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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 79, 2012

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 79, 2012

Working Group "Integrated Protection of Olive Crops".
Proceedings of the meeting at Jerusalem (Israel), 15 - 20 May, 2011.
Edited by: Dionyssios Perdikis, Phyllis Weintraub, Andrea Lucchi.
ISBN 978-92-9067-257-9 [XIV+ 199 pp.]

 

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The Israeli olive industry and the development of related plant protection –
A general overlook

Shimon Lavee

No abstract

3-9

5.00 €

 

Current research approaches and remarks in understanding and controlling
Verticillium wilt of olives

Eris C. Tjamos, Polymnia Antoniou & Sotirios Tjamos

Abstract only

13

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Effect of temperature and relative humidity on mycelial growth, conidial germination
and fruit infection by Colletotrichum spp. causing olive anthracnose

J. Moral, J. Jurado-Bello & A. Trapero

Abstract only

14

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New information about genetic structure of Bactrocera oleae species
revealed by ISSR markers

Sofía Hernández, Carmen Callejas, Beatriz Matallanas & M. Dolores Ochando

Abstract: The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is a major pest of olive crops and its expansion is
restricted to the geographic areas where olive trees are grown. The knowledge of the within and
between populations genetic variability can help to understand the history of a species and
monitoring the origin and spread of invading populations. Such information could be crucial to
define appropriate strategies for eradication or control.In the present work, PCR amplification of
inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR technique) was applied to the analysis of the genetic
variability of four Iberian populations of B. oleae. Flies from four different geographical areas,
representing the Iberian distribution range of the species, were collected by harvesting infested
fruit and allowing the larvae to pupate in the laboratory. Four random primers (817, 820, 820,
847, UBC primer set no. 9) were used to assess their genetic variation. The results show
considerable levels of genetic polymorphism in the analysed samples, ranging from 78.5% to
82.1%. Regarding the distribution of this variability, most of the genetic variation was found
within populations (92.6%). Likewise, a substantial level of gene flow (5.36) was deduced. Thus,
ISSR are highly sensitive markers for variability detection in B. oleae and could help to answer
fundamental questions related to the population structure and dynamics of the fly and, hence, to
improve management control.

15-23

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Studies on the damage level of the weevil Rhynchites cribripennis in olive fruits
Dionyssios Perdikis, Nickolas Garantonakis, Pavlos Kitsis, Antonios Paraskevopoulos & Dionyssios Lykouressis

Abstract: Among the insect pests of olives, those damaging the fruit are considered to be of high
importance as their damage can directly affect the quality and the quantity of the oil produced. In
some areas in the Mediterranean region the weevil Rhynchites cribripennis (Coleoptera:
Attelabidae) is considered as a potentially important pest of olive crops. The damage produced by
this weevil is due to the feeding holes that the adults cause in the flesh of the young olive fruit.
This kind of damage can lead to significant fruit drop and subsequent significant yield losses. In
this study, the damage level (percentage of fruit drop, the number of feeding holes on the fruit
and weight loss of olives fruit) was investigated in association with a wide range of pest densities
(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 adults) in cage experiments. The trials were conducted on the variety
“Koroneiki” in south-western Peloponnesus. In average, in each treatment 186, 231, 244, 383,
451, 497 olives were initially enclosed in each cage, at the end of the anthesis. The total
percentage of the dropped fruit was highest (78% and 75%, mean ± SE) in the cages with the
highest pest densities (i.e. 5 and 4 adults, respectively). These percentages were reduced
following the decrease of the pest density. In the control cages the percentage of fruit drop was
18%. These analyses showed that the final number and the total weight of the olives were
significantly reduced with the increase of the pest densities. The importance of these results in the
estimation of the economic injury level of this pest is discussed.

