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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 72, 2011


IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 72, 2011

Working Group "Pheromones and other Semiochemicals in Integrated Production" and "Selective Control Methods" (IOBC-EPRS).
Proceedings of the Joint Conference "Semio-chemicals without borders" at Budapest (Hungary), 15 - 20 November, 2009.
Editors: Marco Tasin, Zsolt Karpati and Miklós Tóth.
ISBN 978-92-9067-249-4 [XVI + 168 pp.]


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Daily activity of the raspberry cane midge male (Resseliella theobaldi Barnes)
based on sex pheromone trap catches

Kitti Sipos and Béla Pénzes

Abstract: The raspberry cane midge is one of the main pests in raspberry plantation. Within
integrated plant protection strategies, not only the flying curve but also the daily activity of the
midges is of crucial importance. In order to determine the daily activity of the midges, tests were
carried out in raspberry plantations with both a primocane (Autumn Bliss) and a two-year-old
canes fruiting cultivars (Fertődi zamatos). Trials were done in Berkenye (Nógrád, Hungary) in
2007 and 2008. The flight dynamic of the adult males was measured by hourly counts of catches
in sex pheromone traps (AgriSense Ltd.). In July 2008 we set up an automated sex pheromone
trap with a built-in meteorological meter (Madomat Ltd.). The equipment took photographs of
the sticky sheets every hour. The corresponding number of trapped males was defined based on
the photo.
We found that males were mainly active in the morning (from 8 to 12 am) and after 5 pm.
The photographs taken by the automatic trap gave evidence of an increase of flight activity
between 4 and 9 pm. Adult males did not fly into the traps either at night or on wet days.


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Using pheromones to monitor Lygus populations in fruit crops in the UK
Michelle Fountain, Jerry Cross, Dudley Farman, David Hall

Abstract: Capsid bugs (Miridae) cause serious economic damage to numerous crops throughout
the world. Among these, species of Lygus and closely-related genera are intractable pests on soft,
bush- and top-fruit, alfalfa and cotton in Europe and the US. In several of these species the
females have been shown to produce a sex pheromone that attracts conspecific males. Where
chemical studies of these pheromones have been undertaken, three compounds; hexyl butyrate,
(E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal have invariably been found (e.g. Drijfhout et al.,
2002; Innocenzi et al., 2004). However, it has proved extremely difficult to demonstrate
attraction of male bugs to blends of the synthetic chemicals, at least in part because these
chemicals are also known as alarm compounds produced by both males and females of many bug
species. Innocenzi et al. (2005) reported attraction of males of L. pratensis to a mixture of all
three chemicals and attraction of L. rugulipennis to a blend of hexyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-
hexenal. However, the blends were not well-defined and the dispensers extremely short-lived.
We have been studying the female sex pheromones of L. rugulipennis. Collections of
volatiles from individuals have shown that females produce all three of the above compounds but
males do not. These results suggest the three compounds are indeed components of the female
sex pheromones of this species. This was further substantiated by the observation that these
compounds are produced only during a well-defined period immediately after dawn, coinciding
with the time virgin females were most attractive to males in field tests. Detailed studies have
been carried out to determine the exact compositions of the blend produced and then to devise
dispensing systems for the synthetic chemicals that mimic these. So far we have been able to trap
males of L. rugulipennis with a particular blend in a novel, practical dispenser.


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The use of pheromones in the Hungarian forest management
Ferenc Lakatos, Katalin Tuba

Abstract: In Hungarian forest, semiochemicals are employed for monitoring and mass-trapping
of pest insects. Pheromone monitoring could be successfully used for several lepidopteran
species (e.g. Lymantria dispar, Coleophora laricella). To date, about 40 pheromone compounds
are available for forest Lepidoptera. Aggregation pheromones (approximately 20 compounds) are
widely used for mass trapping of bark and wood boring insects (e.g. Ips typographus, Pityogenes
). The forest protection practice is primarily focused on mass trapping of bark
beetles, while the application of pheromones of lepidopteran and other insect species is rather
rare, mainly for scientific purpose.


