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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 62, 2011

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 62, 2011

Working Group "Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops".
Proceedings of the meeting at Agadir (Morocco), 01 - 03 March, 2010.
Editor: Ferran Garcia Mari.
ISBN 978-92-9067-236-4 [xix + 378 pp.]

 

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The Greening/Huanglongbing disease of citrus, its dangers and current status worldwide
Roistacher, C. N.

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3

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The Tristeza disease of citrus, its history and relevance for Morocco
Roistacher, C. N.

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4

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Expected CTV impact on the moroccan citrus industry after Toxoptera citricida
expands to our region

Zemzami, M.

Abstract: Citrus Tristeza has been among the most serious phytosanitary challenges of citrus
throughout the world since more than a century. It is still a continuous threat to the Moroccan
citrus industry, as well as to the whole Mediterranean region, due to the extensive use of the
highly susceptible root-stock ‘Sour Orange’. In the Mediterranean region, so far only Spain
and Israel have suffered heavy losses due to CTV. The other Mediterranean citrus producing
countries have not recorded any significant damage. Even though virus inoculum has been
detected in all countries, dissemination of Tristeza remains very limited. With the appearance
in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula of the Brown Citrus Aphid Toxoptera citricida,
the most efficient vector of CTV, the Mediterranean region is confronted with the risk of a
massive dissemination of Tristeza that will wipe out all citrus grafted on Sour Orange.
Occurrence of such an epidemic outbreak will inevitably have disastrous socio-economic
consequences on all countries around the Mediterranean Basin, including Morocco. This
paper attempted to assess the CTV impact on the citrus industry of Morocco when Toxoptera
citricida will reach the country.

7-11

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Detection of an outbreak of Citrus Tristeza Virus in Morocco
Afechtal, M., A. M. D’Onghia, K. Djelouah

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12

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Novel approaches to evaluate the genetic diversity of Citrus Tristeza Virus
Raspagliesi, D., G. Licciardello, S. Rizza, A. Lombardo, A. Catara

Abstract: The identification and characterization of different isolates of Citrus tristeza virus
(CTV) is one of the most useful tool to control the epidemic spread of the disease at a spatial
scale and the potential dissemination of the virus. SSCP (Single Strand Conformation
Polymorphism), based on the conformation of single-stranded DNA, is till now the most
common approach routinely used. In our lab we evaluated the capability of two novel
protocols based on capillary electrophoresis (CE-SSCP) and High Resolution Melting
analysis (HRM) to differentiate the virus isolates. CE-SSCP analysis of four CTV isolates,
characterized by biological indexing and partial sequencing, showed that the protocol is
suitable for a rapid preliminary screening of CTV genetic diversity in a large number of
samples, also with mixed infections, on several genomic regions at one time. HRM analysis
identified sequence polymorphisms, allowing to easily distinguish and categorize different
isolates in a single tube reaction. Both protocols are very suitable for characterization and
classification of CTV isolates, prior or in alternative to sequencing. Being fast, flexible and
complementary they can be helpful to give a large number of information in many samples
in a short time.

13-19

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Regeneration and sanitation by stigma/style somatic embryogenesis of
Citrus genotypes in Algeria: preliminary results

Meziane, M., M. Boudjeniba., D. Frasheri, A. M. D’Onghia, A. Carra, F. Carimi, N. Haddad, S. Boukhalfa, S. Braneci

Abstract: Stigma/style somatic embryogenesis is one of the efficient methods in plant
regeneration of most Citrus spp. with the exception of Clementines, without inducing
somaclonal variations in regenerants. Furthermore, somatic embryogenesis from style and
stigma culture proved to be effective in the elimination of the main citrus virus and virus-like
diseases. This technique was applied on Algerian citrus collection. The main citrus local and
international varieties of different citrus species (Citrus sinensis, C. limon, C. reticulata, C.
maxima and C. paradisi) were chosen and tested for the presence of the main virus and
virus-like agents. Most of the genotypes showed to be infected by one or more infectious
agents, primarily viroids. Closed flowers were collected from these genotypes during
blossoming and, after sterilization, cultured on a MS medium supplemented with mg/l BAP
(6-benzylaminopurine). All explants produced callus at the cut end of the styles, about 4-9
days after culture initiation, whereas embryogenesis occurred later (after 38-150 days) in
most of the cultured genotypes. Formed embryos were cultured in a single tube before in
vivo acclimatization, which was performed by grafting onto in vivo seedlings. After sanitary
assays, plants regenerated from stigma/style culture showed to be free from the agents and
diseases detected in the mother trees.

21-27

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Increasing concern on Alternaria brown spot of Citrus in Italy
Bella, P., G. Ialacci, M. Russo, V. Catara, A. Catara

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29

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Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on delivery systems in enhancing seeds
germination and seedlings growth of sour orange (Citrus aurantium)

Falih, H. S., H. M. Aboud, U. A. Alwan, H. N. Kashmer

Abstract only

30

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Effects of temperature and relative humidity on postharvest biological control of
Penicillium rots on citrus fruits by Bacillus subtilis ZH2 and
Pichia guilliermondii Z1

El Guilli, M., M. Ibriz, Y. Hammadi, R. Lahlali, M. H. Jijakli

Abstract only

31

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Diseases of Citrus in Libya
Elagael, A., B. A. Abrihem

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32

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Evolution of the fading of citrus fruits in the Mitidja (Algeria)
Benchabane, M.

Abstract: After studies (2006-2009) of the states of fading of citrus fruits in the Mitidja
(Algeria), we noted a troubling epidemic evolution in some orchards where the death rates
reached proportions of 5 to 10%. The symptomatologic diagnosis indicates the presence of a
strong likeness between the different biotic reasons possible without the presence of
symptoms typical and/or of revealing signs of the known diseases (bacteria and virus). The
diagnosis of laboratory confirmed their absence. The isolations achieved from the roots and
soil put often in evidence the presence of Fusarium flora dominated by Fusarium solani and
Fusarium oxysporum species. The implication of these species is joined to the pedological
features and to the technical practices, notably the irrigation.

33-37

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First observation of the symptoms of a physiological disorder on citrus fruits in
Morocco: The exanthema

Benyahia, H., C. Smaili, I. Beniken, N. Handaji, M. Zekri

Abstract only

38

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Monitoring of Citrus Tristeza Virus and its vectors on citrus nurseries in eastern Sicily
Riolo, G., F. Conti, R. D’Anna

Abstract: Citrus Tristeza Closterovirus (CTV) is considered one of the most destructive
diseases for citrus in the world. In Italy it was first detected in the ‘50s and monitored in the
‘80s in a restricted area. Recently the virus spread widely in the citrus area of Southern Italy,
where trees are grown almost exclusively on sour orange, a very susceptible rootstock. In
1996, a regulatory act, the “Decreto Ministeriale 22/11/1996”, was issued for the eradication
of the virus promoting the monitoring of the citrus cultivated area. In the period 2006-09, in
the framework of the official controls, a monitoring activity was carried out in Eastern Sicily
for the detection of CTV on citrus trees cultivated in nursery conditions. The diffusion of
aphids was also surveyed in order to exclude the presence of Toxoptera citricidus, recently
detected in the North-Western area of the Iberian Peninsula. This aphid is known as a very
efficient vector of CTV. In the survey period a total of 1,544,359 nursery trees was checked
utilizing DAS-ELISA test, and 117,000 nursery trees were observed for the identification of
aphids species present on new shoots. The incidence of infected trees ranged from 3.5% in
2006 to 0.25% in 2007 and 2009. All infected plots were destructed. A protected foundation
block for budwood production, containing 45 accessions, was monitored starting from 2007,
sampling a total of 1042 mature trees. In 2009, CTV was detected in the foundation block.
The quarantine aphid T. citricidus was not observed in the survey period. In spring and fall
samples, the presence of Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and T. aurantii, very common in the
Mediterranean area, was recorded in decreasing order.

