trifloxystrobin
and Myclobutanil) used with the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae), to
control western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), was
investigated on peppers in plastic tunnels. One preventative release of predatory mites, at the rate
of 50 adults per m2, was made from the stock culture when the peppers started to flower. The
western flower thrips populations were sampled on a weekly basis and the tested pesticides were
sprayed when needed. Our results indicated that applying the tested pesticides had no effect on
the ability of the predator to reduce the thrips population. The thrips populations in the nopredator
treatment continued to expand throughout the experiment, while those in the predator
release treatment declined. We concluded that A. swirskii can be used in conjunction with the
tested pesticides in pepper greenhouses without causing any obvious detrimental effects to this
predator or reducing the effectiveness of the biological control.


5.00 €


Biological control of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and interaction
between beneficial organisms on vegetable crops in greenhouses

Żaneta Fiedler, Danuta Sosnowska

Abstract: Tetranychus urticae is the most important pest on vegetable crops in greenhouses in
Poland and successful control of this pest is very difficult. The present registration requirement
for biological control agents in Poland states that macro-organisms such as nematodes and
beneficial organisms do not need to be registered. As a result, a lot of new natural enemies are
now commercially available and nine species can be used against spider mites.
Research work was conducted on the interaction between natural enemies introduced into
greenhouse-grown tomato crops to reduce the number of pests such as spider mites and the side
effects of insecticides and fungicides on predators. This interaction was studied with reference to
the predatory mite species: Amblyseius swirskii and Phytoseiulus persimilis T which are used in
laboratory and greenhouse tests to control the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. The
greatest efficacy (86%) in limiting the number of T. urticae was obtained through the use of
P. persimilis and A. swirskii. The results of this experimental treatment were statistically different
from other treatments involving both the separate and combined use of specific predatory mite
species. The study also revealed competition between the two species A. swirskii and
P. persimilis, with the predatory mite A. swirskii being the dominant species.
The insecticides Abarex, Spin Tor and Nissorun were safe for use with predatory mites and
could be recommended for IPM (Integrated Pest Management) programmes for greenhousegrown
crops. The result of the studies carried out revealed that the species P. persimilis was the
most susceptible to the different fungicides used, based on laboratory experiments, and especially
when the predator was released 1 and 3 days after applying these fungicide treatments. In
general, the fungicides applied showed a lower level of toxicity to all the beneficial organisms
when the predatory mites were released 5 days after its application. The fungicide Topsin 500 SC
appeared to be selective with respect to the species A. swirskii.


5.00 €


Side effects of bioinsecticides used to control Tuta absoluta
Antonio Biondi, Nicolas Desneux, Gaetano Siscaro, Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Edwige Amiens-Desneux, Lucia Zappalà

Abstract: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs may include pesticide applications,
therefore assessing their potential side effects on biocontrol agents is of primary importance for
implementing IPM. Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval ectoparasitoid of
Lepidoptera species which was recovered on the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta
(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in various Western Palaearctic countries and is a potential biocontrol
agent of this pest. We assessed acute toxicity and sublethal effect on fertility of six
bioinsecticides, used for controlling T. absoluta, on B. nigricans. The tested chemicals were
abamectin, azadirachtin, borax salt plus citrus essential oil, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki,
emamectin benzoate and spinosad. The wasps were exposed for three days to dried pesticide
residues on tomato sprouts, at two time intervals after initial treatment. Mortality was daily
checked and the number of adult parasitoids emerged was recorded to assess the effects on
reproduction. These data were used to calculate reduction coefficients and the pesticides were
classified according to the IOBC toxicity categories. The obtained data were then discussed with
the results of a previous study, conducted with the same experimental setting, on the generalist
predator Orius laevigatus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). The insecticides greatly differed in their
toxicity as well as in their persistence and the effects varied also between the two biocontrol
agents. Our findings would help to optimize future use of the tested insecticides in IPM and
organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of the tested pesticides on
biological control agents, both naturally present and artificially released. Furthermore, these results
stress the need to careful select the chemicals for efficient IPM programs on tomato crops.


