The use of slow release fertilizers can contribute to minimize nutrient losses and increasing nutrient availability during the period that they are most needed by the trees.

Fertigation is recommended where feasible.

The use of leguminous cover crops during winter may reduce the total N requirements when properly managed.

The application of nutrients in variable-dosages based on vigour maps or soil or plant samples is recommended.

IP growers should be encouraged to reduce the amount of nitrogen whenever possible to minimize leaching. Leaf analysis and observation of the green coloration of the leaves is recommended. A dark green color of the leaves suggests in most cases that the nitrogen fertilization can be reduced.

The total amount of available nitrogen in organic fertilisers should be accounted for a period of 3 years.

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