39-43

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Obtaining viroïd-free ‘Nour’ clementine by shoot tip micrografting
Benhima, R., N. Ganoune, R. Aitelayad, L. Khouimi, M. Bouhida

Abstract: Aiming to produce nursery certified trees of Clementine “Nour”, 18 trees were
selected from Kabbage citrus orchards. All those were infected Citrus Exocortis Viroid d
(CEVd) and Citrus Cachexia Viroid (CCaV). In order to clean the candidate trees from
viroids infection, we used Shoot Tip Grafting technique (STG) by in vitro micrografting it on
Cirtange carrizo rootstock cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium. The success rate
obtained was about 20%. The successfully micrografted plantlets were double grafted on
Citrus macrophylla in the greenhouse. 7 to 9 months later, the plants were biologically
indexed. Screening by RT-PCR revealed that 16/26 (61%) plants obtained by STG are
CEVd-free and 25/26 CCaV-free. Thus, STG technique abled us to clean up the Clementine
variety "Nour" from both viroids CEVd and CCaV. These viroids appear to infect most trees
of this variety in Morocco.

45-49

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Antifungal activity of moroccan plants against Penicillium italicum, the causal
agent of blue mold of citrus

Askarne, L., I. Talibi, M. A. Serghini, H. Boubaker, F. Msanda, A. Ait Ben Aoumar, E. H. Boudyach

Abstract: Blue mold, caused by Penicillium italicum, is one the most economically
important postharvest disease of citrus fruits. The control of this mold is largely dependent
on application of synthetic fungicides, which has adverse effects on the environment and
promotes the development of strains resistant to the active components used. To overcome
this problem taking into consideration the increased concern of consumers towards pesticide
use and the increasing demand in the quality of products, alternative methods are needed.
Biological control using naturally-occurring substances is a promising alternative that has
been recently explored for managing postharvest decay of fruits. The screening of antifungal
activity of aqueous plants extracts against P. italicum was evaluated using the agar plates
method. Our results show that from a total of 45 aromatic and medicinal plants assessed, 23
reduced the incidence of disease to less than 50%. From which two species, belonging
respectively to the family of Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, completely inhibited the mycelial
growth of P. italicum.

51-54

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Morphological and physiological characterization of seven isolates of
Colletotrichum gleosporioides, responsible of wither tip and tear stain on
citrus in Morocco

Benyahia, H., M. Bengueddour, A. Talha, R. Benkirane. A. Douira, L. Beniken

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55

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Combined application of Pseudomonas biocontrol agents and elicitors for the
control of postharvest decay of citrus fruit

Panebianco, S., C. Platania, G. Scuderi, G. Cirvilleri

Abstract: Experimental trials were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of antagonistic
P. syringae strains in combination with hot water, sodium carbonate (SC), acibenzolar-Smethyl
(ASM) and chitosan in controlling Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of green
mould of citrus. Incidence and severity of disease were consistently reduced when sodium
carbonate treatments were followed by P. syringae inoculation. In this case, the level of
control was superior to P. syringae used alone. Treatments with antagonistic P. syringae
strains and hot water were more effective in controlling decay of citrus than either bacteria or
hot water alone. Similarly, the combination of ASM and P. syringae strains resulted in a
synergistic inhibition of the green mold. Also mixtures of P. syringae and chitosan
significantly reduced the incidence and severity of green mold and the control was more
effective than treatments with chitosan alone. These results indicate that biocontrol agents
and physical or chemical elicitors, used in appropriate combination, can provide a stronger
protection than they do when used singularly.

57-63

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Chemical, biological and integrated control of citrus nematode
Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb, 1913

Sulaiman, N. A., A. M. A. Al-Hakim

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64

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Identification of Tylenchulus semipenetrans biotype in Morocco
Mokrini, F., F. Abbad Andaloussi

Abstract: The biotype of the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) from Morocco,
was determined using differential hosts, namely, grape (Vitis vinifera), (Citrange troyer),
orange (Citrus aurantium L) and olive (Olea europaea). The study was conducted under
greenhouse conditions with 5 replicates. Nematodes from the regions of Gharb, Sous
Masssa, Haouz, Loukkos and Moulouia were extracted from roots and inoculated with
10.000 eggs and juveniles per plant. Reproductive factors were less than one for Poncirus
trifoliate and olive for all populations. The results of differential-host experiments revealed
that all five T. semipenetrans populations belong to the Mediterranean biotype.

65-69

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Importance and distribution of the main citrus nematodes species in Morocco
Mokrini, F., F. Abbad Andaloussi

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70

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Plant parasitic nematodes associated with citrus in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia
Al-Rehiayani, S.

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71

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Acarine pests of citrus: where have they come from and where are we going?
Gerson, U.

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75

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Sustainable management of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae
(Acari: Tetranychidae) on clementine citrus groves

Martínez-Ferrer, M. T., J. M. Campos, J. M. Fibla

Abstract: Tetranychus urticae is a major pest of Clementine citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco)
on Spanish groves. This mite infests fruits and leaves, feeding on them. The profuse webbing
on leaves hinders both the performance of biological control agents and chemical control. As a
result of their attack, leaves acquire characteristic chlorotic spots and often drop from the tree
prematurely. Besides yield reduction, even light infestations on fruits can result in scarring,
thus decreasing quality and the commercial value of fruits. The number of authorised
pesticides used in agriculture has been reduced, mainly acaricides, thus it is necessary to
provide alternatives to chemical control for T. urticae on citrus. In this study, on a commercial
citrus Clementine grove located at Vinaroz (Castellón), the population dynamics of T. urticae
populations was followed from June to November. On a block randomized design, control
strategies based on mineral oil sprays and Neoseiulus californicus releases were evaluated,
compared to an acaricide treatment and to untreated control plots. At the end of August a
mineral oil spray was applied to the entire thesis. Two mineral oil sprays significantly reduced
the number of symptomatic leaves respect to the control during seven weeks, and also
significantly diminished T. urticae population densities during two months. Nevertheless, at the
end of August, both symptomatic leaves and T. urticae population densities raised, achieving
control levels. Releases of N. californicus did not lead to a reduction of the numbers of
symptomatic leaves, but reduced T. urticae population densities compared to the control.
Persistence of phytoseiid releases was brief, probably due to the high temperatures occurred
during summer. At harvest, the proportion of attacked fruits and the magnitude of symptoms
were evaluated. For the entire thesis, the proportion of fruits with attack symptom was low and
similar, except for the acaricide thesis, where was lower. Values ranged from 4% to 12% of
fruits with low blemish, accepted by market quality standards, and from 2 to 4% with more
profuse scars, but always inferior to 12% of the overall fruit rind. An approach to improve
control strategies based on mineral oils sprays, N. californicus releases or both methods
combined is required in order to provide a more sustainable two-spotted spider mite pest
management in citrus.

77-81

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Population dynamics of the citrus oriental mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein)
(Acari: Tetranychidae), and its mite predatory complex in southern Spain

Ledesma, C., M. E. Wong, J. M. Vela, J. A. Jacas, J. R. Boyero

Abstract: A survey of Eutetranychus orientalis and its predator mites has been carried out in
clementine, lemon and orange groves. The oriental mite, E. orientalis, was a dominant
species both in lemon and orange groves. Other pest species as Tetranychus urticae and
Panonychus citri occurred in low numbers. The most abundant phytoseiids were Euseius
stipulatus and Typhlodromus phialatus, the other predators as Neoseiulus californicus,
Phytoseiulus persimilis, Euseius scutalis and Paraseiulus talbii having low densities. The
phenology of E. orientalis took place in autumn, in agreement with the second peak of the
predator E. stipulatus. An effect of E. stipulatus on E. orientalis is probably happening, but
abiotic variables are also affecting the populations of this pest mite.