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Pheromone trapping of the moth Phyllonorycter blancardella Fabr.
in relation to puskás-type weather fronts

Puskás, J., Nowinszky, L., Barczikay, G.

Abstract: In this study nine new weather front types were determined from the "Daily Weather
Reports" valid for the Carpathian Basin. These nine weather front types were successfully used in
examinations of catch data of Hungarian light-trap network. Catches could be either successful or
not according to the weather front types. Using pheromone trap’s catch data, our current study
shows a relationship between weather front types and trapping of Spotted Tentiform Leafminer
moths (Phyllonorycter blancardella Fabr.). The pheromone traps were in operation in
Bodrogkisfalud (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, Hungary) between 1993 and 2007.
We calculated relative catch values from the total number of caught moths. We assigned the
daily relative catch values for every species to the daily front types. Our examinations proved that
the weather fronts influences the pattern of pheromone trap catch. Further tests are needed to
determine how pheromone catches correlate with weather fronts.


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Monitoring of Siberian moth populations using pheromone traps
Vladimir Petko, Natalya Vendilo, Katerina Lebedeva, Yuri Baranchikov

Abstract: The Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetv. (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae) is
the most destructive defoliator of conifers in Northern Asia. Its outbreaks have tremendous effect
both on native forest ecosystems and forest industry. During 1998-2002 an analogue of the pest
sex pheromone called “Denalol” (Z5,E7-dodecadienal and Z5,E7-dodecadienol mixture in 1:1
ratio) was developed and tested in the field. It showed a high attractiveness for the Siberian moth
males in different parts of its range: from Urals to the Pacific Ocean. At the same time, dispenser
and pheromone trap for the male moths catches were designed.


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The relation between disruption ratio and mating ratio
K. Ogawa, T. Morimoto, T. Hojyo, T. Fukumoto, V. Veronelli

No abstract


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Control of fruit moths with mating disruption in a Hungarian apricot orchard
Katalin Hári, Béla Pénzes

Abstract: Mating disruption (MD) has become an important method of fruit moth control. Our
aim was to examine the flight and migration of the Peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella) and the
Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta) in an apricot plantation. We also studied the efficiency
of MD under Hungarian conditions. This study was carried out in a 1 hectare large, three-yearold
apricot orchard in Soroksár between 2007 and 2009. The ripening period of the approx. 60
hybrid trees was between the beginning of June and the beginning of September. Dispensers of
both Oriental fruit moth and Peach twig borer were set out into the plantation. Based on the
catches of sex pheromone traps and the number of damaged fruits, the effectiveness of MD was
analysed. Our results show that communication between sexes was confused due to the presence
of dispensers. The rate of fruit damage remained at a negligible level (max. 2%) in spite of the
long-lasting period of ripening. Most adults reared from damaged fruits were Peach twig borers
and Oriental fruit moths but some Codling moths (Cydia pomonella) also occurred. One-third of
the Peach twig borer larvae were parasitized. As far as the migration of the pests is concerned, we
found that the traps placed around the plantation caught the Oriental fruit moth and the Peach
twig borer continuously, though the number of caught insects varied.


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Control of plum fruit moth, Grapholita funebrana,
by Isomate OFM rosso dispensers, in plum orchards of Bulgaria

Hristina Kutinkova, Vasiliy Dzhuvinov, Jörg Samietz , Vittorio Veronelli, Andrea Iodice, Carlo Bassanetti

Abstract: The plum fruit moth, Grapholita (syn. Cydia) funebrana (Tr.), is the most difficult
insect to control in plum orchards of Bulgaria. Economic trends in world fruit production as well
as high ecological flexibility and tolerance to some diseases and pests make plum one of the most
suitable fruit crop for ecologically sound agriculture. However, until now, pest management in
stone fruit in Bulgaria has relied mainly on organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides.
Considering EU requirements as well as the need for environmentally friendly fruit production,
alternative means of control of the plum fruit moth are urgently needed. Trials on mating
disruption (MD) with Isomate OFM rosso dispensers (Shin-Etsu, Japan) were carried out in an
isolated 50-ha plum orchard in two consecutive years. Catches of male moths in pheromone traps
were completely inhibited in the MD block, whereas they were numerous in the reference,
conventionally treated orchard, during both years of study. Isomate OFM rosso dispensers,
installed before the first flight of Grapholita funebrana males, reduced fruit damage significantly.
The percentage of fruits containing plum fruit moth larvae was below the economic injury level
(EIL). The positive results obtained in this study indicate that mating disruption may be an
effective alternative to conventional insecticides. The studies are being continued.


