The prevention and/or suppression of key pests and diseases should be supported among other options especially by:

  • Choice of appropriate resistant/tolerant cultivars,
  • Removal or destruction of overwintering sources of infestation or infection (e.g. wood scab, canker, brown rot, leaves against apple scab) as far as practically possible is required. For instance:
    • Cardboard trapping of overwintering larvae of Cydia pomonella,
    • Placement of refugia, e.g. for spiders or earwigs, in fruit trees,
    • Removal of sources of infestation during the season such as powdery mildew.
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