Pheromones and Other Semio-Chemicals in Integrated Production


  • Improvement of existing mating disruption control systems towards more reliable and economic applications

  • Development of new applications of semiochemicals for pest control: Attract-and-kill, push-and-pull, push-pull-kill and others

  • Managing beneficial insects by semiochemicals

  • Using plant volatiles for monitoring natural enemies of pest insects

  • Improvement in dispenser materials and methods

  • Measurement of airborne pheromone concentrations in the field

  • Field and laboratory tests on behavioural mechanisms

  • Improvement of efficiency and selectivity of monitoring traps and mass trapping devices found on the market

  • Chemists and entomologists cooperate in establishing standards for the chemical composition and behavioral activity of lures, and in assuring their availability

  • Studying the impact of fundamental determinants of climate change on the chemically mediated interactions between pests and cultivated plants

  • A long-term study concerns agricultural production in the context of chemical ecology as it affects the entire consumer-crop-pest complex


Insect control by synthetic pheromones has become a reality over the past decades.The area under mating disruption has increased almost exponentially from the 1990s, and it is reported that the crop area being managed for pests using mating disruption worldwide was 770,000 ha in 2010 (Ioriatti et al., 2011; Witzgall et al., 2010).
The species with the highest land area under mating disruption were the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in North American forests, the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) on apple and pear trees worldwide, and the grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana) in grape in the EU and Chile (Witzgall et al., 2010). The Internet database “Pherobase” (El Sayed 2019) currently lists 149 species, for which mating disruption techniques have been proven, and 133 of these are Lepidoptera (Gross and Gündermann 2016). The use of pheromone traps for detection and monitoring is a well-established part of most pest control programs.


sex pheromones, semiochemicals, mating disruption, monitoring, environmentally safe insect management

Cookie Consent with Real Cookie Banner