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Control of Spodoptera littoralis (Bsdv.) by biodegradable, low-dosage,
slow-release pheromone dispensers

Rama, F., Reggiori, F., Albertini, A.

Abstract: A new biodegradable pheromone dispenser, consisting of a continuous thread with an
inner core made of cellulose impregnated with Spodoptera littoralis pheromone blend and
covered by an outer layer of biodegradable material (Mater-B), is presented for the control of
S. littoralis by the method of false-trail-following/mating disruption.Trials were carried out in
greenhouse and field during 2007-2009, on cyclamen and herbs (thyme, rosemary, origano, sage,
and basil).The dosage of pheromone varied between 20 and 40g/ha: smaller plots with less than
1000 square meters required up to 40g/ha of pheromone, whilst larger areas could be treated with
smaller amounts of pheromone in accordance with the plot size. Significant decrease in trap
catches, in comparison to untreated plots, was observed in all the trials, providing good larval
control without any additional chemical treatments.


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Auto-disorientation and mass-trapping of Agriotes tauricus Heyd.
V. A. Marinicheva, O. M. Zelenskaya, E. V. Rubanova, V. G. Yatsynin

Abstract: In this study, the efficacy of two mating disruption methods (auto-disorientation either
alone or in combination with mass-trapping) to prevent mating of Agriotes tauricus Heyd. adults
was compared in Kuban region of southwestern Russia. The auto-disorientation device was
loaded with 2g of electrostatic powder containing 30mg of geranyl isovalerate, (E,E)-farnesyl
isovalerate and (E8)-hydroxygeraniole-1,8-diisovalerate at a ratio of 75:5:20. In addition, a
dispenser loaded with 20mg of pheromone was fastened under the cover of the device to increase
attraction of insects. Field tests revealed that the effective application of both disruption methods
depends on the density of devices and the amount of pheromone loaded per device. In the autodisorientation
experiment, the efficacy of mating disruption was about 70% with pheromone
application rate of up to 135-200mg/hectare/season released from 9 auto-disorientation devices
per hectare. On the other hand, increasing the pheromone application rate to 200-
450mg/hectare/season by combining the auto-disorientation method with mass trapping using
9-16 devices per hectare resulted in higher efficacy up to 91-94%. Thus, mating disruption
successfully reduced the relative number of wireworms in the soil from 25-30 to 2.2-2.6 larvae
per square meter.


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Mass trapping for the control of the leopard moth
Patanita, M. I., Vargas-Osuna, E.

Abstract: In the last ten years, Zeuzera pyrina L. became widespread in walnut orchards in
Alentejo (South Portugal), where inflicts severe damages by decreasing plant vigour and possibly
plant death. A field trial was carried out in a walnut orchard of (cv. Serr) in Alentejo (south
Portugal) to assess an alternative control method to insecticides. The effectiveness of mass
trapping method was evaluated. Periodical surveys allowed to ascertain that all tested mass
trapping plots were effective and decreased significantly the percentage of infested plants as
compared to the untreated plot. In the first year the percentage of trees with infested trunks was
reduced by 41% in the plots with 5 traps and by 45% in the plot with 8 traps, compared with a
33% increment of the infestation in the control plot. In the following year, the decrease reached
92% in the plot with 5 traps, 84% in the plot with 8 traps and 74% in the control.