83-92

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Windborne pollen provisioning cover crops (WPPCC) for enhancing the
population levels of Euseius scutalis and improving citrus rust mite control

Palevsky, E., S. Gal, Y. Maoz, Y. Argov, E. Melamed, S. Domeratzky, S. Gross, S. Shmueli, Y. Abrahams

Abstract: The citrus rust mite (CRM) Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Eriophyidae) is a
cosmopolitan pest of citrus. Even though Euseius spp. have been categorized as specialized
pollen feeders, they can effectively control pests, especially when pollen is abundant. In the
present study our objectives were to determine whether pollen provisioning could: 1)
enhance populations of the indigenous predator Euseius scutalis and 2) improve CRM
control. To test these hypotheses we conducted experiments on seedlings in a climate
chamber and in an orchard. In the climate chamber, the effects of pollen and predator release
on CRM and predator levels were very significant. CRM populations reached almost 8500
on the negative control with no predators, zero CRM and 130 predators on plants
provisioned with E. scutalis + pollen, and an intermediate level of 100 CRM and no
predators when E. scutalis was released without pollen. Similarly in the seedling field trial,
windborne pollen released from patches of Rhodes grass successfully enhanced natural E.
scutalis populations, which resulted in a significant reduction in CRM levels. In contrast, on
seedlings distant from the grass patches, no predators were detected and CRM populations
increased substantially. Taken together, the results of these two experimental setups
demonstrate the potential of E. scutalis for CRM control and the importance of pollen
provisioning for control efficacy.

93-97

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Replacement of CTV-susceptible sour orange rootstock by CTV-tolerant ones
may have triggered outbreaks of Tetranychus urticae in Spanish citrus

Bruessow, F., M. J. Asins, J. A. Jacas, A. Urbaneja

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98

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Optimization of the PCR-multiplex technique for prey detection in citrus mites
Pina, T., C. Pérez-Sayas, J. A. Jacas, M. A. Hurtado

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99

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Comparison of the genetic structure of two populations of Tetranychus urticae
Koch (Acari: Prostigmata) in clementine orchards under integrated and
organic crop management

Pascual-Ruiz, S., T. Ansaloni, J. A. Jacas, M. A. Hurtado

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100

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Ground cover management affects the biological control of Tetranychus urticae
Koch (Acari: Prostigmata) in clementine orchards

Aguilar-Fenollosa, E., M. V. Ibáñez-Gual, S. Pascual-Ruiz, M. A. Hurtado, J. A. Jacas

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101

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Monitoring of the California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), the
tetranychid mites and their natural enemies on citrus fruits in the Gharb
area (Morocco)

Boutaleb, J., A. I. El Hardouni

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105

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Natural mortality of the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii in citrus
of eastern spain and its natural enemies associated

Vanaclocha, P., M. J. Verdú, A. Urbaneja

Abstract: The California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae),
is probably one of the most important citrus pests in the world. The damage is produced by
sucking the sap from any plant organ that, in extreme cases, can even kill the tree. The
control of diaspidids in Spain has been usually based on the application of large-spectrum
pesticides, as organophosphates alone or in mixture with mineral oils. In the recent years
environmentally safer measures as augmentative biological control are being encouraged. To
this end, the knowledge of the impact of the indigenous natural enemies on this pest is an
essential requisite to know. In this work, natural mortality factors such as parasitism, host
feeding and predation have been studied in different non-treated orchards located, in
Valencia and in Castellón de la Plana from 2007 to 2009. The levels of natural mortality on
A. aurantii rarely were higher than 40 %, values that unfortunately were not sufficient to
guarantee a good control. The mortality due to parasitism was higher than the one caused by
predation. A significant preference by the third nymphal instar was observed for both
mortality factors. Host feeding on A. aurantii nymphal instar was also observed, although
most of the scales remained alive. Feeding punctures were also found mainly on the third
nymphal instars. The parasitoids species detected on A. aurantii were by order of importance
Aphytis melinus DeBach and A. chrysomphali (Mercet) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

107-112

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The impact of canopy foraging ants on California red scale Aonidiella aurantii
in a Mediterranean citrus orchard

Pekas, A., A. Tena, A. Aguilar, F. Garcia-Marí

Abstract: We conducted an ant-exclusion experiment during two years (2007 and 2008) in a
citrus orchard in order to evaluate the overall impact of three ant species native to the
Mediterranean on Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (California red scale) populations. The antexclusion
was performed in four experimental plots. In another subset of adjacent four plots
the ants had access to the canopies (control trees). We monitored populations of the scale on
fruits before harvest as well as the percent parasitism between treatments. Additionally,
during 2008, monthly samplings (from March to November) of the scale densities on twigs
and fruits were also performed. In 2008, significant lower populations of the scale in the antexcluded
trees were observed in May and this difference lasted until November. At harvest,
significantly lower population densities of the scale on fruits were recorded on the antexcluded
trees both years of the study. We did not detect differences in the percents of
parasitism between the two treatments.

113-117

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Introduction, current status and dynamics of Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)
(Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in northeastern Spanish citrus groves

Campos Rivela, J. M., M. T. Martínez Ferrer, J. M. Fibla Queralt

Abstract: The California red scale (CRS) was detected in citrus in Cataluña in 2000. Up to
now, this pest has showed a slow spread, and currently different foci of infestation can be
found in all directions in the Southern Tarragona citrus-growing areas. Most of the infested
orchards show irregular presence in scarce trees and low populations. Thus, often these
populations are only detected during harvest. Since 2002 male flights were monitored with
sticky yellow traps lured with CRS pheromone. Population dynamics showed that 4 male
flights occur (including that of the overwintering generation) in May, mid June-mid July, in
August and during October, being the third one the most abundant. The thermal constant
estimated between male flights, using as lower threshold temperature 11.7ºC, was 611.8 ±
35.5 DD. The CRS life cycle was followed in 2006, 2007 and 2009, since the rest of the
years pest populations were not high enough to carry out this study. Three peaks of first (L1)
and second (L2) instar nymphs were observed: early June, late July-early August, and late
September. The percentage of L1+L2 achieved was 70.1%, 57.9% and 46.1% respectively.
Sticky tapes wrapped around twigs revealed that crawlers begin to be trapped at the end of
April-early May, and reached its maximum at the end of May.

119-122

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Evaluation of Spirotetramat (Insecticide) on scale insects on citrus in Algeria
Biche, M., A. Siafa, R. Adda, Y. Agagna

Abstract: Insecticidal tests containing Spirotetramat were carried out in a citrus orchard
(variety Washington navel) with an aim of fighting against the scale insects. The evaluation
of the biological activity of this product compared to a natural control and to two other
reference products (Ultracide 40 and Dursban 4), was made continuously until harvest on the
population of Lepidosaphes beckii as a species dominant and representative of the medium
of experimentation. Under the effect of Spirotetramat applied in June 2008 to the pulps of
1.2l/ha, 3000l/ha and 4000l/ha, the levels of population regress in a spectacular way by often
posting zero values any confused stage (adult and larvae). The analysis of the percentages of
corrected mortalities reveals a strong mortality in the larvae exceeding the 50% compared to
36% in the adults. This double action, supported by the reduction ratios of fruitfulness which
border the 100%, mark well particular mode of action of Movento which appears on the
process of ovogenesis by disturbing the biosynthesis of the lipids indeed. This activity
appeared as of the application of the product and was spread out in time with the same width
until the maturation of the fruits, that is to say one duration estimated at more than 140 days,
equivalent to the remanence of this active matter. It is this continuous pressure exerted on the
population of the cochineals which determined a quasi-total protection of the involving fruit
to the harvest of the ratios de reduction of about 70% compared to the natural witness and
Dursban and of 99.42% compared to Ultracide. On the environmental level, Spirotetramat
seems to develop a very satisfactory selectivity with respect to auxiliary fauna (parasitoïdes
and other species). The results in this field attest that this one practically does not carry of
damage to the parasitoïdes particularly Aphytis lepidosaphes; quite to the contrary, it allows
a development quasi indifferent nearer to the natural conditions compared to the reference
products to the authorized amounts.