5.00 €


Influence of insecticide persistence on the survival
of the two braconid parasitoids Chelonus inanitus and Aphidius ervi

Pilar Medina, Guillermo Manzanares, Raquel Izarra, Angeles Adán, Guy Smagghe, Elisa Viñuela

Abstract: An extended laboratory bioassay was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and the
duration of the harmful activity of some modern insecticides and the standard deltamethrin to the
braconids Aphidius ervi Haliday (aphid parasitoid) and Chelonus inanitus L. (Spodoptera eggs
parasitoid). Adults were initially exposed to fresh residues on tomato leaves for three days, and
later on, to aged residues in greenhouse. Fresh residues of flonicamid, flubendiamide and
spirotetramat were harmless to both parasitoids. Metaflumizone, however, was classified as
moderately persistent for C. inanitus (IOBC C) and persistent for A. ervi (IOBC D), due to the
reduction on the life span. Deltamethrin was slightly persistent (IOBC, B) and persistent, (IOBC,
D) respectively, for the two natural enemies.


5.00 €


Advantages of ecological management of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae)
in commercial cultivation of crisphead lettuce in southern Brazil

Alessandra R. Carvalho, Vanda H. P. Bueno, Diego B. Silva, Joop C. van Lenteren, Lauro L. Petrazzini, Jony E. Yuri

Abstract: The objective this work was to evaluate the potential interference of two types of
management of leafminer populations and their parasitoids under commercial production
conditions of lettuce in plastic tunnels in the state of Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil. The
comparison between conventional management using calendar sprays of insecticides, and
ecological management with Bacillus thuringiensis, sticky traps and pheromones, showed that
ecological management has several advantages over chemical control. In the plastic tunnel with
ecological management lower numbers of leafminers emerged, a greater number of parasitoids
emerged, the control costs were lower and the commercial value was equivalent to the
conventionally managed crop.


5.00 €


Field effect of various new insecticides on settled populations
of Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in a cucumber crop
grown in a plastic greenhouse in Almería (Spain)

I. Colomer, R. M. Heredia, E. Viñuela

Abstract only


0.00 €


Failure of the biological control of Tuta absoluta using the predator
Nesidiocoris tenuis in a protected tomato crop: analysis of factors

Khaled Abbes, Brahim Chermiti

Abstract: Many attempts have been made to biologically control the tomato leafminer Tuta
absoluta in Tunisia using the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis in nurseries, greenhouses and open
field tomato crops. However, several essays involving the biological control of this pest failed,
particularly in greenhouses. The main reasons for these failures were identified by the authors as
the over use of insecticides and fungicides, de-leafing after mirid bug introductions and the
probable absence of prey when predators were released.


5.00 €


A successful method for whitefly and Tuta absoluta control in tomato.
Evaluation after two years of application in practice

Javier Calvo, Jose Soriano, Karel Bolckmans, Jose E. Belda

Abstract: The tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, are major
pests of tomato. The mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis is an effective natural enemy of whitefly and
recently it has been shown to be also a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. In
addition, some parasitoids from the Mediterranean basin have been found attacking T. absoluta
and Necremnus artynes is particularly promising. The present study presents the results from
experiments conducted to develop a biologically-based management strategy in tomato for
whitefly and T. absoluta control and its application in practice thereafter. It first shows the results
evaluating an alternative release method for N. tenuis and its combination with N. artynes. It was
demonstrated that this alternative release method (pre-plant application) increased control
capacity of N. tenuis, provided good control of whitefly and T. absoluta and reduced control costs
and the addition of N. artynes did not increase its effectiveness. Although, supplementary
releases of this parsite increased the effectiveness of after planting releases of N. tenuis (standar
application). Thus, the pre-plant application of N. tenuis alone would be the more efficient
method due to it reduced control costs and complexity. Implementation of this strategy has
greatly increased the use of biologically-based management strategies in tomato in Spain, and
would likely have the same effect in other production areas around the world.


