The prevention and/or suppression of key pests and diseases must be supported among other options especially by the:
- Protection and enhancement of beneficial organisms / key natural enemies (e.g. phytoseid mites, insect parasitoids or predators),
- Use of adequate cultivation techniques (e.g. green cover, alternate mowing, defoliation of grape zone; summer pruning to remove secondary and/or tertiary buds in order to improve aeration; any technique to reduce vine vigour is important to prevent pests and diseases (e.g. Botrytis),
- Use of optimum fertilization (especially low nitrogen input) and irrigation practices,
- Ecological infrastructures inside and outside production sites to enhance a supportive conservation and biological control of key pests by beneficials.