25-28

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Geographic variation in the pheromone composition of Palpita unionalis
(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from South Spanish populations

Antonio Ortiz

Abstract only

29

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New insights into the integrated management of olive diseases
Franco Nigro

Abstract only

33

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Abundance and diversity of edaphic Coleoptera in organic olive groves
in Trás-os-Montes region (Portugal)

V. Coelho, S. A. P. Santos, L. Pinheiro, A. Bento, A. Mexia & J. A. Pereira

Abstract: Arthropods are the most dominant and biodiverse components of terrestrial ecosystems
and have important roles in its functioning. From those, epigeic arthropod biodiversity can be an
indicator of soil quality and are usually studied using pitfall trapping. Among insects,
coleopterans are the group best represented and soil beetles may play important roles in the
ecosystem through their activities as predators, herbivores and scavengers. The objective of this
work was the study of the abundance and diversity of soil coleopterans in organic olive groves.
The work took place in two organic olive groves – Cedães and Valbom dos Figos – located near
of Mirandela (Northeast of Portugal) both conducted with natural vegetation in the soil. Between
April to November in Cedães and from May to October 2010 in Valbom dos Figos, five pitfall
traps with 9cm of height and 7cm of diameter, filled with ethanol, water and detergent were
collected weekly. In the laboratory the number of beetles was counted and taxonomically
classified up to the level of family and then, each specimen was separated by morphospecies. In
both olive groves, a total of 1202 beetles were collected, 781 in Cedães and 421 in Valbom dos
Figos. Cedães grove showed a higher family richness (21) being Carabidae (41.36%),
Staphylinidae (24.07%) and Tenebrionidae (15.36%) the most abundant, while in Valbom dos
Figos grove the family richness was lower (14) being Carabidae (52.49%), Anthicidae (18.05%)
and Staphylinidae (8.31%) the most abundant. This was the first step to characterize the
coleopteran community of organic olive groves from Trás-os-Montes region and this information
will be explored in order to develope conservation biocontrol schemes that encourage greater
coleopteran biodiversity and to increase their role as biological control agents.

35-42

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Seasonal phenology of Closterotomus (Calocoris) trivialis Costa
(Hemiptera: Miridae) on olive trees and associated host plants

Αrgyro Kalaitzaki, Adel Amara &Antonios Tsagkarakis

Abstract: The seasonal appearance and population abundance of nymphs and adults of
C. trivialis were studied by weekly canopy shaking samplings in 2 olive groves in Chania,
Greece, from January until May 2009. In each sampling, one twig per olive tree, about 20-25cm
long containing 5-6 shoots, was shaken on a beating tray and the fallen individuals of C. trivialis
were counted. In addition, samples were taken from weed species referred in the literature as
alternative host plants for C. trivialis. For the weeds similar procedure with olive sampling was
followed, in which each plant was individually shaken. Each sampling comprised 15 replications
for the olive trees and 15 replications per weed species. Results showed that 1st and 2nd nymphal
instars of C. trivialis were first recorded on weeds on January 15th. Adults were first showed on
March 19th and were present by late May, in both olive groves. However, population recovered
from olive trees was extremely low in general, recorded from late February until early May.
Significant differences were observed in the total number of live individuals (nymphs and adults)
per plant among the various host plants. Specifically, more C. trivialis individuals were recorded
on Mercurialis annua L. (Euphorbiaceae) compared with Sinapis alba L. (Brassicaceae),
Parietaria officinalis L. (Urticaceae), Urtica sp. (Urticaceae), Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae),
Malva silvestris L. (Malvaceae) and Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae). No significant differences
were observed between the two olive varieties (Koroneiki, Tsounati) considering the total number
of live individuals of C. trivialis per twig. Collected information on host plant preference of
C. trivialis can be helpful in predicting its occurrence and movement among crop and non crop
host plants.

43-52

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Role of visual and olfactory cues in the mating behaviour of Psyttalia concolor
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

A. Canale, G. Benelli & A. Lucchi

Abstract: Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) is a koinobiont, endophagous, solitary parasitoid of
Tephritidae larvae (Diptera). Mechanisms that regulate courtship and mating behaviour in this
parasitoid are poorly known but could be of great interest for the management of the braconid in
the open field. For this reason, we set up a research aimed at determining the role of the cues
used by male P. concolor in courtship and mating sequence. The optimal male response has been
achieved when a complex of chemical and physical cues was simultaneously perceived. In detail,
in presence of living or freshly dead females, both virgin and mated males exhibit a courtship
behaviour including four main steps: antennal drumming, arrestment and antennal waving, wing
fluttering and copulation attempts. The preference of female’s ovipositor plays a role as a visual
cue for male’s attraction: indeed males exhibit significantly less courtship behavioural reactions
in presence of ovipositor-less females. No effect of mating status on perception of visual and
chemical cues in courtship and mating behaviour was detected in both genders. Investigations
aimed at the characterization of acoustic cues and chemical attractants possibly involved in
courtship and mating behaviour in this species are in progress.