5.00 €


IPM strategies in tomato crops in Spanish greenhouses:
Effects of cultivars and the integration of natural enemies

E. Vila, A. Parra, D. Beltrán, J. R. Gallego, F. J. Fernandez, T. Cabello

Abstract: The use of Nesidiocoris tenuis, the main released predator, has contributed to the
establishment of biocontrol programmes in more than 50% of the protected tomato crops in the
southeast of Spain. Three predator releasing strategies (standard, refuge plants and biopropagation)
were evaluated according to the season of the year. The development of the predator
on different cultivars was monitored and its combination with Trichogramma achaeae in
different seasons discussed.


5.00 €


Mechanical release of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Orius laevigatus on protected crops
Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Sabina Failla, Giuseppe Manetto, Gaetano Siscaro, Lucia Zappalà

Abstract: Mechanical releases of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acarina:
Phytoseiidae) and the predatory bug Orius laevigatus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) were carried
out in cultivated protected crops (sweet pepper and chrysanthemum) to control the two-spotted
spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Natural
enemies were distributed using a newly developed mechanical device and compared with manual
distribution. In all experimental trials carried out with the device the results showed a greater
uniformity of distribution, a reduction of release time and ease of application. In most of the
mechanised plots the predators were regularly recovered reducing the percentage of leaves
infested and their density, so controlling pests sooner than in the manually released ones.


5.00 €


The use of a mix of parasitoids to control all aphid species on protected vegetable crops
Nicolas Dassonville, Thierry Thielemans, Martin Herbener, Viola Rosemeyer

Abstract: Viridaxis is a Belgian company which developed a new, plant-less way of massrearing
aphid parasitoids. Due to its innovative and unique technology, Viridaxis has been able to
add one new selected parasitoid species every year. A parasitoid is a wasp able to parasitize
aphids in a relatively host-specific way. These natural enemies of aphids are used in organic
and/or Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies. In order to apply the matching parasitoid
against a given aphid species, the aphid has to be detected in the crop and subsequently
identified. By the time the aphids are spotted by the grower and then identified by himself or a
specialist, it is usually more difficult to gain control over an increasing aphid population.
Viridaxis developed a new concept of aphid control, based not on the species identified but on
the crop treated. To protect vegetables against their main aphids, VerdaProtect contains six
different species of natural aphid enemies. When used preventively, it is able to control all
commonly appearing aphids attacking vegetable crops. Here, we show the results of trials
conducted in 2011 in sweet pepper crops. In Germany, the comparison of the VerdaProtect
strategy with the “traditional” biological strategy based on single species release showed that the
VerdaProtect strategy was as efficient as the traditional strategy in controlling aphids but was
much easier, less time consuming and also much cheaper. The trial in a company growing sweet
pepper in a large scale hydroponic greenhouse in integrated pest management in The Netherlands
showed a high efficacy of the parasitoid mix and contrary to the widely used banker plants
strategy, it did not encounter the widespread hyperparasitoid problem.


5.00 €


Potential of tomato colonization by mirid bugs in Roussillon area (Southern France):
effect of crop management and landscape features in crop surroundings

Amélie Lefèvre, Stéphanie Aviron

Abstract: Enhancing insect pest control by their natural enemies is considered as a promising
crop protection strategy to reduce pesticide use. In Mediterranean areas, native natural enemies
such as mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) settle spontaneously in protected tomato crops and can
play an important asset for pest regulation, which remains however hardly predictable. This
present study aims at identifying key factors of colonization of crops by mirid bugs and more
specifically agronomical practices and landscape features in the tomato crops surroundings. Data
on land-uses proportions, crop management and mirids populations were collected for 34 tomato
crops in Roussillon area (south of France) and analysed using multivariate methods. Exploratory
analyses show correlations between crop management, proportions of certain land-uses and
abundance of mirids in tomato. This is the first step of a whole study aiming to assess the
potential of protected crop colonization by beneficials in order to manage crops and their
surroundings and enhance this process.