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Combined sprays of sex pheromone and insecticides to attract-and-kill codling moth
Orkun Baris Kovanci, Alan Knight, Tom Larsen

Abstract: Sprayable pheromone formulations when used alone may fail to provide adequate
codling moth control in field trials especially in high pressure situations. As an alternative, field
trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of an "attract-and-kill" approach for control of
codling moth by adding half-rates of microencapsulated (MEC) lambda-cyhalothrin or
acetamiprid to a sex pheromone formulation in Turkey and the USA in 2006. Two apple orchards
were divided into six 1ha blocks treated with the following rates applied in high-volume sprays
(635 liters water/ha) via standard fan sprayer in Turkey: half or full-rate (25g a.i./ha) of sprayable
pheromone alone, half or full-rate (250ml) of lambda-cyhalothrin alone, 12.5g pheromone + halfrate
of insecticide, and 12.5g pheromone + full-rate of insecticide. Small-plot studies with 8
replicates each using 0.2ha plots in the USA used a full rate of pheromone 25g a.i./ha only, a half
rate of acetamiprid (60ml/ha), and both together applied in low volume sprays (12 liters water/ha)
via ATV-mounted sprayer. The low volume sprays were applied in a narrow band to the upper
third of the canopy. The efficacy of treatments was evaluated by monitoring adult catches in
pheromone traps and fruit injury assessments. The pheromone and insecticide mixture reduced
trap catches as well as fruit damage. Overall, the combination of sex pheromone and half-rate
sprays of insecticides improved codling moth control by 50% compared with half and full-rate
applications of sprayable pheromone alone. In addition, when combined with sprayable
pheromone reducing the full-rate of insecticide to half-rate also increased control of codling moth
by 50%.


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Auto-confusion trials and mating disruption of Cydia pomonella (L.)
in small apple orchards

Andrea Sciarretta, Pasquale Trematerra

Abstract: Results of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (CM), mating disruption trials by
means of ExosexTM auto-confusion system were reported. Experimental trials were carried out in
a 4ha apple orchard (with Annurca and Granny Smith cultivars), located at Dragoni (Campania
region, Southern Italy), in 2006 and 2007. Conventional chemical control was applied against the
first CM generation. In the auto-confusion plot, dispensers consisting of modified delta traps
containing 2.5g of grade wax powder formulated with 2.5mg of codlemone (E8,E10-dodecadien-
1-ol) (EntostatTM) were deployed in June, before the beginning of the second seasonal flight of
C. pomonella. In the conventional plot, 3-4 chemical applications (azinphos-methyl, methomyl
and phosalone) continued from the end of June until the mid of August.
Results indicated that auto-confusion technique reduced the capture of moths in pheromone
monitoring baited traps. During 2006, the percentage of fruits infested by CM larvae at harvest
was higher in the disrupted plot (1%) than in the conventional plot (0.1%), whereas not
significant differences were observed in 2007 (0.4% vs 0.1%).
Our trials showed that, in presence of low level pest population, auto-confusion strategy
limited to the second and third flight of C. pomonella in small apple orchards can reduce the
number of conventional insecticides sprayed per year.


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A modular transportable cage for standardized tests in mating disruption
by CIRCE method

Uwe T. Koch & Hans Christian Koch

Abstract: For the investigation of new active ingredients and/or formulations for use in mating
disruption, a new scheme was proposed by Doye & Koch in 2005. A flight cage is placed in the
middle of a treated field with a female baited trap inside, and a large number (e.g. 50) of males
are released into it. If the female in the cage can catch no males, the aerial pheromone
concentration is considered to be sufficient for mating disruption. Although CIRCE has been
widely adopted, questions arose about cage details. In some cases, males were unexpectedly
caught in cages placed in fields with standard treatments. Problems may have been caused by
cage size (kept small to permit transport), or the lack of appropriate plant environment inside.
A third issue is the choice of cage materials to optimize weather resistance, weight and inertness
to pheromone.
We have designed and built a new cage model to avoid these problems. It consists of 12
aluminium frames (size 0.8x2.4m) carrying aluminium wire screens. The frames are connected
by nuts and bolts to form a cage with the measurements 2.4x2.4x1.6m (height*lenght*width).
The cage can be mounted in two halves over a wire education system as found in apple orchards
or vineyards, creating an authentic plant environment inside. When dismantled, the cage becomes
a package 0.36x0.8x2.4m and weighs 51kg. This permits transport on a passenger car roof and
shipment by air. We propose this cage model as a reference instrument to make mating disruption
experiments more reproducible and comparable.


