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IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 58, 2010

 

IOBC-WPRS Bulletin Vol. 58, 2010

Working Group "Benefits and Risks of Exotic Biological Control Agents".
Proceedings of the first meeting at Engelberg (Switzerland), 6 - 10 September, 2009.
Edited by Dirk Babendreier, Alexandre Aebi, Marc Kenis & Helen Roy.
ISBN 978-92-9067-232-6 [xi + 201 pp.]

 

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Toward a Noah’s Ark for native ladybirds in Belgium?
Tim Adriaens, Gilles San Martin, Louis Hautier, Etienne Branquart & Dirk Maes

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1-3

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What can endosymbionts tell about the Harmonia axyridis invasion?
Alexandre Aebi & Renate Zindel

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5-6

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Position of Harmonia axyridis in aphidophagous guilds in the Czech Republic
Olga M. C. C. Ameixa, Alois Honěk, Zdenka Martinkova & Pavel Kindlmann

Abstract: Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in the Czech Republic in 2006. Here we present
an analysis of its degree of dominance within aphidophagous guilds and of its association with
particular habitats in 2008. The dominance - affinity of different ladybird species towards the
habitats where they were found - was studied using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA).
The biplot shows a clear invasive pattern in the year studied. In the present study, H. axyridis
was one of the most abundant ladybirds, especially in trees and shrubs. Although it is too early to
make firm conclusions about the role that this ladybird has on the native communities, it is
worrying that it became one of the most abundant species only three years after its establishment
in the Czech Republic.

7-14

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Overwintering ability of European populations of Harmonia axyridis
Nick Berkvens, Jeff S. Bale, Dirk Berkvens, Luc Tirry & Patrick De Clercq

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15-17

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Looking beyond the spots: inspiring the public to record ladybirds
Peter M. J. Brown, Remy L. Ware & Helen E. Roy

No abstract

19-22

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Is Harmonia axyridis a marginal host for the parasitoid wasp Dinocampus coccinellae?
Morphological and molecular genetic analyses

Joseph M. Burling, Remy L. Ware & Lori Lawson Handley

Abstract: It has previously been suggested that Harmonia axyridis is a marginal host for the
parasitoid wasp, Dinocampus coccinellae. To investigate this further, we performed
morphological and molecular genetic analyses of wasps from Japanese and UK populations of
Coccinella septempunctata and H. axyridis. Wasps that emerged from H. axyridis were smaller
than those from C. septempunctata, and there was no genetic evidence of host specialisation. Our
data therefore supports the hypothesis that H. axyridis is a marginal host, which has implications
for natural and biological control of this invasive species.

23-25

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Modeling Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) interactions within the
aphidophagous guild

Richard F. Comont, Richard Harrington, Owen T. Lewis, Beth V. Purse & Helen E. Roy

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27-28

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Ladybird beetle invasions: traits of invasive species
A. F. G. Dixon & J.-L. Hemptinne

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29

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Dynamics and impact of Coccinella septempunctata as another invasive ladybird beetle
in North America

Edward W. Evans

Abstract: Harmonia axyridis is the second species of Coccinellidae recently to cause much alarm
in North America as an invasive non-native species. The first was Coccinella septempunctata,
which spread (both naturally and with human assistance) from the early 1970s through the early
1990s to attain high densities throughout North America. This establishment and rapid range
expansion is striking; numerous attempts previously to introduce C. septempunctata to North
America as a generalist biocontrol agent (classical biological control) seemingly had failed. I
present a brief account here of C. septempunctata in North America, with focus on possible nontarget
effects beyond pest (aphid) suppression. I consider in particular ideas and evidence
associated with four major mechanisms hypothesized to result in adverse effects on native
coccinellids: exploitative competition among larvae, intraguild predation, habitat compression/
shift, and interspecific hybridization. These mechanisms need to be evaluated further. The
challenge has intensified with the establishment now of H. axyridis, which may join with
C. septempunctata in having far reaching effects in North America.