5.00 €


Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 against whiteflies
on protected tomato and compatibility with Nesidiocoris tenuis and Orius laevigatus

Edith Ladurner, Massimo Benuzzi, Sergio Franceschini, Guido Sterk

Abstract: The efficacy of Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 (Naturalis®) against whiteflies
(Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci) on tomato was tested in two greenhouse trials.
Furthermore, the compatibility of the formulated product with two beneficial insects,
Nesidiocoris tenuis and Orius laevigatus, commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouses, was
evaluated in semi-field trials. The microbial control agent confirmed its efficacy against
whiteflies on greenhouse tomato, already evidenced in previous studies, and affected survival of
none of the two species of beneficials. These studies suggest that B. bassiana strain ATCC 74040
can be used for the control of whiteflies in greenhouses in combination with N. tenuis and
O. laevigatus.


5.00 €


Efficacy of commercial strains of Bacillus thuringiensis
in controlling Tuta absoluta: laboratory tests

Lucia Zappalà, Antonio Biondi, Giovanna Tropea Garzia,Gaetano Siscaro

Abstract: Several commercially available strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus
thuringiensis (Bt) were tested to evaluate their efficacy in controlling Tuta absoluta, in terms of
larval mortality, of reduction in larval feeding activity and subsequent damage. Tests were
conducted on T. absoluta young larvae under laboratory and extended laboratory conditions, both
after ingestion and topical application. The mortality rate, the number of infested leaflets and the
amount of infested surface per each leaflet were recorded. The formulation containing the strain
kurstaki SA12 resulted the most effective in controlling T. absoluta in terms of induced mortality
as well as damage reduction, both in the topical and ingestion toxicity trial. Similar trend,
although without significant differences, was recorded in the extended laboratory trial.


5.00 €


Biocontrol of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Egypt
M. M. Sabbour

Abstract only


0.00 €


Red clover as a model plant for studying the effects of fungicide and
biological treatments to control Calonectria diseases

Dalia Aiello, Alessandro Vitale, Vladimiro Guarnaccia, Alessandro Cinquerrui, Pietro Tindaro Formica, Giancarlo Polizzi

Abstract: The efficacy of 12 fungicides, applied alone and in mixtures at different rates, and 8
biological control agents (BCAs) were evaluated in 9 assays to test their ability to reduce
infections caused by Calonectria morganii and C. pauciramosa on the host-model plant
Trifolium pratense. Overall, good results were obtained with prochloraz + cyproconazole,
thiophanate-methyl, Cu hydroxide and Trichoderma spp. against collar and root rot caused by
both pathogens. In detail, propamocarb + fosetyl-Al, azoxystrobin, cyproconazole, K phosphite
and fosetyl-Al were the most effective fungicides for reducing C. morganii infections. Of the
BCAs, Clonostachys roseae and Penicillium oxalicum were effective for controlling C. morganii
infections, while Bacillus subtilis QST713 and Streptomyces griseoviridis K61 were not


5.00 €


Field evaluation of the nucleopolyhedrovirus preparation Littovir®
against the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis

Edith Ladurner, Iris Kraaz, Daniel Zingg, Massimo Benuzzi

Abstract: Littovir® is a new nucleopolyhedrovirus-based insecticide for the control of the cotton
leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, which can cause severe damage on many horticultural and
ornamental crops. Over the last years, numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the
efficacy of the product against this target pest. The results obtained in the most recent trials,
conducted on strawberry, lettuce and bell pepper, are reported. Littovir® always resulted in a
significant reduction of S. littoralis damage in comparison to the untreated control, with efficacy
values being comparable to those of the reference treatments. Due to its favourable toxicological
and ecotoxicological profile and the absence MRL requirements, the microbial control agent can
be considered a valuable tool to be included into organic and integrated plant protection strategies
and in resistance management programs for S. littoralis.


