Specific examples for soft fruits are:

(i) border areas and slopes of terraced plots rich in plant species,

(ii) stone walls,

(iii) provision of wildlife habitats; plant hosts of parasitoids and other natural enemies,

(iv) headland attractants (flowering field margins) as reservoirs of pest antagonists,

(v) correct management of field margins and surroundings to promote also native pollinators, availability of nesting sites, nectar and pollen sources, clean water, etc.

IP guidelines must establish lists of plants to be avoided (e.g. sources of infestations of major diseases, viruses and pests and pernicious weeds).

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