31-37

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Consequences of hybridization between invasive and biocontrol individuals of the
harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis in France

Benoît Facon, Laurent Crespin, Anne Loiseau, Eric Lombaert, Alexandra Magro & Arnaud Estoup

No abstract

39-42

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Monitoring Harmonia axyridis intraguild predation on native coccinellids in the field
Louis Hautier, Jean-Claude Grégoire, Pierre Callier, Gilles San Martin, Jean-Pierre Jansen & Jean-Christophe de Biseau

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43-44

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Predation behaviour of Harmonia axyridis on Adalia bipunctata
Louis Hautier, Etienne Branquart, Jean-Pierre Jansen & Jean-Claude Grégoire

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45-46

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Harmonia axyridis as an economic pest of wine grapes in the U.S.:
Progress in developing an IPM program and potential impact in Europe

William D. Hutchison, Tederson L. Galvan, Eric C. Burkness & Robert L. Koch

No abstract

47-52

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Intraguild predation between Harmonia axyridis and the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus
Brecht Ingels & Patrick De Clercq

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53-54

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Intraguild predation between Harmonia axyridis and European ladybirds:
do egg surface chemicals provide protection in some native species?

Angelos Katsanis, Marc Kenis & Dirk Babendreier

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55-56

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Impact of Harmonia axyridis on European ladybirds: which species are most at risk?
Marc Kenis, Tim Adriaens, Peter Brown, Angelos Katsanis, Johan Van Vlaenderen, Rene Eschen, Laurence Golaz, Renate Zindel, Gilles San Martin y Gomez, Dirk Babendreier & Remy Ware

No abstract

57-59

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Can IGP be responsible for the success of Harmonia axyridis?
Pavel Kindlmann

Abstract: There is no doubt that Harmonia axyridis has been successful in suppressing many
native species in North America and subsequently in Europe. It is not quite clear, however, what
are the ecological mechanisms that enabled it to be so successful – is it higher fecundity, more
generations per year, or competitive superiority, which enable it to suppress native species? Here
I critically examine, whether its’ competitive superiority, lending it an advantage in intraguild
interactions, can be an important factor. Empirical data show that the incidence of intraguild
predation (IGP) between ladybird species seems to be very low under natural conditions. A
simple population dynamics model, however, shows that despite this, IGP might play a
substantial role in the success of H. axyridis under some circumstances.

61-63

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Harmonia axyridis: six-legged alligator or lethal fugu?
Oldřich Nedvěd, Plamen Kalushkov, Xenia Fois, Dita Ungerová & Adéla Rozsypalová

No abstract

65-68

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The ecology of Harmonia axyridis in its native range
Naoya Osawa

Abstract: Harmonia axyridis now distributes at temperate zone of the Northern and Southern
hemisphere. Furthermore, H. axyridis is believed to be giving large negative impacts on the
aphidophagous guilds at the invaded area. However, H. axyridis gives only small impact on
aphidophagous guilds, with coexisting with other predators, at northeastern Asia where is the
native range. This may be largely caused by the species-specific characteristics of population
mechanisms as a predator, and the native habitats, in H. axyridis. In Japan, H. axyridis, with high
ability of prey searching and reproduction, and with the density-dependent and self-regulatory
population regulation through various types of cannibalism, maintains a stable population in
heterogeneous and temporal habitats. Therefore, the habitat heterogeneity may play an important
role on the coexistence of other predators with H. axyridis at the native range.

69-73

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Establishment of Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands: successful aphid control
and/or ecological disaster?

C. Lidwien Raak-van den Berg, Peter W. de Jong & Joop C. van Lenteren

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75-76

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Assessing the potential use of Coccipolipus hippodamiae, a sexually transmitted
ecto-parasite, as a control agent of invasive populations of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis

Emma L. Rhule, Michael E. N. Majerus, Francis M. Jiggins & Remy L. Ware

Abstract: Invasive populations of Harmonia axyridis pose a threat native biodiversity. The
potential use of the sexually transmitted ectoparasite, Coccipolipus hippodamiae, has been
investigated as a method of population suppression, filling the role of natural enemies in the
native range. Here it is shown that C. hippodamiae is able to establish, reproduce and induce
female sterility in a novel host. Additionally, host switching by C. hippodamiae from known
hosts to H. axyridis has been recorded in wild Polish populations. Further research must be
conducted in order to accurately assess whether C. hippodamiae should be released as a biocontrol
agent of British H. axyridis populations.