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Pheromone antagonism in lepidopteran maize pests
Carmen López, Agnès Ardanuy, Matilde Eizaguirre, Ramon Albajes

Abstract: Coinciding with the deployment of Bt maize in the study area, but not necessarily due
to it, populations of corn borers have decreased in the last few years, while the incidence of other
aerial Lepidoptera, such as Mythimna unipuncta and Helicoverpa armigera, seems to have
increased. In previous papers we showed that Z11-16 Ald, a Sesamia nonagrioides component,
inhibits pheromone perception by Ostrinia nubilalis males, whereas the two components of
O. nubilalis pheromone inhibit perception by S. nonagrioides males in EAG, wind tunnel and
field trials. We have also recorded the inhibitory effect of the aldehyde on M. unipuncta
pheromone perception in wind tunnel and field trap trials. In the current paper we present the
study on how H. armigera respond to this inhibitory system. Effects of different pheromone
components of S. nonagrioides, M. unipuncta and O. nubilalis on the behaviour of H. armigera
males in the wind tunnel are reported. Maximum response in upwind flight and source contact
was recorded with the mixture of the H. armigera major (also present in S. nonagrioides
pheromone) and minor components [Z11-16:Ald and Z9-16:Ald respectively], whereas no
response to the O. nubilalis pheromone components was observed. Addition of Z11-16:OH (for
some authors a component of H. armigera pheromone) significantly reduced response in this
species, so it is thought that additional doses should be tested.


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Strain specific pheromone preference of the European corn borer
Zsolt Kárpáti, Marco Tasin, Teun Dekker

Abstract only


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Indication of a female-produced sex pheromone in the boxwood leafminer,
Monarthropalpus flavus (Schrank) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

Gábor Vétek, Bettina Pásztor, Béla Pénzes

Abstract: The boxwood leafminer, Monarthropalpus flavus (Schrank) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae),
is a major pest of Buxus spp. The authors of this paper carried out a field experiment in Hungary,
2008-2009, to study whether there is any indication of a sex pheromone released by the females.
Delta-shaped traps baited with virgin females were used in a heavily infested boxwood hedge in
Budapest. Catches were counted every half an hour from 7.30 am to 20.00 pm during a period of
2+2. Traps caught approximately 13 (2008) and 4 (2009) times more males than control traps. As
far as the daily rhythm of catches is concerned, the highest number of adults was caught in the
morning (approx. between 7.30 and 12.00). These results may be regarded as an indication of a
calling behaviour of M. flavus females, and serve as basis of further research to develop a
boxwood leafminer sex pheromone trap.


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Chemical ecology of psyllids and their interactions with vectored phytoplasma and plants
Juergen Gross

Abstract: During the last few years my coworkers and me started to elucidate the chemical
ecology of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and their interactions with vectored
phytoplasma and different host plants. We investigated the olfactory reactions of these insects to
host plants used for reproduction or overwintering, and elucidated chemically mediated
interactions between all players in this multitrophic system. While e.g. the behaviour of the
hawthorn psyllid C. melanoneura was not influenced by phytoplasmas, complex interactions
between Malus domestica, the apple psyllid C. picta, and Ca. P. mali were investigated in
laboratory and field. Results from Y-tube olfactometer trials showed that immature adults of
C. picta are able to distinguish the odours of healthy and infected apple trees and preferred the
odour of infected trees. GC-MS analysis of the headspaces revealed the induction of a
sesquiterpene in infected trees, which was proofed to be attractive for C. picta in olfactometer
trials. Finally, we investigated the influence of the psyllids’ nymphal development on infected
trees by measuring several performance parameters. In total, the fitness of the offspring of
C. picta was influenced negatively, but the females developed a strategy to cope with it. This
means that the phytoplasma directly manipulates plant physiology and indirectly psyllid
behaviour, leading to a better spread within its host plant population. In contrast, its vector
C. picta evolved mechanisms to minimize harmful effects emanated by the phytoplasma.
Currently we started fundamental research projects on several phytoplasma – vector – plant
systems with the aim to develop species specific traps for monitoring and mass trapping of these
vector species of fruit tree phytoplasmas.