53-56

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Spider (Araneae) community associated with the olive tree canopy
in Alentejo (Southern Portugal)

Fernando Rei, Luís Crespo, Pedro Cardoso & Laura Torres

Abstract only

57

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Presence of olive fruit rot (Botryosphaeria dothidea) in Montenegro
Jelena Latinović & Nedeljko Latinović

Abstract only

58

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Chemical control of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel.
(Diptera: Tephritidae)

Tatjana Perović, Snježana Hrnčić, Claudio Pucci, Mirjana Adakalić, Biljana Lazović & Dušanka Inđić

Abstract only

59

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Biological control of olive fruit fly
Marshall W. Johnson, Kent M. Daane, Xin-Geng Wang, Victoria Y. Yokoyama, Charles H. Pickett, Kim A. Hoelmer & Alan A. Kirk

Abstract: The establishment and spread of olive fruit fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Rossi),
among olive production areas of California, USA, stimulated the initiation of a classical
biological control project focused on the discovery introduction, and establishment of effective
natural enemies to maintain OLF populations at non-injurious levels. Biological control was the
preferred control tactic for OLF because of its potential long-term sustainability and low risk to
human health and the environment. Factors influencing the potential success of this program
were reviewed. Parasitoid natural enemies were sought in areas of Africa, the Mediterranean
Basin and parts of Asia where various subspecies of olive, Olea europaea L., have grown for
thousands of years. Molecular studies helped distinguish original areas of evolution of the OLF,
identify natural enemies and separate parasitoid sibling species and geographic strains. To ensure
low potential of non-target environmental impacts, the host specificities of candidate natural
enemies were evaluated relative to attack and reproduction on various tephritid fly species
including some that are beneficial biological control agents of weeds. Increases in olive fruit size,
via domestication, reduced natural enemy effectiveness by producing natural enemy-free space
within the olive fruit. The ultimate success of this program will be determined by the candidate
parasitoids’ abilities to adapt to the widely varying climatic conditions within California.
Presently, the program is in the introduction and colonization phases with some field recovery of
released parasitoids experienced to date.

63-69

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Diversity and geographic distribution of the indigenous and exotic parasitoids
of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Southern France

Nicolas Borowiec, Géraldine Groussier-Bout, Elodie Vercken, Marcel Thaon, Alexandra Auguste-Maros, Sylvie Warot-Fricaux, Gérard Delvare, Nicolas Ris, Xavier Fauvergue & Jean-Claude Malausa

Abstract: The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Dipt., Tephritidae), is the most important pest of
olive crops in the world. Economic losses associated to the limited efficiency of pesticides and
natural regulation require the development of new alternatives. A classical biological control
program was thus implemented in 2007 in France with two main objectives: (1) test the
efficiency of a new exotic parasitoid, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hym., Braconidae) on the olive fruit
fly populations and (2) understand how intraspecific hybridization could affect the demographic
success of exotic biocontrol agents and, more generally, invasive species. In 2008, more than
43,000 P. lounsburyi were consequently introduced in 60 sites located in Southern France,
covering the whole geographic distribution of olive crops in this country. The pluri-annual
surveys realised between 2007 and 2010 gave the opportunity to better document the dynamics of
olive fruit fly populations as well as the associated communities of parasitoids. Main results on
these two topics are outlined here in a view to stimulate collaborative research and more
precisely document the community ecology of B. oleae and its natural enemies in the
Mediterranean area and elsewhere.

71-78

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Biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Israel
Yael Argov, Wolf Kuslitzky & Kim Hoelmer