77-80

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Changes in coccinellid fauna monitored by light traps
Hans Peter Ravn & Jan Pedersen

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81

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Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on Harmonia axyridis
Riddick Eric Wellington

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82

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Encounters with an alien: Harmonia axyridis in Europe
Helen E. Roy & Peter M. J. Brown

No abstract

83-86

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Sex wars and alien invaders
Helen E. Roy

Abstract: The susceptibility of Adalia bipunctata, infected with either Wolbachia, Rickettsia or
Spiroplasma, to the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana was examined. Individuals infected with
Wolbachia were no more susceptible to the fungal pathogen than uninfected (normal sex ratio)
individuals. In contrast, ladybirds infected with either Rickettsia or Spiroplasma were more
susceptible to B. bassiana. The evolutionary implications of these results are briefly discussed.

87-90

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Invasive alien species in Europe: a review of the patterns, trends and impacts
reported by the DAISIE project

David B. Roy

Abstract: Early warning and prevention of the harmful impact of alien species on ecosystems is a
fundamental requirement of the European Biodiversity Strategy and the EU Action Plan to 2010
and Beyond. In the absence of reliable regional analyses however, the European states have been
unable to tackle this issue strategically. As part of the Europe response, a pan-European inventory
of invasive alien species has been developed through the DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive
Inventories for Europe) project. The DAISIE database has collated information on over 11,000
introduced species of fungi, plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates in Europe, and of more than
50,000 records of introductions. The rate of invasion for most species groups has become more
rapid over the last century and clear differences in pathways of introduction have been identified.
Most invasive plants and associated invasive invertebrates arrive in Europe via horticulture and
agriculture, most vertebrates are deliberately release or escape from captivity and marine
invasions are closely linked to shipping patterns. DAISIE has a key role within ongoing
developments to tackle invasive alien species in Europe and is potentially a model for other
continents which currently have much less detailed information on their alien biota.

91-95

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The history of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas 1773) in Norway
May-Guri Sæthre, Arnstein Staverløkk & Trond Hofsvang

Abstract: The history of Harmonia axyridis and a summary of surveillance and research in
Norway till June 2009 are given. H. axyridis was assessed as a potential bio-control agent for use
in Norwegian greenhouses in 2001. The risk of establishment outdoors was assessed too high and
no permission was given. The first record in Norway was in 2006 when one adult was found on
Thuja sp. imported from the Netherlands. In late 2007 and throughout 2008 adults were found
indoors/outdoors at several locations in the Oslo-area. Establishment outdoors became evident.
Observations in Aust-Agder, Vestfold and Trondheim revealed further spread/introduction to new
areas. The bioclimatic potential of H. axyridis was assessed in 2007 by the aid of CLIMEX using
national agrometeorological data, showing that suboptimal microclimates for the species can be
found in the coastal areas of the south. In late 2008 a web-site was launched aiming to engage the
public to submit observations on-line and has contributed to monitor development of the species
across the country. Competition experiments with H. axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata in
2008/2009 showed that only H. axyridis eggs and larvae survived when the two species were
mixed.

97-104

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Harmonia axyridis as a model for predator adaptation to chemically defended prey
John J. Sloggett, Kenneth F. Haynes, John J. Obrycki & Andrew J. Davis

Abstract: Harmonia axyridis is a stronger intraguild predator of other ladybirds than are many
other ladybird species. A correlate of this is that H. axyridis is better at resisting the toxic effects
of the alkaloids of allospecific ladybird prey. This makes H. axyridis an ideal species with which
to investigate the adaptations of predators to feeding on potentially toxic chemically defended
prey. In this paper we discuss recent studies that, for the first time, have thrown light on the
nature of and mechanisms involved in H. axyridis alkaloid resistance. We focus on the finding
that H. axyridis is relatively poorly adapted to prey containing novel alkaloids in areas where it is
exotic and on the fate of suitable and unsuitable prey alkaloids after ingestion by the intraguild
predator.

