Densities of plants should take into account the annual precipitation and the local experience.
High plant density hedgerow systems (e.g. > 300 plants/ha) are permitted only if i.e. do not depend on high agrochemical inputs practices (e.g. total surface application of herbicides).
For the choice of training systems IP guidelines must recommend those facilitating the following objectives:
- production of high quality olives,
- olive tree longevity,
- biological diversity (botanical, zoological),
- reduction of conditions favourable for the development of insect pests and diseases,
- a more efficient application of pesticides and fertilizers,
- a reduction of the amount of pesticides applied,
- mechanical harvesting.
Olive trees must be regularly trained and pruned to achieve a balance between growth and regular yields and to allow good penetration of light and sprays.
Proper ventilation of the canopy is an important prophylactic measure against diseases especially Fusicladium oleagineum, Colletotrichum spp. and scale insects.
Severe pruning should be avoided except in cases of canopy renewal i.e. after frost damage, disease damages or heavy infestation by scale insects.
The frequent disinfecting of pruning equipment is necessary to avoid the spread of disease infections (e.g. Pseudomonas spp.).
The use of growth regulators is not permitted, except for thinning of table olives or to help mechanical harvesting. IP guidelines must set out which chemicals are permitted, clearly specifying the aim and the restrictions of their use.