Abstract: Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly (OFF), is a key pest of olives in most olivegrowing
countries in the Mediterranean basin and elsewhere. It significantly reduces yields and
degrades the quality of the oil extracted from infested fruit. Olive growers have traditionally used
systemic organophosphate insecticides to control the pest, but it is anticipated that these
pesticides will be banned in the near future. Biological control with imported OFF parasitoids
could help manage fly populations. To increase the production of parasitoids that are entirely
mass-reared on Israeli flies, two OFF lines were established on an artificial diet: 1) the wild
Israeli flies “Yael” line (100% "Israeli" genome), and 2) progeny of a laboratory strain imported
from Crete and crossed with the Israeli wild strain. Four crosses were made and the resulting
colony, the “Argov” line, had a 93.75% "Israeli" genome. Two species of OFF parasitoids were
imported to Israel and maintained in culture: three lines of Psyttalia lounsburyi (originally from
Kenya: Burguret forest and Marmanet forest; and from South Africa: Cape Prov.), and Psyttalia
sp. nr. concolor (also called P. humilis) (from Namibia). Because it proved difficult to rear the
Psyttalia spp. on B. oleae, the cultures were instead maintained on medfly. Field releases of the
imported parasitoids started during November 2008 and were continued from June to November
2009 and 2010. A total of 37,000 individuals of P. lounsburyi were released on 67 occasions at 22
sites, and a total of 97,000 individuals of P. nr. concolor were released on 77 occasions at these
22 sites. During 2007, 2008 and 2009 a survey was conducted to document the indigenous and
any imported parasitoids attacking OFF in Israel. In 2007 the total parasitism rate in fruit samples
reached 11%. Seven species of parasitoids emerged from olive fruits, dominated by the braconids
P. concolor (local species) and Diachasmimorpha kraussii (previously released against Ceratitis
capitata). All other species belonged to the Chalcidoidea. During 2008, the pooled parasitism rate
in fruit samples reached 15%, including 63 individuals of Fopius arisanus (also previously
released against C. capitata). In 2009 the total parasitism rate reached 25.6%.

79-85

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Effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorokin
(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on immature stages of the predator
Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in laboratory conditions

M. Porcel, L. M. Valdivieso-Ariza, B. Cotes, I. Garrido-Jurado, E. Quesada-Moraga & M. Campos

Abstract only

87

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Using a multinomial logit approach to determinate the temperature and humidity related
effects on virulence of entomopathogenic fungi against tephritid puparia in soil

I. Garrido-Jurado, P. Valverde-García & E. Quesada-Moraga

Abstract only

88

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The complex of parasitoids associated with flower galls of
Dittrichia viscosa (L.) W. Greuter in different Portuguese olive regions

L. Mota, M. Porcel, M. Campos, A. Bento & J. A. Pereira

Abstract only

89

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Ecological based control of the olive fruit fly using Biofeed device
Nimrod Israely & Shaul Ben-Yehuda

Abstract only

90

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Entomofauna associated with the olive tree in southern Portugal
Maria Albertina Gonçalves & Laura Andrade

Abstract: Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the main insect
species that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem. The field trials have taken place in two olive
groves, one situated in Olhão and the other one in Loulé, both in Algarve and also under
Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The sampling techniques used differ according to their
purpose (sticky traps, pheromone traps, pitfall traps and samples of aerial parts of the trees such
as inflorescences, leaves, fruits and branches). Results showed that the main insect pests of olive
tree in southern Portugal were the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae)
and the olive moth Prays oleae Bernard (Lepidoptera: Hyponeumetidae). Other insect pests were
also found in our olive groves namely the olive psyllid Euphyllura olivina Costa (Homoptera:
Psyllidae), the olive dark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides Bernard (Coleoptera:
Curculionidae), the mediterranean black scale Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Homoptera: Coccidae)
and the olive thrip Liothripes oleae Costa (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae). Concerning the
auxiliary insects that were found in our olives groves they belong to the following orders and
families: Diptera (Syrphidae), Coleoptera (Carabidae, Coccinelidae and Staphylinidae),
Hemiptera (Anthocoridae and Miridae), Neuroptera (Chrysopidae) and Hymenoptera
(Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Formicidae and Trichogrammatidae).

91-99

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Genetic engineering of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, for use
in the sterile insect technique (SIT)

Martha Koukidou, Thomas Ant, Chronis Reboulakis & Alphey Luke

Abstract only

103

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Overall mating competitiveness and photoperiod synchronicity of the olive fly
genetic sexing strain ‘OX3097D’, with wild olive flies collected
from olive groves surrounding Heraklion, Crete

Thomas Ant, Chronis Reboulakis, Martha Koukidou & Alphey Luke

Extended abstract

105-106

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Bacterial symbionts and the nutritional ecology of the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae
Michael Ben-Yosef, Edouard Jurkevitch & Boaz Yuval