123-131

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Abundance of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), on some citrus
species, in the Gezira State (Sudan) and the efficacy of the petroleum spray
oil "D-C Tron® Plus" in its control

Tag Elsir, E. A., E. A. Osman

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132

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Efficacy of some insecticides in controlling jasmine whitefly Aleuroclava jasmini
(Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on citrus

Al–Jamali, N., I. Al-Yaseri

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133

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The first account of the mating disruption technique for the control of
California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (Homoptera: Diaspididae)
using new biodegradable dispensers

Vacas, S., C. Alfaro, V. Navarro-Llopis, J. Primo

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134

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Ecology’s study of the interactions between black scale of orange tree
Parlatoria zizyphi Lucas 1893 (Homoptera: Diaspididae)
and its host plant mandarin tree (Citrus deliciosa) in Mitidja

Chouih, S., A. Guendouz-Benrima, H. Saighi

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135

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The impact of the Parlatoria ziziphi infestations on physicochemical quality of
citrus fruits «case of the clementine variety» in Mitidja (Boufarik, Algeria)

Belguendouz, R., S. Louz, S. Bekkouche

Abstract: In Algeria, citriculture is concentrated in the north part of the country. It is
characterized by the weakness and low value of produced fruits due to generalized
infestation of orchards by various pests such as scale insects. Clementine mandarin cv
Montrea is dominant in Algeria because of its high productivity in comparison with the
Clementine fina typr. Our results showed that the infection rates are respectively 13.227% in
the summer, 15.932% in autumn, 16.131% during the winter period and 17.338% in spring
time. The importance of the infestation reduces the photosynthesis and the nutritional status
of trees. The North, Center and the East are the favourite spot for this scale. A good
correlation was obtained between the rate of infestation and these parameters. We found two
types of correlations between the development of P. ziziphi and levels of plant organs in
chemical and biochemical components. The positive relationship is with phosphorus and
potassium and acidity, and the negative is with magnesium, nitrogen, calcium, sodium,
vitamin “C “and dry matter. Therefore, based on these data as well as on others which will
be presented, it appears that P. ziziphi, affects considerably the chemical and biochemical
quality of the Clementine fruits which modify its outside aspect and its characteristic such as
color, texture, shinning aspects, size weight, and juice quality and content.

137-142

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Observations on the biology of Chrysomphalus aonidum (L)
(Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in southern Italy and its natural enemies

Palmeri, V., O. Campolo, G. M. Algeri, S. B. Grande, E. Chiera, V. Maione

Abstract: The armoured scale Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) was detected for the first time in
the region Calabria in 2006 on ornamental bitter orange. Studies on its biology were initiated
due to the importance of the damages caused by this insect in many citrus growing areas of the
world. The distribution and biology of C. aonidum were investigated in 2008-2009, in order to
acquire essential knowledge for pest control and to monitor its dispersion in commercial citrus
orchards. Moreover the composition and the role of its natural enemies were studied. The
observations carried out showed that the scale is able to complete 4 generations per year (the
first one in May, followed by a second one at the end of July, a third at the end of September and
a final one in the first ten days of November). The species mainly overwinters as virgin female.
Males overwinter as pupa and pre-pupa. The observations on the scale natural enemies complex
revealed the sole presence of indigenous coccinellid predators, among which the most common
appeared to be Chilocorus bipustulatus L. The survey on the C. aonidum distribution showed
that the species has spread and is now present also in commercial citrus orchards.

143-146

0.00 €

 

The use of the vineyard mealybug sex pheromone to improve biological control
of the citrus mealybug

Mendel, Z., A. Zada, S. Gross, S. Steinberg, E. Borges da Silva, J. C. Franco

Abstract only

147

0.00 €

 

First preliminary study on the biology of the citrus mealybug
Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) of citrus in Tunisia

Jendoubi, H., K. Lebdi Grissa, P. Suma, A. Russo

Abstract only

148

0.00 €

 

Research of substitute products for the control of cottony cushion scale Icerya purshaci
Maskell (1878) (Homoptera: Margaroïdidae) on citrus in Morocco and role of
vedalia beetle Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Nafide, M., A. J. Boutaleb, A. Mazih, A. Rizqi

Abstract only

149

0.00 €

 

Host preference of jasmine whitefly Aleuroclava jasmini (Homoptera:
Aleyrodidae) on citrus in South Baghdad orchards

Khalaf, M. Z., B. Sh. Hamd, B. H. Hassan, A. H. Salman, F. H. Naher

Abstract only

150

0.00 €

 

Seasonal and annual occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata,
in the Souss valley (Morocco)

Mazih, A.

Abstract only

153

0.00 €

 

Contribution to the forecasting of the population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata
(Diptera, Tephritidae) by an evaluation of the degree days and a strategy of
egg laying on a host plant (Prunus armeniaca L.) in an orchard in the
Mitidja region (Blidean Atlas, Algeria)

Allal Benfekih, L., A. F. Ahohouendo, B. Dridi

Abstract: The expression of the biotic potential of Ceratitis capitata is unquestionably
related on the one hand to the climatic variation and on the other hand with the quality of the
laying substrate. Moreover, its egg-laying strategy differs from a host plant to another,
related to the phytochemical composition of the hosts and their period of availability. The
evaluation of these parameters based over the thermal summation “days-degree” and the
periods of egg-laying according to the phenologic stage of the plant constitute an estimated
tool of assistance in the decision making of the phytosanitary treatments. Thus, in a citrus
orchard located in the Mitidja region, with 232.36°D from the first January of the study year,
basing on 11.2°C temperature threshold of development, we obtained our first fly captures.
Moreover, in spite of the Ceratitis capitata occurrence in the orchard, the laying begins only
starting from certain primary metabolic host plant contents. The number of laying traces left
by the medfly in relation to the phenologic variation of some compounds on apricot fruits
indicates a positive and significant correlation between the sugar contents mean values and
the average traces of egg-laying of the species. Moreover, the number of larvae observed by
fruit varieties: two varieties of peach and two varieties of fig including one early and the
second late, showed significant differences.

155-162

0.00 €

 

Extension of the pathway analysis for the medfly (Ceratitis capitata):
mtDNA variation among Morocco populations

Hammouti, N., E. M. Griebeler, N. Barr, A. Mazih, A. Seitz

Abstract: Once introduced, programs to manage or eradicate pest populations can have
tremendous economic costs. Recently, to gain knowledge of probable geographic sources of
an introduction a diagnostic tool (pathway analysis) using mitochondrial DNA sequences has
been developed for Ceratitis capitata. We sequenced both COI and N5N4 markers from
Moroccan populations to update the reference database for the pathway analysis. In a second
approach we applied a SAMOVA (Spatial Analysis of MOlecular VAriance, a without a
priori method) to refine the geographical grouping described by the pathway analysis. We
found four new haplotypes for COI and eight new haplotypes for N5N4. For the more
variable marker N5N4, the SAMOVA assumes a subdivision of the Mediterranean unit in
two groups, a Western one (Morocco, Spain and Portugal) and an Eastern one (Tunisia,
Egypt, Italy, Israel, Greece and Malta).

163-176

0.00 €

 

Effect of temperature on development and activity periods of the fruit fly
Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

El Messoussi, S., F. J. Beitia, M. Afif, M. J. Verdú, H. Aboussaid, A. Lahrouni

Abstract only

177

0.00 €

 

Comparison of the effect of Spinosad, kaolin and protein bait spray on
Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in citrus orchards
in the Gharb (Morocco)

Smaili, M. C., J. Wadjinny, A. Bakri, F. Gaboune, A.Bourhil, A. Blenzar

Abstract only

178

0.00 €

 

Adulticide activity of the extracts of Mandragora autumnalis Bertol on Ceratitis capitata
Fahad, K. S. Lhaloui, N. Gmira, M. Afechtal

Abstract only

179

0.00 €

 

Insecticidal potentiality of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the
Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata: Which prospects?