105-113

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Colour pattern polymorphism and chemical defence in Harmonia axyridis
John J. Sloggett

Abstract: Chemical defence has long been considered to play some sort of role in relation to
colour pattern polymorphism in ladybirds. A recent idea is that intraspecific variation in colour or
pattern is an indicator of the strength (i.e. concentration) of defensive chemicals in the individual.
This has received support from a recent study showing that in non-melanic Harmonia axyridis the
proportion of the elytra that is orange is positively correlated with the concentration of the
alkaloid harmonine. In this paper I discuss palatability experiments with H. axyridis designed to
test whether the finding can be extended across colour pattern morphs, specifically whether
melanic H. axyridis are less well defended than non-melanics. Feeding experiments using spiders
(Araneus diadematus) and earwigs (Forficula auricularia) gave no indication that melanics were
less well defended than non-melanics. However, the spiders exhibited a generally high level of
acceptance of ladybird prey, making the detection of intraspecific differences in prey palatability
unlikely, while data from earwigs is currently of too small a scale to be unequivocal. Further
palatability tests are required as well as additional analytical work covering the full range of H.
axyridis
morphs and defensive chemicals.

115-123

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The establishment and rapid spread of an alien invasive lady beetle:
Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in southern Africa, 2001–2009

Riaan Stals

Abstract: That Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a grievous alien invasive species,
has established in southern Africa and is spreading though the region is presently not well known
outside South Africa. The first known record for the region is a capture from 2001. Establishment
is hypothesised to have taken place in the south-western part of the Western Cape Province. The
geographic spread of the insect through southern Africa has been recorded since 2006 and
retrospectively, with information largely obtained through citizen science. Until the end of 2009,
the beetle has spread widely through the more temperate southern and higher-lying eastern and
east-central parts of South Africa, and has also been recorded from Lesotho. In 2009 it has
additionally been recorded from localities in the hotter, drier interior of South Africa for the first
time. The invader has been found in a large variety of natural and transformed landscapes and
habitats. The ecological effects it may exert may ultimately be unknowable because of the
absence of baseline information on coccinellid community ecology in southern Africa.

125-132

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Temperature dependent development of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Col.: Coccinellidae)
on two prey: Aphis fabae Scopoli and Dysaphis crataegi (Kaltenbach) (Hem.: Aphididae)

George J. Stathas, Dimitris Kontodimas, Filitsa Karamaouna & Stavros Kampouris

Abstract: Development of the predator Harmonia axyridis was studied at four constant
temperatures (15°, 20°, 25° and 30°C) on two prey, Aphis fabae and Dysaphis crataegi, in
laboratory conditions. Total developmental time of the predator at 15°C and 30°C was shorter on
D. crataegi (76.7 and 16.6 days, respectively) than on A. fabae (90.2 and 18.3 days respectively) but
did not differ significantly between the species at 20°C (36.8-38.9 days) or 25°C (24.0-24.9 days).
The thermal constant (K) of development of H. axyridis from egg to adult was 258.2 day-degrees
above a lower developmental threshold of 11.2°C, on A. fabae, and 243.6 day-degrees above a
lower developmental threshold of 10.8°C, on D. crataegi.

133-136

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Entomopathogenic fungi found in field populations of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis
Tove Steenberg & Susanne Harding

Abstract: A survey of natural enemies in larvae (including prepupae), pupae and adults of the
harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, showed that several species of entomopathogenic fungi
could be isolated from samples of the three life stages collected at different times of year. In
2007-2008 Isaria farinosa was the most prevalent species in larvae and pupae. In contrast, in the
autumn of 2009 Beauveria bassiana was the dominant species in larvae, prepupae and pupae. The
prevalence of fungus infection varied greatly between locations, life stages and time of year. We
also report the finding of the parasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens from an adult H. axyridis
collected in Germany.

137-141

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The harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) in Denmark: spread, phenology,
colour forms and natural enemies in the early phase of establishment

Tove Steenberg & Susanne Harding

Abstract: Harmonia axyridis arrived in Denmark in 2006, was established by 2007 and now has
spread to the southern and eastern part of the country. The rate of spread in Denmark has been
surprisingly low, and except for a few strongholds with large populations H. axyridis has mainly
been recorded as single specimens. Studies of the phenology of H. axyiridis in Denmark indicate
bivoltinism and show that it is currently not well adapted to Danish conditions. The frequency of
occurrence of four colour forms has not changed within the first two years after its establishment
in Denmark. At present, f. succinea is the dominant colour form (~94%) and the nominate colour
form f. axyridis is rare (0.6% prevalence). Among the native natural enemies interacting with
H. axyridis are phorid flies (Phalacrotophora sp.), entomopathogenic fungi and the
hymenopteran parasitoid Dinocampus coccinellae.