Abstract only

107

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Development of SIT for the olive fruit fly: from the laboratory into practice
G. Yaacobi, I. Shuster Dagan & S. Steinberg

Abstract only

108

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Entomopathogenic fungi and microbial control of olive pests
Enrique Quesada-Moraga

Abstract only

111

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Effect of AMF application on Verticillium wilt in olives grown under arid conditions
L. Tsror (Lahkim), Y. Kapulnik, I. Zipori, M. Hazanovsky, N. Bar-On, Y. Tugendhaft & A. Dag

Abstract only

112

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Flying capacity of Psyttalia concolor and Chrysoperla carnea
under a UV-absorbing net (Bionet®) in presence and absence of crop

Eduardo Velázquez, Saioa Legarrea, Ignacio Morales, Alberto Fereres, Fermín Amor, Mª Mar Fernández, Daniel Rodríguez & Elisa Viñuela

Abstract: Field studies were conducted in walk-in tunnels to determine the flying capacity in the
presence and absence of crop, of the parasitoid Psyttalia concolor and the predator Chrysoperla
carnea under a UV-absorbent net (Bionet®). Yellow sticky cards were used for insect recovery
but neither P. concolor nor C. carnea were very attracted to them, thus captures were too low to
permit any meaningful comparisons. Bionet® did not seem to affect the mobility of any natural
enemy irrespective of the trap location and monitoring hour. Climatic conditions inside nets were
very extreme (average temperatures very high and relative humidity very low) threatening insect
survival. New experiments are being developed, trying to find new attractants that permit a
significant capture of both natural enemies.

113-119

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Possibility of mass trapping of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmel.,
in Montenegro by using Ecotraps

Snježana Hrnčić & Tatjana Perović

Abstract only

120

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Dacus Trap®, a mass trapping system for the control of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae
Núria Sierras, Ricardo Baram, Arik Bahat, Alon Glick & Cándido Marín

Abstract: Field trials were conducted on olive trees (Olea europaea cv. Manzenilo and Picual) in
Kidron (Israel) and Jaén (Spain) to assess the efficacy of a specifically developed enzymatic
hydrolyzed protein (Dacus Trap®) against the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). The
efficacy of Dacus Trap was evaluated in comparison with standard farm control strategies
(chemical treatments), assessing olive fly populations and punctured drupes. The efficacy field
trials results showed that i) olive fly population levels in Dacus Trap plots were similar as those
obtained in chemical treated plots, and ii) drupes punctures were lower on Dacus Trap plots than
under the farm standard control strategies. The evaluated hydrolyzed protein helps to decrease the
pest damage and maintain a similar efficacy levels to those obtained with standard chemical
treatmentswith the added advantage that pesticide use is reduced or even unnecessary and
consequently avoiding toxicological risks for humans and negative impact on the fauna and the
environment.

121-126

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Effect of Coleostephus myconis (L.) Rchb.f. and Echium plantagineum L.
on longevity and fecundity of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.)

A. M. Villa, J. A. Pereira, S. A. P. Santos & A. Bento

Abstract: The use of flowering field strips is often proposed as a method to support biological
control in agro-ecosystems; however, the indiscriminate use of flowering species can lead to
higher pest numbers. The objective of this work was to study the effect of two naturally occurring
plants in olive crops from northeast of Portugal, Coleostephus myconis (L.) Rchb.f. and Echium
plantagineum L., on adult longevity and fecundity of the olive moth Prays oleae (Bern.) from
laboratory assays. The initial culture of olive moths started with larvae from antophagous
generation collected from infested olive trees in Mirandela region (Trás-os-Montes, Portugal).
Each larva was introduced in a tube (1.7cm diameter, 12cm high) till the emergence of adults.
Newly emerged adult pairs were transferred into glass cages (7cm diameter, 9cm high) containing
a small branch of olive tree in water and one of the following treatments. Blooming plants were
also collected in the olive groves and for each plant species, four different treatments were
introduced in the cage and were tested: (A) a tube with 5ml of water, (B) an Eppendorf with 5%
of honey in water (C) a flower in water and (D) a flower in water and 5% honey in water. Each
treatment was composed by 30 replicates. Every 24 hours, male and/or female death and the
number of eggs laid were counted. Results showed that both the olive moth longevity and number
of eggs were significantly higher in the treatments with water-honey solution (treatments B and
D). The longevity of the olive moth reached an average of 13.6 days in treatment B as well as in
treatment D for E. plantagineum. On the contrary, the longevity reached 6.4 and 7.5 days in
treatment C for C. myconis and E. plantagineum, respectively. Considering fecundity, in
E. plantagineum and honey, the olive moth laid an average of 40.7 eggs, followed by treatment B
with 40.1 eggs and C. myconis and honey with 35.0 eggs. Considering the longevity of the olive
moth, there were no differences between the two plant species in all the treatments tested but
female longevity tended to be higher than male longevity. These experiments suggested that
P. oleae benefited from sugar sources by increasing both longevity and fecundity. Nevertheless,
the olive moth was not affected by the presence of C. myconis and E. plantagineum flowers.