5.00 €


Evaluation of a Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus product
and its potential for use in protected and open field crops

Iris Kraaz, Daniel Zingg

Abstract only


0.00 €


Larvicidal effect of plant extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)
Abdelaziz Nilahyane, Rachid Bouharroud, Abderrahim Hormatallah, Nezha Ait Taadaouit

Abstract: Seven plants (Thymus vulgaris, Ricinus communis, Ononis natrix, Peganum harmala,
Argania spinosa, Urtica dioïca, and Lawsonia inermis) collected in the Souss valley were tested
for their insecticidal effects on the larvae of Tuta absoluta under laboratory conditions. After
maceration in ethanol, extracts were obtained using a rotary evaporator. For each extract, 100%,
20%, 10%, 2% and 1% concentrations were prepared for bioassays on the larvae of T. absoluta,
according to the “Leaf-dip bioassay” method. The results showed that the extracts had varying
levels of toxicity for the larvae. The extracts that produced the highest rates of mortality were
those of T. vulgaris leaves (95%) and the seeds of R. communis (58%), applied at concentrations
of 46667mg/l and 77500mg/l, respectively. The other plant extracts had a moderate larvicidal
effect. In fact, O. natrix, P. harmala, U. dioïca, L. inermis and A. spinosa, respectively, caused
mortality rates of 45%, 43%, 42%, 32% and 28%. The LD90 of these extracts revealed that the
ethanol extract of T. vulgaris was the most toxic (LD90 = 89383mg/l).


5.00 €


The effect of trap colour and aggregation pheromone on trap catch
of Frankliniella occidentalis and associated predators in protected pepper in Spain

Clare Sampson, J. G. C. Hamilton, William D. J. Kirk

Abstract: In a greenhouse experiment, there was a strong effect of colour on sticky trap catch of
Frankliniella occidentalis in a sweet pepper crop. Blue traps attracted more thrips than yellow
traps (×2.4), clear traps (×9.3), or black traps (×34.7). The F. occidentalis aggregation
pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, increased trap catch in inverse proportion to the
attractiveness of the trap colour (blue ×1.3, yellow ×1.7, clear x1.9, black x3.4). It is proposed
that in greenhouse crops, the most visually attractive trap colours are already catching a large
proportion of the thrips present in the area surrounding each trap, so the addition of scent cannot
increase trap catch by as much. The mirid predator Orius laevigatus was caught in low numbers
on traps and showed no attraction to specific trap colours, the predatory thrips Aeolothrips
tenuicornis was most frequent on yellow and blue traps and the staphylinid beetle Oxypoda
exoleta was only found on black and clear traps. None of these predatory species were attracted
to the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone which can therefore be used to enhance
F. occidentalis trap catch without affecting natural enemy establishment.


5.00 €


Potential of mass trapping for Tuta absoluta management
in greenhouse tomato crops using light and pheromone traps

Arturo Cocco, Salvatore Deliperi, Gavino Delrio

Abstract: The effectiveness of mass trapping using light and pheromone water traps to control
tomato infestations of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was investigated in Southwestern
Sardinia. Trials were carried out in commercial plastic greenhouses equipped with insect-proof
nets in both winter – -summer and summer – winter tomato growing seasons. Light traps were
tested at the density of 1 trap/1000m2, 1/700m2, 1/500m2, or 1/350m2 while pheromone traps
were evaluated at the density of 1 trap/350m2, 1/250m2 or 1/100m2. The efficacy of mass
trapping was evaluated by comparing weekly the damage on leaves and fruits in treated and
untreated greenhouses. Pheromone traps at the tested densities were not effective in reducing leaf
and fruit damage in both seasons. On the other hand, light traps reduced significantly the leaf
damage at low/moderate T. absoluta population density during the summer – winter season,
while they were ineffective in winter – summer, when the tomato leafminer density soared at the
end of the tomato cultivation.


5.00 €


Contribution à la lutte intégrée contre la mineuse de la tomate Tuta absoluta
(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) sous serre de tomate dans le sahel Algérois

H. Benmessaoud-Boukhalfa, F. Mouhouche, N. Khellaf

Abstract only


0.00 €


Four-year flight dynamics of Tuta absoluta in Sicily and implications for IPM strategies
Gaetano Siscaro, Antonio Biondi, Emanuele Buonocore, Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Lucia Zappalà

Abstract only


0.00 €


Mating disruption of the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
in greenhouse cultivation by Isonet® T

