The prevention and/or suppression of key pests and diseases must be supported among other options especially by the:

  • Protection and enhancement of beneficial organisms / key natural enemies (e.g. phytoseid mites, insect parasitoids or predators),
  • Use of adequate cultivation techniques (e.g. green cover, alternate mowing, defoliation of grape zone; summer pruning to remove secondary and/or tertiary buds in order to improve aeration; any technique to reduce vine vigour is important to prevent pests and diseases (e.g. Botrytis),
  • Use of optimum fertilization (especially low nitrogen input) and irrigation practices,
  • Ecological infrastructures inside and outside production sites to enhance a supportive conservation and biological control of key pests by beneficials.
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