127-132

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Is ground cover with selected flowering plant species a sustainable practice
for beneficial insects and pollinators in olive crops?

F. Karamaouna, V. Kati, N. Volakakis, V. Kalliakaki, K. Varikou, F. Andrinopoulos, L. Economou & E. Markellou

Abstract only

133

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Assessing the theoretical nectar accessibility on flowering weeds
from the olive grove for the olive moth and three natural enemies

A. Nave, F. Gonçalves, A. L. Crespí, M. Campos & L. M. Torres

Abstract only

134

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Monitoring οlive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) activity
in an organic table olive orchard in Crete, Greece

Nikolaos Volakakis, Mick Eyre, Apostolos Kiritsakis, Carlo Leifert & Emmanouil Kabourakis

Abstract: The activity of Bactrocera oleae and other invertebrate groups were monitored in a
table olive orchard in the Messara plain, southern Crete, Greece throughout the olive seasons
2006, 2007 and 2008 using McPhail traps. Sampling was carried out weekly between February
and November, with a total of 120 samples being collected over the 3 years. In addition, 2 bottlebased
(Pepito and Elkofon) and one envelope type (Vioryl) mass trapping systems were
compared with respect to (a) their efficacy of controlling the olive fly between May and
November and (b) impacts on non-target invertebrates.
Multivariate analyses were carried out using a range of climatic factors (temperature,
rainfall, humidity and wind direction) as drivers and the activity of olive fly and the main groups
of flying invertebrates as response variables. Temperature, west and north wind, rainfall and
humidity were identified as significant drivers for the main flying insect groups caught in
McPhail traps. Results are discussed in the context of production practices, vegetation types
surrounding commercial olive orchards and climatic conditions in the Messara plain. There was
also a trend towards south wind being a driver, while east wind was not identified as a significant
driver. When the bottle-based mass trapping systems were compared, the Pepito trap showed
similar activity with respect to olive fly, but had a greater impact on non-target invertebrates
compared to the Elkofon trap.

135-146

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Biological control of Verticillium wilt of olive within an integrated disease management framework
Jesús Mercado-Blanco

Abstract: Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) is one of the most serious biotic threats for olive
cultivation, the disease being a severe problem in some traditional olive-cultivating regions
within the Mediterranean Basin. Control of VWO is difficult and none of the available control
measures is effective enough when applied individually. Therefore, an integrated disease
management strategy is the only plausible framework for an effective control of VWO. The use
of biological control agents (BCAs) can be considered either as a before-planting (preventive) or
as a post-planting (palliative) action in established olive orchards. It is an approach that could be
used in combination with other control tools. So far, only a few bacteria and fungi species have
been examined as potential BCAs against VWO. Our studies have proved that some indigenous
Pseudomonas spp. strains of olive roots, some of them with an endophytic lifestyle, are effective
against VWO caused by the highly-virulent, defoliating (D) pathotype. An interesting field to be
explored is the development of bioformulations which may combine BCAs with different
biocontrol mechanisms operating synergistically; for instance, induction of systemic resistance
triggered by an endophyte and antibiosis by a root-surface colonizer. However, how biocontrol
actions can be effectively implemented within this integrated framework still needs of in-depth
studies aimed to unravel the genetic and molecular basis underlying the olive/BCAs/V. dahliae
tripartite interaction, as well as to understand how biotic factors may influence this system under
field conditions.