143-147

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Is Harmonia axyridis really eating Adalia bipunctata in the wild?
Alison Thomas, Styliana Philippou, Remy Ware, Heather Kitson & Peter Brown

Abstract: Preliminary work was conducted to identify a PCR based method for detection of
Adalia bipunctata in the predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis. A primer pair (Ab35) was
identified which amplified well a microsatellite marker in the genome of A. bipunctata but not
that of H. axyridis. Controlled laboratory studies were conducted when H. axyridis fourth instar
larvae were fed on A. bipunctata eggs or first instar larvae. A single first instar larva or seven to
ten eggs could be detected two hours post-feeding, suggesting that if a field collected H. axyridis
larva had consumed an A. bipunctata larva or a number of eggs within two hours before
collection, this intraguild predation could be detected. Of 112 field collected H. axyridis larvae
tested, one revealed the presence of A. bipunctata.

149-153

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Investigating global invasion routes of the harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis) using mtDNA
Cathleen E. Thomas, Eric Lombaert, Remy Ware, Arnaud Estoup & Lori Lawson Handley

Abstract: Although species invasions have important ecological and economical consequences,
there is still much we do not understand about why only certain species become successful
invaders, and what impacts they have on other species. Molecular techniques can be used to gain
vital information on invasion dynamics, so as part of an ongoing study, we have used
mitochondrial DNA sequence data to investigate the global invasion of Harmonia axyridis, and
particularly the characteristics of the founding population(s). This will also complement data
currently being gathered on microsatellite genotype and endosymbiont presence to provide a
powerful dataset for understanding the invasion history of this species, and, more broadly, to
attempt to determine what factors might make an invasive species successful.

155-157

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Occurrence of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773)
(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Bulgaria

Rumen Tomov, Katya Trencheva, Georgi Trenchev & Marc Kenis

Abstract: Surveys were carried out in Bulgaria in 2009 to monitor the presence of the invasive
harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Ladybirds
were collected by beating the branches of trees and shrubs and sweeping grasslands throughout
the country. The species was found in 17 localities in Bulgaria: Ardino, Belogradchik,
Bladoevgrad, Botevgrad, Dupnitsa, Elin Pelin, Gabrovo, Kresna defile, Montana, Pravets,
Smolyan, Sofia, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Velingrad, Vidin and Vratsa,. Except for the natural
location Kresna defile, H. axyridis occurred mainly in urbanised landscapes. The species was
more often found in Western part of the country. The species was found exclusively on
broadleaved trees heavily infested by aphids: Acer pseudoplatanus L., Cornus sanguinea L.,
Fraxinus excelsior L., Paliurus spina-christi Mill., Populus nigra L., Quercus rubra L., Quercus
cerris L., Tilia cordata Mill. and Tilia tomentosa Moench. The pathway of introduction of the
ladybird in Bulgaria is not clearly known. Although releases of H. axyridis were carried out in
Bulgaria and Greece in the 1990s, the present invasion is most probably due to populations
coming from the West. The invasion of H. axyridis in Bulgaria is still at an early stage and
despite the first observation of the species in 2008, it seems that it started to spread in summer
2009 from populations of Sofia.The infestation by Eucallipterus tiliae (L.) on Tilia cordata Mill.
clearly facilitated the natural spread of H. axyridis in Bulgaria.

159-164

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Suitability of diverse prey species for development of Harmonia axyridis and the
effect of container size

Dita Ungerová, Plamen Kalushko & Oldřich Nedvěd

Abstract: Larval development time and fresh body mass of newly emerged adults are widely
used quantitative parameters characterizing food suitability. These parameters were measured in
the ladybird Harmonia axyridis with nine different aphid species. We calculated suitability
parameter SL = m/t (mass divided by developmental time), and ranked the aphid species studied
accordingly: Aphis philadelphi (2.6), Aphis fabae on Rumex (2.5), Aphis spiraephaga (2.0),
Acyrthosiphon pisum (1.8), Rhopalosiphum padi (1.7), Acyrthosiphon ignotum (1.6), Dysaphis
plantaginea (1.5), Hyadaphis tataricae (1.4), Aphis sambuci 2009 (1.3), Aphis sambuci 2008
(1.1). Conspecific eggs were moderately suitable (1.7). When larvae were reared together in 0.5l
glass jars, the developmental parameters were better than when reared individually in 7 or 15cm
Petri dishes in combination with most aphid species. Sexual differences in fresh mass (females
being 1.1 to 1.2 times heavier) but not in developmental time were found. Some prey species
which are well suitable for large larvae were found not so good for young ladybird larvae due to
the large body size of these aphids.

