The prevention and/or suppression of key pests, diseases and weeds can be achieved or supported among other options especially by the:
- Choice of appropriate resistant/tolerant cultivars.
- Use of an optimal replanting interval or similar strategy to prevent diseases and weakness.
- Use of adequate cultivation techniques, (e.g. green cover, pruning, removal of infected prunings, alternate mowing); pruning not only removes dead tissues but also allows proper ventilation and more effective spray coverage.
- Use of balanced fertilisation (especially low nitrogen input) and irrigation practices.
- Protection and enhancement of important natural enemies by adequate plant protection measures.
- Utilisation of ecological infrastructures inside and outside production sites to enhance a supportive conservation biological control of key pests by antagonists.
IP guidelines must (see 8.1.3.c) describe a basic selection of preventive measures that have to be implemented.