149-154

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Soil application of olive mill wastewater for weed control
Dalia Erez-Reifen, Baruch Rubin & Hanan Eizenberg

Abstract: The continuous centrifugation process for olive oil extraction yields three phases: olive
oil, pulp, and olive mill wastewater (OMWW). The latter generates an environmental
contamination problem. The often demonstrated phytotoxic properties of OMWW could be
exploited as a bio-herbicide. In this study, we examined the potential use of OMWW for weed
control under sustainable agricultural systems. Net house experiments were conducted using pots
filled with Vertisol soil and sown with three weed species: Silybum marianum, Phalaris
brachystachys and, Daucus carota. Three OMWW application methods were examined: pre-plant
incorporated (PPI), pre-emergence (PRE) and post-emergence (POST), applied at four levels: 0
(untreated control), 20, 80 and 160m3 ha-1. POST treatments did not significantly injure weeds
therefore data of this application method will not be discussed in this paper. PRE treatments
severely reduced seedling emergence of dicot species, however, minor reduction in emergence
rate was observed in P. brachystachys. PPI treatments moderately reduced weed emergence, yet
they significantly affected weed development. The herbicidal effect of OMWW was also tested
under field conditions. OMWW at rates of 80m3 ha-1 were PRE or PPI (incorporated to 10cm
depth) applied to the soil. Non-treated plots served as a control. Weeds that succeeded to emerge
in the OMWW treated plots were severely inhibited and appeared chlorotic and thin. In this study
we have shown that OMWW can serve as an efficient bio-herbicide for weed control.

155-164

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Root hairs play a key role in root colonization by Pseudomonas spp.
which are effective biocontrol agents of Verticillium wilt of olive

E. Schiliro, P. Prieto, R. Valderrama, M. Maldonado-González, J. B. Barroso-Albarracín & J. Mercado-Blanco

Abstract only

165

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Characterization of the useful Hymenoptera community
in olive orchards under different agronomic management

C. Jerez-Valle, M. Campos & F. Pascual

Abstract only

166

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Syrphid community in organic olive groves: can morphospecies
be used as surrogates for species?

Lara A. Pinheiro, Laura M. Torres, Alexandre Gomes & Sónia A. P. Santos

Abstract: Syrphids are known as biological control agents of hemipteran pests and, in the olive
grove, several species have been identified as predators of Euphyllura olivina (Costa). The
objectives of this work were: (1) to study the syrphid community in organic olive groves and (2)
to test the potential for the use of syrphid morphospecies as a surrogate for species. The field
work was conducted in two organic olive groves located near Mirandela (Northeast of Portugal).
The sampling period occurred in two seasons, from the middle of August to the end of October
2009 and from the beginning of April to the end of July 2010. Syrphids adults were separated in
morphospecies by a parataxonomist in accordance with their morphological differences. Then,
the species were identified by a taxonomist. The number of individuals collected was 64 in 2009
and 27 in 2010, for a total of 91. The morphological identification showed the presence of 12
morphospecies that corresponded to six species: Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) the most
abundant with 51.7% of relative abundance, followed by Sphaerophoria scripta (L.) with 23.1%
and Eupeodes corolla (Fabricius) with 18.6%. The proportion of correctly assigned
morphospecies to taxonomic species was 3.3%. However, during the identification, a 93.4%
splitting and a 3.3% lumping error occurred. This study showed that species identification was
relatively difficult when based only on parataxonomic traits, requiring a careful examination of
characteristics such as the size of the eyes and their hair, the form of the antennae, the humeral
plate and the squama, as well as the femur color and the size of the bands on the abdomen.

167-171

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Effect of the plant protection systems on soil arthropods in olive groves
from Alentejo region (southeastern Portugal)

Artur Estevão, Sónia A. P. Santos , Andreína Silva, Cláudia Gonçalves, José A. Pereira & M. Isabel Patanita