Luigi Sannino, Filippo Piro, Salvatore Proto, Francesco Savino, Giuseppe Campo

Abstract: In the last few years the tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) has become a major pest of
field and greenhouse tomato crops, causing up to 80-100% yield losses. Plant protection heavily
relies on chemical insecticides, so alternative means of containment are needed in order to reduce
chemical residues in the product and to slow the selection of insecticide resistant biotypes. On a
summer cycle tomato crop under plastic greenhouse, insecticide based protection schedule was
compared with a mating disruption scheme based on the Isonet® T pheromone product and half
of the insecticide applications made with the standard farm schedule. The strategy including
mating disruption performed much better than the standard farm one, reducing to nearly zero the
captures of flying adults and fruit attacks and to about 15% the percentage of leaflets mined,
compared to 8% of fruits and 47% of leaflets attacked for the insecticide alone control.


5.00 €


Manipulating nitrogen fertilization for the management of diseases in the tomato greenhouse:
what perspectives for IPM?

Philippe C. Nicot, Robert Fabre, Toufik Lebkara, Saddik Ozayou, Manzoor Ali Abro, Magali Duffaud, François Lecompte, Benoit Jeannequin

Abstract: Although controlled conditions studies have shown that nitrogen nutrition can affect
the susceptibility of tomato to certain pathogens, fertilization schemes for disease management at
crop level remain to be designed. With this aim, a study has been conducted in an experimental
greenhouse with cultural practices similar to those of commercial soilless production. The heated
greenhouse was equipped with drip irrigation networks allowing the comparison of up to three
different fertigation solutions (containing 4, 8 or 16mmol of NO3- per litre). In the first two years
of the study (2010 and 2011), plants were inoculated with known spore concentrations of either
Botrytis cinerea or Oidium neolycopersici and disease incidence and severity were recorded.
Although variability was higher than in controlled conditions, these crop-level studies generally
confirmed the influence of nitrogen fertilization on both diseases. Low nitrogen levels resulted in
higher severity of Botrytis stem lesions while they decreased that of powdery mildew. In contrast,
fruit yield from un-inoculated control plants did not differ significantly among the three nitrogen
levels. More results should become available from similar studies conducted by other partners of
a national collaborative project. For the design of health-enhancing fertilization schemes, further
information will be needed on possible effects of nitrogen nutrition on the susceptibility of
tomato to other pests and diseases and on the efficacy of various control methods used in IPM.


5.00 €


Combined application of soil solarization and organic amendment
in the control of corky root and fusarium wilt in greenhouse tomato

Raffaele Carrieri, Francesco Raimo, Felice Porrone, Ernesto Lahoz

Abstract: Two years greenhouse (2010-2011) experiment was carried out with the aim to study
the efficacy of integration of soil solarization and organic amendment. Organic amendment was
made using compost (15t ha-1) from organic fraction of urban waste applied after 35 days of soil
solarization. The amendment was applied after soil solarization in order to mitigate the drastic
effects produced by solar heating on microbial community and to reduce mineral fertilization.
Disease severity, incidence and yield were evaluated. The experiments were performed in the
South of Italy at Poggiomarino (Campania region) using the ecotype known as “Pomodoro di
Sorrento” much appreciated by the market, but that has no resistance to Pyrenochaeta lycopersici
and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. These two pathogens infect tomato later reducing the
harvest season and the grower income. Soil solarization alone had the same efficacy of metham
sodium and was effective in reducing diseases giving efficacies of 81.1 and 64.7% (mean of the
two years) respectively for Fusarium and Pyrenochaeta. The application of organic amendment
increased efficacy against P. lycopersici (98%) conversely significantly reduced the control of
F. oxysporum (55.3%). Yield was higher in solarized soil than in solarized plus compost
amendment due to the higher level of incidence of Fusarium. This approach gave different results
in relation to the ecological features of the pathogen, in the present work some considerations on
this topic are reported. For fresh tomato under greenhouse, biological and integrated management
is not only applied in order to reduce the ecological impact of the crop, but mainly for technical
and economic reasons. As a matter of fact, the reduced availability of fumigants, the difficulties
to apply fungicides against these two pathogens and the cost of many scheduled fungicide
applications render the integrated and/or the biological disease management the best choice for
this crop.


5.00 €

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