Allal Benfekih, L., B. Dridi, R. Zitouni, F. Mohamed Mahmoud

Abstract only

180

0.00 €

 

Development of semiochemical based management strategy for
Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in citrus groves in Morocco

Hassan, M. N., S. Al-Zaidi, M. Ezekari

Abstract only

181

0.00 €

 

The use of mass-trapping technique in an integrated pest management program
against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Trabelsi, I., S. Boulahia Kheder

Abstract: The Mediterranean fruit fly is a major pest in Citrus orchards. Its management is
primarily based on the use of pesticides with undesirable effects on the environment and
consumers health. In order to find alternative methods of management, a trial was carried out
in an orange orchard c.v Valencia Late, situated at Mraïssa region (Cap-bon, Tunisia).This
trial took place to test the mass trapping alone and inserted in an integrated pest
management. The McPhail traps at 40 units/ha baited with food-based synthetic attractants
(Ammonium acetate, Trimethylamine and Putrescine) was used in the mass trapping. The
IPM combined mass-trapping, chemical treatment (deltamethrine) and regular collect of
dropped fruits. A regular control of the traps was done to follow the evolution of the captures
thus to inform about the medfly population’s level. The impact of the mass-trapping and the
IPM on the production was evaluated by the weekly follow-up of the punctures rate. At
harvest, the control of the fruits showed that the integrated pest management ensured a better
protection than the mass trapping alone with respectively 15 and 30% of punctured fruits. So
we can conclude that mass-trapping must be a component of an IPM program to be
generalized on more important extents.

183-188

0.00 €

 

The sterile insect technique for Ceratitis capitata on citrus in Morocco
Bounfour, M., Z. Dehbi

Abstract only

189

0.00 €

 

How to measure the efficacy of a SIT programme?
Juan-Blasco, M., B. Sabater-Muñoz, M. Angel Martínez-Utrillas, M. Martínez, I. Pla, R. Argilés, J. A. Jacas, A. Urbaneja

Abstract only

190

0.00 €

 

Adress® coupled with SIT: An integrated strategy to control Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata
Alfaro, C., J. Primo, V. Navarro-Llopis

Abstract: During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two medfly control
techniques, Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and Adress®, was tested in three crops: citrus,
stone fruit and persimmon. Two thousand sterile males were released per ha and week in the
whole trial area (50.000ha, SIT area). In 3600ha, inside of the whole trial area, 24 Adress®
traps per ha were hung (SIT+Adress® area). Ten SIT+Adress® plots per each crop and 10 SIT
plots per each crop were assessed throughout the trial period. In order to evaluate the
efficacy, the male and female population was monitored from August 2008 to November
2009, injured fruit was assessed before harvest and the viability of the egg-laying was tested.
Results showed an important reduction in the medfly population in plots treated with both
techniques versus plots treated only with SIT. A reduction in the percentage of injured fruit
in SIT+Adress® plots was observed and the viability of the egg-laying was also minor. These
data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and provide the possibility to use Adress®
coupled SIT to reduce medfly population in locations with high medfly population, where
SIT is not enough to control Ceratitis capitata.

191-195

0.00 €

 

Preliminary results from an ADRESS® survey conducted in Terceira Island
(Azores) as a control method of C. capitata adults

Horta, L. D. J., M. S. R. Pimentel.,C. F. N. Macedo, F. M. B. L. Ventura, M. M. J. Azevedo, C. M. C. Filipe, B. A. Domingues, D. J. Mumford, A. M. M. Mexia

Abstract: The medfly or Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera:
Tephritidae), is a very dynamic organism due to its enormous potential for adaptability to a
wide range of potential hosts, which makes it a real and serious threat to all commercial
fruits. The INTERFRUTA and INTERFRUTA II projects (EC Interreg III-B) contributed
significantly to finding solutions to control the several phytosanitary problems that affect
fruit producers. Medfly was one of them, a subject for several surveys, always searching for
better knowledge and understanding of its population dynamics and at the same time for
evaluating fruit damage. Therefore, several traps and baits were tested to determine the most
suitable “package” (trap and bait) for monitoring adult males and females. In an attempt to
develop alternative control strategies against this insect an experiment using ADRESS® bait
stations was implemented in a 40ha area of apples, citrus, plums, araza, ficus and vineyards
where 960 stations were distributed. This experiment will last for 3 years, although, in the
first year it is possible to see a decline in C. capitata adult populations and a significant
decrease in fruit damage. In this first phase of the experiment (6 months after
implementation) the treated and untreated orchards were monitored and a survey was done
on the infestation rate on the fruits to analyze the efficacy of this new bait station.

197-205

0.00 €

 

CeraTrap, a mass trapping system for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly
Ceratitis capitata in citrus fruit crops

El Arabi, M., M. Miloudi, C. Marín, N. Sierras

Abstract: The efficacy of CeraTrap (CT), a specifically developed enzymatic hydrolyzed
protein, was evaluated against standard mass trapping (STD mass trapping) and standard
chemical treatments (Chemical STD) with field trials carried out in citrus orchards assessing
medfly captures and punctured fruit. Field trials were conducted on susceptible mandarin
trees (Citrus reticulata cv. Esbal), orange trees (Citrus sinensis cv. Washington Navel) and
clementine trees (Citrus clementina cv. Oronules) in Morocco, Italy and Spain. Field trial
results showed that CT is at least as good as those obtained with the Chemical STD or STD
mass trapping without significant differences, being able to avoid damage to fruits (on trees
and warehouse), with the advantage that the use of DDVP or other insecticide is unnecessary.

207-212

0.00 €

 

Effects of post-teneral nutrition and ginger root oil exposure on longevity and
mortality in bait treatments of sterile male Ceratitis capitata

San Andrés, V., J. Pérez-Panadés, E. Carbonell, P. Castañera, A. Urbaneja

Abstract only

213

0.00 €

 

New technique for the control of the medfly (Ceratitis capitata) using ADRESS
in citrus orchards

Mazih, A., S. Eltazi, I. Srairi, S. Sahil, H. Bouguiri, M. Miloudi, Y. Moubaraki, Y. Bourachidi, T. Elmourhir, K. Lamqadem, T. Tagrourete, B. Labyiedh

Abstract only

214

0.00 €

 

Efficiency of different traps and baits used in mass trapping of
Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Boulahia Kheder, S., W. Salleh, N. Awadi, M. Fezzani, F. Jrad

Abstract: The medfly is harmful to several fruit specie particularly the Citrus for which it’s
the major pest. The control of this pest is mainly chemical with relative effectiveness and
many undesirable effects. To reduce the use of pesticides, some alternatives are tried among
them the mass-trapping technique. This one was tried in 2007 with 2 types of lures: the
Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) and the three components ammonium acetate,
trimethylamine and putrescine (AA, TMA, P). In 2009, 2 types of traps have been tested
(Mac Phail and Moskisan) baited with (AA, TMA, P). The results shows that the lures (AA,
TMA, P) captured twice more medflies than DAP and were much more selective towards
non target insects, caught them with proportions of 3 et 74%, respectively. With the (AA,
TMA, P) lures, the rate of punctured fruits obtained at harvest was lower than with DAP.
Also, the 3 components were more practical in their use, and as costly as DAP. The
Moskisan traps had better catching performances than Mc Phail particularly when the medfly
population’s level was high. Then the combination (Moskisan trap + AA, TMA,P lures),
should be the more efficient for mass-trapping of medfly in Citrus orchards.

215-220

0.00 €

 

Mass trapping for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata
in citrus orchards in Tunisia

Mediouni-Ben Jemâa, J., B. Olfa, S. Skillman, E. Kerber

Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the mass trapping technique based on the use of
female food-attractant lure Tri-pack® and the insect growth regulators lufenuron for the
control of medfly in citrus field. These methods were used as alternative to chemical control
with malathion spraying in Washington navel orange orchards in 2006 and 2007. The
assessment of the mass trapping technique efficacy was based on adult medfly population
reduction expressed by weekly recording of male captures together with the assessment of
fruit damage at harvest. Trials were conducted using a density of 20 traps/ha. Results
indicated significant differences in male captures and fruit damage percentages between the
two tested methods and the control (malathion spraying). Concerning adult males medfly
captures, reductions of 62.86% and 47.29% were achieved respectively for the mass trapping
based on lufenuron and Tri-pack® respectively in 2007. For fruit damage assessment, results
showed reduction of 9.68% for the mass trapping based on lufenuron and 31.99% for the
mass trapping based on Tri-pack® compared to the control.