Abstract: Changes in arthropod abundance and biodiversity can be associated with the changes
in land use and agricultural practices. The aims of this work were: i) to study the abundance and
diversity of edaphic arthropods in olive groves following different plant protection systems
(organic growing, intensive, super-intensive and conventional), ii) to analyse the seasonal
variation of the most abundant groups and iii) to evaluate the differences among groves. The field
work was carried out in Alentejo region (southeastern Portugal) and occurred monthly from April
to October 2010. In each grove, 25 pitfall traps with 7cm height and 6cm diameter were
randomly placed at the soil level and collected after 24h. Traps were placed in the south side of
the canopy at 50cm from each tree trunk. All trapped individuals were preserved in 70% ethanol,
sorted and identified to class, order or family taxa. Principal Response Curves (PRC) method was
used to analyse the effect of management regime at the community level. Significantly higher
abundances of arthropods were registered in the organic grove when compared with the other
three systems. Formicidae was the most abundant group in all the sampled groves reaching
higher abundances in August in the super-intensive system while the other three systems obtained
higher abundance of Formicidae in May. Considering Araneae, this group was more abundant in
June in the organic and super-intensive systems and in October in the conventional and intensive
systems. Coleoptera were more abundant in October in the organic and intensive systems, in May
in the super-intensive and in April in the conventional system. According the PRC method,
Formicidae and Diptera were the most affected groups by the plant protection system. Moreover,
in the sampling period, the super-intensive system showed the highest negative impact over
arthropod abundance which can be explained by the application of herbicides for the control of
Conyza canadensis.

173-178

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The Website ‘OliVera’: olive diseases, disorders and pests
Vera Sergeeva

Abstract only

179

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PestScout – integrated crop protection data management system
Opher Mendelsohn, Yinon Shaham & Miriam Silberstein

Abstract only

180

0.00 €

 

Bioecology of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.), in Trás-os-Montes region
(northeast Portugal)

A. A. Bento, J. E. Cabanas & J. A. Pereira

Abstract: In this paper data are presented about the life cycle and the natural mortality of the
olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.), in Trás-os-Montes region (northeast Portugal). Observations
were carried out in an olive grove situated near Mirandela, during the period of 1993 to 2002, on
trees of the Cobrançosa, Verdeal Transmontana and Madural varieties, about 35 years old, nonirrigated
and non- sprayed. The flight phenology of the insect was studied by means of
pheromone delta traps, while that of the immature stages, and also the rates of predation and the
mortality due to intraspecífic competition, was studied by collecting samples of leaves, flower
clusters and fruit. To evaluate the mortality due to premature fall of fruit, samples of fallen fruit
were collected, while the rates of parasitism and the respective parasitoid species were
determined by rearing larvae and pupae of each of the three generations of the pest. Adult male
captures were recorded from April to May, for the first flight period, from May to July for the
second, and from September to December, for the third. The cumulative number of captures per
trap ranged between 442 and 1586, for the first flight, 926 and 2650 for the second, and 258 and
1499 for the third. The predation rates of eggs varied from 14.0% to 25.0 %, in the leaf
generation, 3.2% to 10.7% in the flower generation and 9.7% to 34.0% in the fruit generation,
while parasitism rates were from 7.4% to 46.7% in the leaf generation, 25.4% to 56.5% in the
flower generation, and 21.3% to 61.9% in the fruit generation. Ten species of Hymenoptera
parasitoids were identified. The mortality due to the intraspecific competition varied between
18.4% and 24.5% of the total population, while that due to the premature fall of fruit ranged from
57.9% to 89.5%.

183-191

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Preliminary results on the effect of the creation of vegetation islands
with flowering plants on beneficial insects associated with the olive agroecosystem

S. Jorge, A. Bento & L. Torres

Abstract: The effective conservation of natural enemies of crop pests involves manipulation of
the environment to favor their role, namely by providing sources of plant-derived foods such as
nectar, pollen, or both, which can in some cases enhance the survival and reproduction of these
beneficials. This work reports preliminary results of a study on the effect of the creation of
vegetation islands with flowering plants on the populations of beneficial insects associated with
the olive agroecosystem, with emphasis to the natural enemies of Prays oleae (Bern.). Three
treatments were compared: uncovered soil, soil sown with buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum
Moench) alone or with a mixture of wild carrot (Daucus carota L.). The insect populations in
each plot were monitored by sticky traps over eight weeks. Furthermore, a sample of larvae and
pupae of P. oleae was collected from the three treatments at the end of the fruit generation (in
September) and the rates of parasitism were evaluated. The number of either Hymenoptera
parasitoids or Coccinellidae captured differed significantly between treatments, with the higher
values in the “buckwheat” plots and the lower in the “uncovered soil” plots. About 70% of the
captures were obtained during the “full flowering” period of the tested plants. However the
parasitism rates of larvae and pupae of P. oleae although higher in the “buckwheat” plots in
comparison to the other ones, did not differed statistically among them.

193-199

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