165-174

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Adaptation of native parasitoids to a novel host: the invasive coccinellid Harmonia axyridis
Remy Ware, Laura-Jane Michie, Tomoki Otani, Emma Rhule & Richard Hall

Abstract: In its introduced range, the invasive coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera:
Coccinellidae) threatens many non-pest insects through competition and predation, and this raises
the need for appropriate control measures to be investigated. One strategy could be to consider
the introduction of natural enemies (predators, parasites and pathogens) that regulate H. axyridis
populations in its native range. Indeed, escape from natural enemies is likely to have contributed
to its invasive success (the so-called ‘enemy release hypothesis’). However, re-uniting H. axyridis
with its own enemies requires rigorous and time-consuming risk assessment to ensure there are no
unwanted side effects on native species. Moreover, the introduction of alien enemies may be
unnecessary if the organisms that attack native ladybirds in Britain also attack harlequins. Here
we present field data which indicates that two species of parasitoid wasp: Dinocampus
coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Oomyzus scaposus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea);
and two species of parasitoid fly: Phalacrotophora fasciata and Phalacrotophora berolinensis
(Diptera: Phoridae) may be adapting to H. axyridis in Britain as a novel and abundant host. This
may provide some level of natural population control.

175-182

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A feel for the organism: Ladybirding with Mike Majerus
Remy Ware

No abstract

183-184

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Intraguild predation of non-coccinellid aphid natural enemies by Harmonia axyridis:
prey range and factors influencing intraguild predation

Patricia M. Wells, Jason Baverstock, Michael E. N. Majerus, Frank M. Jiggins, Helen E. Roy & Judith K. Pell

Abstract: Although Harmonia axyridis has been recorded as an intraguild predator of various
aphidophagous coccinellids, little is known about its interactions with other aphid natural enemies.
We assessed the intraguild interactions between H. axyridis and four non coccinellid aphid
natural enemies (two species of parasitoid plus two larval stages of lacewing). Petri dish trials
showed that H. axyridis is an intraguild predator of 2nd instar lacewing (Chrysoperla carnea)
larvae but not 3rd instar larvae. Predation of Aphidius ervi and Praon volucre parasitoid pupae
was only observed occasionally. Experiments at a larger spatial scale and in more complex
environments are needed to determine whether these interactions are ecologically important. The
effect of alternative prey density and alternative prey species was assessed on whole plants in
insectary cages. The density of alternative prey (pea aphid) did not affect predation of 2nd instar
C. carnea by H. axyridis on bean plants. In contrast, aphid species may have an effect on aphid
predation and intraguild predation.

185-192

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PCR-based gut content analysis in Harmonia axyridis
Renate Zindel, Angelos Katsanis, Marc Kenis & Alexandre Aebi

Abstract only

193-194

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Is Harmonia axyridis a potential biocontrol agent in Christmas tree plantations?
Susanne Harding, Tove Steenberg

Abstract: Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) Christmas trees are a high value crop and quality
demands are high. The adelgid Dreyfusia nordmannianae is the key pest in the production of
Christmas trees, feeding on current-year foliage and causing needle distortion. Laboratory assays
were carried out to evaluate the potential of Harmonia axyridis as a biocontrol agent in Christmas
tree plantations. Differences appeared in the predation efficiency of larvae and adults as well as in
the suitability as prey of different adelgid generations and developmental stages. Harmonia
axyridis preferred and performed better on aphids belonging to Aphidoidea than on an adelgid
diet. Our laboratory results indicate that H. axyridis may not be a highly effective biocontrol
agent against D. nordmannianae. However, H. axyridis may assist in the natural regulation of the
increasingly common lachnid Cinara confinis in Christmas tree plantations.

195-201

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