221-227

0.00 €

 

Side-effects of the most used citrus pesticides on medfly sterile males
Juan-Blasco, M., L. Planes, R. Argilés, J. A. Jacas, B. Sabater-Muñoz, A. Urbaneja

Abstract only

228

0.00 €

 

Proximity to fig trees increases medfly populations in citrus orchards
Alonso-Muñoz, A. and F. Garcia-Marí

Abstract: To study the influence of adjacent fig trees on captures of medfly adults in the
traps located in citrus orchards and to determine the amount of increase throughout the year
in trap captures considering the distance ranges to the fig trees, twenty-nine cultivated citrus
orchards were selected in the island of Ibiza (eastern Spain) and ten traps (tephi-trap with
attractant Tripack) were placed per orchard. The population of medfly was sampled weekly
in the 230 traps between April and November for four years, 2005 to 2008, and the amount
of captures was compared according to the distance to the fig trees. The overall abundance
and population trend along the year of medfly captures in the island of Ibiza varied among
the four years sampled, with maximum levels observed in 2007. The population trend
showed an increase between June and August, followed by another increase more important
in September-October. The traps located within a distance of 50 meters from a fig tree
showed a 50-100% increase in total number of flies captured per trap and year, compared
with traps located at more than 50m. This increase in captures was especially important, in
absolute values, in September and October. All the distance ranges considered (50-75m, 75-
100m, 100-150m, 150-200m and >200m) showed always lower captures compared with
traps located at < 50m.

229-233

0.00 €

 

Activity of Cyt1Aa protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) subsp. israelensis
against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)

Vidal-Quist, J. C., A. Urbaneja, P. Castañera, J. González-Cabrera

Abstract only

234

0.00 €

 

Introduction of new pests on citrus in Morocco/ 1970- 2010
Abbassi, M.

Abstract only

237

0.00 €

 

Pesticide management in some citrus orchards in the Souss-Massa region and
residue contents in the fruits

Hormatallah, A., M. Salouane, A. Ait-Oubahou, R. Salghi

Abstract only

238

0.00 €

 

Soil mediated conservation bio-control of Kelly’s citrus thrips
Pezothrips kellyanus pupae

Crisp, P., G. Baker

Abstract: Kelly’s citrus thrips (KCT), Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall), emerged as a pest of
citrus in the Riverland and Sunraysia districts in the early 1990’s and later became an
economic pest in the Riverina and Western Australia. In earlier research soil-dwelling
predatory mites were identified as potential biological control agents of KCT. Populations of
predatory mites in Riverland soils were positively correlated to soil organic carbon levels.
Emergence traps were used to assess the emergence of KCT adults from soils in citrus
orchards where composted soil amendments had been applied. Additionally, laboratory trials
were conducted to elucidate the potential cause(s) for any differences in KCT pupal
mortality and resultant adult emergence. In field and laboratory trials increased mortality of
KCT pupae was demonstrated where the population density of predatory mites was increased
through application of composted green waste to increase soil carbon levels. While this
research does not definitively prove that populations of soil-borne predatory mites are
responsible for the increased mortality of KCT pupae, it shows that there is a close
correlation between predatory mite population densities and KCT mortality. At the least, the
density and diversity of soil borne predatory mites is a good indicator group for increased
mortality of KCT larvae.

239-246

0.00 €

 

Minimizing the use of pesticides to control Pezothrips kellyanus and their
side-effects on natural enemies

Tena, A., J. Catalán, C. Monzó, J. A. Jacas, A. Urbaneja

Abstract: Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) is a new key pest of oranges and lemons in the
Mediterranean Basin. We monitored both nymph and adult thrips populations from petal fall
to the end of the susceptible period in a commercial orange orchard to determine the number
of treatments necessary to keep thrips populations below the economic threshold. The
efficacy of two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and spinosad) against P. kellyanus as well as their
side effects on natural enemies were evaluated. At petal fall, the percentage of fruit occupied
by P. kellyanus nymphs exceeded the economic threshold and insecticides were applied.
After this treatment, the threshold was not reached again and, therefore, only one treatment
was necessary to control the thrips. All treatments reduced the percentage of both occupied
and damaged fruit. Both insecticides decreased the numbers of natural enemies.

247-253

0.00 €

 

Prospects of integrated pest management of Phyllocnistis citrella (Stain.)
in Punjab, Pakistan

Sohail, A., R. R. Khan, H. Haider, F. Ahmad

Abstract: Citrus leaf miner (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton) is a very serious insect
pest of citrus nursery and groves. In order to evaluate Integrated Pest Management of CLM
under conditions of major citrus growing areas in Punjab, Pakistan, a project has been
launched by financial support from Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan. The
results are based on data taken during May 2009 to January 2010. The studies on larval
population on nursery and grove at various sites has shown high incidence of CLM on
lemon, followed by Kinnow. CLM was also present on other varieties in fairly high number
during May-June to September, 2009. Regarding relationship of mines serving as focal point
for disease it was observed that 0.03-0.05% leaves had mines probed by canker. Among
cryomazin (1.6g/l), acetamiprid 20 SL, triflumuron 20 EC, lufenuron 5 EC, flufenoxuron 5
EC, bifenthrin 10 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC, spinosad 240 SC, emmamectin benzoate 1.9 EC
0.1%, only spinosad proved effective for a maximum of 10 days. Field biology of CLM on
lemon showed that it was within range (6-22 days) of the reported time of its development.
The possibility of control measures compatible with IPM is discussed.

255-264

0.00 €

 

Effect of six treatments on reducing citrus flower moth Prays citri (Millière) attacks
Tagrourete, T., A. Mazih, I. Srairi, B. Labyiedh, A. Taatmant

Abstract only

265

0.00 €

 

Citrus IPM in Morocco: Current status
Mazih, A.

Abstract only

266

0.00 €

 

The biological control of Kelly’s citrus thrips in Australian citrus orchards
G. J. Baker, M. A. Keller, P. Crisp, D. Jackman, D. Barbour and S. Purvis

Abstract: Kelly’s citrus thrips (KCT) (Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall)) (Thysanoptera:
Thripidae) has emerged in the 1990’s as a serious citrus pest in southern Australia, New
Zealand and parts of the Mediterranean Basin. The feeding of KCT on young and mature
fruit causes scurfing (or halo) marking and rind bleaching, respectively. These blemishes
reduce fruit quality, thereby reducing the packout of export quality fruit and rendering some
fruit unsaleable. Information about KCT biology and ecology has been scarce, and in
Australia the management of KCT has been limited to the use of several insecticides. Having
established that KCT pupate in the soil below the citrus canopy, we initiated a search for
both arboreal and soil-dwelling natural enemies with the aim of developing an IPM system
for KCT in Australian citrus orchards. The abundance of KCT in the canopy is inversely
related to the mortality of the soil-dwelling life-stages of KCT. The study has identified a
range of soil dwelling mite species that are either demonstrated or likely predators of KCT.
The diversity and abundance of these predators and the incidence of KCT in study orchards
is examined. The potential implications for the IPM of KCT are discussed.

267-274

0.00 €

 

Agronomic outcomes of IPM control of citrus thrips in Riverland soils
Crisp, P., G. Baker, S. Wheeler

Abstract: SARDI has undertaken trials with compost mulch, grape mark and animal manure
at sites on three citrus orchards in South Australia for a number of years. The trials were
established to evaluate the potential of soil amendments as part of an integrated management
program for Kelly’s citrus thrips. Experimental sites were designed to obtain best possible
data for pest management within budget limitations, subsequently, the agronomic and
environmental data was in some cases restricted to one site and selected representative
treatments. A range of data was collected, increasing fruit yields, fruit, soil, leaf, and water
quality measures and biological changes, and the potential for water savings assessed. The
field trials involved application of various rates of compost to crops, ranging from
40-200m3ha-1 for compost mulch, 100-200m3 ha-1 for grape mark, and 10-40m3 ha-1 for animal manure.
The recycled green waste and composted animal manure have provided significant pest
management and agronomic benefits through suppression of KCT and improved yield and
fruit size. There were considerable economic net benefits from every type of trial application
to citrus at both sites over the three year period assessed. For example, for every dollar
invested in an application of 40m3 ha-1 compost mulch at Loxton North, a return of about $5
dollars was realised. Returns ranged from $1.90 to $5.38. There also is the benefit of
improved water and nutrient efficiencies that could provide significant cost savings. The
longevity of these benefits remains unknown and needs to be further evaluated, but is likely
to be greater than the three year duration of these trials, and five years used in estimating
returns for high rate applications. Whilst the grape mark treatments improved yields, and are
cheaper than the composted green waste, the level of suppression of KCT was not as good as
that provided by the compost, and the increased acidity that resulted from the high phosphate
levels associated with the grape mark treatments could result in reduced quality. It seems that
higher levels of application for compost mulch create more sustainable outcomes; however
this does not apply for grape mark or animal manure.