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Plant volatiles for detection of migrating apple fruit moth
Geir K. Knudsen and Anders Aak

Abstract only


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Spatio-temporal distribution of tsetse fly trap catches in Ethiopia
Andrea Sciarretta, Getachew Tikubet, Johann Baumgärtner , Pasquale Trematerra

Abstract: The paper deals with tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) spatial distribution and aims at
improving the methodology for precision targeting interventions in an adaptive pest management
system using attractive traps. In Ethiopia, as vector of trypanosome pathogens on livestock, tsetse
flies play a crucial role in limiting agricultural production, both directly on food source from
animal products and indirectly on animal traction as a source of energy. Monoconical traps,
baited with cow urine as attractant, were deployed in a 20km2 area at Ethiopia’s Keto site. The
spatio-temporal distribution of Glossina morsitans submorsitans Newstead, and Glossina
pallidipes Austen, was analyzed with the Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology
(SADIE) focusing on clustering and spatial association between-species and between-sexes. Both
species displayed an aggregated distribution characterized by two main patches in the south and
an extended gap in the north of the monitored area. Spatial patterns were positively correlated
and stable in most cases, with the exception of the early dry season and the short rainy season,
when there were differences between the species and sexes. The spatio-temporal dynamic is
explained by interacting environmental variables including climate, habitat features and cattle
host availability. For precision targeting interventions, the here presented methods are effective
for identifying and delimiting hot spots on maps. In addition, more the improved knowledge on
hot spot occurrences allows a better delimitation of the territory for control operations and a more
precise computation of the number of traps used for monitoring and control purposes.


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The importance of semiochemicals for Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae):
biological control agents of invasive Tamarisk shrubs

Allard A. Cossé, Robert J. Bartelt, Bruce W. Zilkowski, Daniel W. Bean, Nina Louden, and Terri Locke

Abstract: Several closely related species of the Eurasian saltcedar leaf beetle Diorhabda
elongata species group (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been successfully introduced as
biocontrol agents for saltcedar (Tamarix spp., Tamaricaceae) (DeLoach et al., 2003; 2004;
Hudgeons et al., 2007; Bean, 2007; Tracy & Robbins, 2009). The non-native saltcedar is a rapid
growing shrub causing considerable ecological and economic damage particularly in the riparian
areas of arid and semi-arid western North America (Zavaleta, 2000; Shafroth et al., 2005).
An existing practical need with this biocontrol program is the ability to monitor populations
of the beetles in the field. Population properties such as establishment at release sites, distances
of dispersal, and the ability to monitor the beetle movement into non-contiguous stands of
saltcedar are important for land managers to understand, but are extremely difficult and tedious to


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Lure development and mass trapping of the blowfly Calliphora vicina
Geir K. Knudsen and Anders Aak

No abstract


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Combining pear ester with codlemone improves management of codling moth
Alan Knight, Janet Haworth, Bill Lingren, and Vince Hebert

Abstract: Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have
been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s
kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that
consistently outperforms other high load pheromone lures within pheromone-treated orchards,
and the use of a microencapsulated formulation that can improve both mating disruption and the
effectiveness of insecticide sprays. Field studies demonstrating the effectiveness of combining
pear ester with codlemone are presented.


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Laboratory and field studies to test the attractiveness
of the Red Palm Weevil to synthetic palm esters

Guarino, S., Peri, E., Lo Bue, P., Pulizzi, M. and Colazza, S.

No abstract


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Microbial volatiles affect grapevine moth oviposition
Mohamed Mraihi, Ilaria Pertot, Vito Simeone and Marco Tasin

Abstract only


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Semiochemicals-mediated host location in pine processionary moth
Maria-Rosa Paiva, Eduardo Mateus, Helena Santos, Manuela Branco

Extended abstract


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Intra- and inter-specific attraction of cockroach faecal extracts:
studies for improving bait activity

Matteo Anaclerio, Fabio Molinari

No abstract


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