275-283

0.00 €

 

Population trend and fruit damage of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera:
Thripidae) in citrus groves in Valencia (Spain)

Navarro-Campos, C., A. Aguilar, F. Garcia-Marí

Abstract: Damage produced by thrips (Thysanoptera) has been traditionally considered
rare or absent in Spanish citrus orchards. However, Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) was first
observed in Alzira (Valencia province) in 2007 damaging citrus fruits. Since then, the pest
has extended to other citrus areas in eastern Spain causing important damage. Worldwide, P.
kellyanus has emerged during the last decade as a pest of citrus fruits. Its presence and fruitscarring
damage in citrus orchards has been recorded since the 1990s in Australia, New
Zealand and some Mediterranean countries. Nowadays, some basic aspects of its biology,
which are necessary for the adequate management of the pest, still remain poorly understood.
In order to study the relationship between the seasonal trend of its different development
stages and fruit damage, P. kellyanus populations were monitored in several citrus orchards
using different sampling methods (aerial and ground sticky traps, Berlese funnels and visual
inspection), during 2008 and 2009. Seasonal trends in relative abundances of different
development stages were studied in oranges, lemons and jasmines. Our results show that
fruit damage is strongly correlated with number of larvae on young fruits and poorly
correlated with number of adults on flowers or young fruits. The utility of different sampling
methods to estimate the number of generations and to predict the damage to fruits is
discussed. Several species of soil dwelling predatory mites were identified in the soil around
thrips-infested citrus and jasmine.

285-292

0.00 €

 

Effects of chemical control against Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton on the survey of
the aphid parasitoids

Guenaoui, Y.

Abstract only

293

0.00 €

 

Evolution of the leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) - Mediterranean fruit fly
(Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) pest complex in a citrus orchard stressed by mass trapping

Chouih, S., L. Allal-Benfekih, Z. E. Djazouli

Abstract only

294

0.00 €

 

Population dynamics of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella
(Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in western Algeria

Boualem, M., A. Berkani, C. Villemant

Abstract only

295

0.00 €

 

Impact of plant treatments on population’s dynamics of Ceratitis capitata
(Diptera, Trypetidae), Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and
Aleurotrixus flocosus (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) in a Clementine orchard
located in the Mitidja region (Algeria)

Djazouli, Z. E., R. Chaichi, L. Allal-Benfekih

Abstract only

296

0.00 €

 

Multi-media guide on the pests of citrus fruits in Morocco
Boutaleb, J. A., A. Bouamri, T. Benziane

Abstract only

297

0.00 €

 

The effects of standard and new generation spray oils repeated application on
“Tarocco” orange tree productivity in Sicily

Conti, F., R. Fisicaro

Abstract: Petroleum spray oils are widely used on citrus pest in Integrated Pest Management
programs, but they may have side effects on trees development and fruits quality. Recently,
new oil formulations have been introduced in Italy for use on citrus. Four oils with various
50% distillation temperatures, oil 213, oil 226, oil 230 and oil 230 EC (Emulsifiable
Concentrate), were applied in consecutive years (2000-2007) to a early-ripening “Tarocco”
orange in different seasons (winter and summer) to observe their chronic effects on yield and
acute effects on fruit’s external quality. The treatments were applied each year to trees at
rates of 1.6-1.8% of active ingredient (v/v) in two experimental plots (“A” and “B”). The
winter application, in the plot “A”, did not cause statistical reduction in the yield (5-years
average) compared with the untreated. In plot “B”, data were not sufficient for a multi-year
statistical analysis; nevertheless in the 2003, the winter application of oil 230, oil 230 EC and
oil 213 did not reduce the yield. The summer application did not reduce statistically the yield
(7-years average in the plot “A” and 4-year avg. in the plot “B”). In applications repeated for
5 years, the summer treatments produced permanent marks on fruit rind in 3 years (2003,
2005, 2006), in coincidence with very high temperature (> 42°C), particularly when the oil
230 was utilized. This kind of phytotoxicity did not cause a severe downgrading of the fruits.

299-305

0.00 €

 

Conservation biological control on citrus
Vercher, R., A. Domínguez Gento, S. González, E. Bergés

Abstract only

309

0.00 €

 

Agricultural domains biocontrol program and perspectives for development
Nia, M.

Abstract only

310

0.00 €

 

Biological control of diaspidid scales Aspidiotus nerii Bouché and
Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) by means of commercial Aphytis melinus DeBach
(Hym., Aphelinidae) releases: basis for an IPM strategy in Spanish citrus

Olivas, J., A. Lucas, J. Calvo, J. E. Belda

Abstract: The California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskel) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae),
and the Oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii Bouche (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are considered
key pests of mandarin and lemon trees in Spanish citrus orchards, respectively. These pests
are typically controlled throughout the application of broad spectrum pesticides such us
organophosphates and insect growth regulators which result harmful for other natural
enemies principally coccinellids. To develop a feasible and reliable IPM strategy in these
crops, the control of these scales must be afforded without disturbing the natural control of
several secondary pests, avoiding the use of the above-mentioned pesticides. Since 2008,
Koppert Biological Systems is mass rearing the parasitic wasp Aphytis melinus DeBach
(Hym., Aphelinidae) in Spain. This availability has made possible the realization of
commercial scale trials aimed in the implementation of this parasitic wasp as a biological
control agent for controlling A. aurantii and A. nerii by means of inoculative-augmentative
releases. These trials have been carried out together with the Agriculture Consejería of
Murcia. The tested strategy is similar to other existing in other countries where this parasitic
wasp is widely implemented such as Australia, USA and South Africa. However, the
agronomic, climatic conditions, pest incidence and natural enemies are different to those in
the Mediterranean countries.
In this work we describe the strategy used for the implementation of A. melinus, showing the
timing and rates for the releases in several commercial orchards which were determined
under the criteria of professional crop advisors and growers based on the initial infestations
and the management of the crop.
The results have revealed that A. melinus can be used as the base of biological control-based
IPM programs for A. aurantii and A. nerii control in citrus orchards. Its implementation
could increase the use of this control method in Spain and would likely have the same effect
in other production areas.

311-316

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Side effects of pesticides on Aphytis melinus DeBach adults and young instars
Zappalà, L., A. Biondi, G. Siscaro

Abstract: The evaluation of side effects on natural enemies both as direct mortality and as
short and long-term sublethal alterations of their physiology and behaviour is strongly
recommended when using chemical compounds in the framework of Integrated Pest
Management. Trials have been conducted to evaluate the effects of two insecticides on adults
and young instars of the ectoparasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera:
Aphelinidae).The compounds tested were a narrow-range mineral oil and the insect growth
regulator pyriproxyfen. Laboratory tests were carried out in order to measure the mortality
on adults and young instars, the effects on fertility and sex-ratio of the progeny as well as the
residual toxicity in terms of capacity of adults to parasitize treated hosts compared to
untreated ones in a choice and a no-choice test. The results obtained in the trials highlighted
that mineral oil causes very high mortality of adult parasitoids, while a lower toxicity was
recorded on young instars and their progeny. The parasitization level observed on treated
hosts was significantly lower than on untreated control both in the choice and in the nochoice
test. Pyriproxyfen proved to be less toxic than mineral oil on adults without any
reduction of fertility of survived females. However on young instars the same compound was
more toxic, with a significant reduction of progeny produced by the adults emerged from the
treated instars. The parasitization level on treated hosts was lower than on untreated control,
with significant differences in the choice test and not significant ones in the no-choice test.
None of the insecticides tested significantly affected the sex-ratio of the F1.

317-323

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Comparison of the effect of soap, kaolin and release of coccinellid larvae on aphids
(Hemiptera: Aphididae) population and their natural enemies in citrus

Smaili, M. C., H. Boudraim, J. Wadjinny, F. Gaboune, R. Benkirane, A. Blenzar

Abstract only

324

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Comparative impact of Spinosad and Malathion on the temporal evolution of
parasitism caused by Semielacher petiolatus Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae),
a specific parasitoid of the citrus leafminer

R. Ridha, B. Chermiti

Abstract: The study of the effect of two insecticides (Malathion and Spinosad) used for
chemical control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera :
Tephritidae) in citrus orchards, on the parasite complex associated with the citrus leaf miner
Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae) including Semielacher petiolatus
Girault (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae), is shown in laboratory and field in Bou Argoub and
Zaouiet Djedidi at Cap Bon of Tunisia. Regular monitoring in citrus orchards of the two
insecticides shows that the studied parameters, such as rates of parasitism and “host-feeding”
generated by natural enemies and S. petiolatus, are greater in the Spinosad-treated orchard
than with Malathion-treated orchards, with a difference of up to 41%. Experiments
conducted in the laboratory showed that Malathion was probably more toxic than Spinosad
to larvae and adults of S .petiolatus.

325-336

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Predation of Zodarion sp. (Araneae: Zodariidae) upon the invasive ant
Linepithema humile (Mayr)

Juan-Blasco, M., Ó. Mollá, P. Castañera, S. Pekar, A. Urbaneja, C. Monzó

Abstract only

337

0.00 €

 

Parasitoids complex of Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Homoptera: Triozidae),
the African citrus psyllid, in Cameroon

Tamesse, J. L.

Abstract only

338

0.00 €

 

Note on an indigenous and imported natural enemies in citrus orchards in
Morocco: diversity and benefit impact

Abbassi, M., M. C. Smaili, A. Sekkat, A. Mazih, M. Nia, A. Rizqui, B. Tijani

Abstract only

339

0.00 €

 

Mortality factors of citrus pest Ceratitis capitata in south west Morocco: case of
involvement of the argan myrmecofauna

EL Keroumi, A., K. Naamani, A. Dahbi, X. Cerdà, R. Boulay

Abstract only

340

0.00 €

 

Efficacy of two methodologies to exclude ants from citrus canopies
Juan-Blasco, M., A. Tena, P. Vanaclocha, A. Urbaneja, C. Monzó

Abstract: Ants have a positive effect on populations of California red scale, Aonidiella
aurantii (Maskell), in citrus. Previous studies have shown that the presence of Argentine ant,
Linepithema humile (Mayr), as well as the complex of native Mediterranean ant species,
Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) and Lasius grandis Forel, increase the densities of A. aurantii
at harvest. Sticky barriers have been successfully used to exclude these ant species from
citrus canopies. However, this method is too laborious to be applied on large areas. In this
study, the efficacy of an insecticidal paint based on chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a microencapsulated
formulation (Inesfly IGR FITO©) to exclude ants was evaluated. Its efficacy
was compared to sticky barriers (Tangle-Trap® Insect Trap Coating, Tanglefoot). Our field
results, showed that a single application of Inesfly IGR FITO© in April excluded L. humile,
L. grandis and P. pallidula from citrus canopies along the season. Furthermore, the exclusion
of L. grandis and P. pallidula significantly reduced the percentage of downgraded fruit by
presence of A. aurantii.

341-344

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Influence of ant-exclusion on generalist predators in a citrus orchard
Marras, P. M., L. Loru, A. Sassu, F. Sanna, R. A. Pantaleoni

Abstract: Formicids have been observed to protect honeydew-producing Homoptera from
their natural enemies by disturbing or killing parasitoids and predators, thereby reducing
natural enemy effectiveness. In field studies carried out over two growing seasons (1998-
1999) in an organic citrus orchard in Sardinia, Italy, sticky trunk barriers were used to
exclude ants from orange tree canopies in order to enhance the biological control of the
mealybug Planococcus citri Risso. The influence of ant-exclusion on the abundance of four
groups of generalist predators (spiders, true bugs, lacewings and ladybirds) was examined.
Predators and ants were collected every ten days, on randomly selected fruits, for about five
months per year. Four species of ants were found and Lasius niger (L.) was the most
common species (> 80%). The total number of generalist predators was significantly higher
in the ant-excluded plot relative to the undisturbed one (P < 0.000). The same result, with the
only exclusion of Neuroptera (P = 0.1022), was obtained considering each predator group
singularly.

345-350

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Ant species associated to tree canopy in citrus orchards
in the southern region of Portugal

Zina, V., C. Soares, H. Laranjo, J. C. Franco

Abstract only

351

0.00 €

 

Biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly
Argov, Y., Y. Gazit

Abstract only

352

0.00 €

 

Compatibility of using Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus
(Acari: Phytoseiidae) to control Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)
with drench applications of imidacloprid on clementine nurseries

Sá Argolo, P., S. Santiago, Ó. Mollá, N. Banyuls, J. A. Jacas, A. Urbaneja

Abstract only

353

0.00 €

 

Interspecific competition by Diachasmimorpha tryoni and Diachasmimorpha
longicaudata (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) on Ceratitis capitata
(Diptera, Tephritidae), in laboratory conditions

Aboussaid, H., D. S. Martins, S. El-Messoussi, B. Sabater-Muñoz, F. Beitia

Abstract only

354

0.00 €

 

Nutritional state and food sources of Aphytis melinus in the field
Pekas, A., A. Tena, F. L. Wäckers, F. Garcia-Marí

Abstract: We used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the
nutritional state and food sources used by Aphytis melinus in the field. We compared the
overall sugar content and the glucose-fructose ratio between field-collected parasitoids and
individuals that received reference feeding treatments in the laboratory. Five out of twelve
field-collected individuals were characterized as “fed”. Moreover, they contained di- and
trisaccharides like erlose, melezitose, stachyose and raffinose that are typically present in
hemipteran honeydews. Given that the laboratory reared parasitoids did not synthesize
oligosaccharides after sugar feeding, this results suggest that adult A. melinus uses
hemipteran honeydew as a food source in the field.

355-359

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Quality control in Aphytis melinus mass rearing for the biological control of
Aonidiella aurantii

Mazih, A., A. Chaib, T. Tagrourete, I. Srairi, K. Ait Lamqadem, A. Errimali

Abstract only

360

0.00 €

 

Quality control in Leptomastix dactylopii mass rearing for the biological control
of Planococcus citri

Mazih, A., A. Chaib, T. Tagrourete, I. Srairi, Y. Rhioui

Abstract only

361

0.00 €

 

Survey of parasitoids of the citrus red scale in the south of Portugal
Pinto, A., L. Neto, C. Soares, J. C. Franco

Abstract only

362

0.00 €

 

Survey of Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of
Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae) in argan trees in southwest region of Morocco

Aboussaid, H, S. El- Messoussi, K. Oufdou

Abstract only

363

0.00 €

 

Research of alternatives to chemical control of California red scale
Aonidiella aurantii Maskell (1878) and impact on A. melinus DeBach
in citrus orchards on the Gharb area (Morocco)

Nafide, M., A. J. Boutaleb, A. Rizqi, A. Mazih

Abstract only

364

0.00 €

 

Current situation of citrus pests and diseases in the Mediterranean basin
Tena, A., F. Garcia-Marí

Abstract: Herein, we present the results of a questionnaire aimed to determine the present
situation of the citrus pests and diseases in different countries of the Mediterranean basin.
California red scale Aonidiella aurantii, the medfly Ceratitis capitata and the aphids (Aphis
spiraecola and Aphis gossypii) are nowadays, as four years ago, the main citrus pests.
Lepidosaphes gloverii and Pezothrips kellyanus have increased their pest status in the last
four years. Finally, the fungi Phytophtora spp. and Penicillium spp. are considered the most
important diseases.

365-368

0.00 €

 
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