The prevention and/or suppression of key pests and diseases must be supported among other options especially by:

  • The protection and enhancement of beneficial organisms (e.g. predatory mites, arthropod predators, parasitoids, pollinators),
  • Use of adequate cultivation techniques (e.g. green cover, alternate mowing, etc.),
  • Use of optimum fertilization (especially low nitrogen input) and irrigation practices,
  • Ecological infrastructures inside and outside production sites to enhance a supportive conservation biological and to control of key pests by antagonists (e.g. field margins, selection of native plants in hedgerows),
  • Removal of infected organ/plants in case of uncurable diseases (e.g. apple proliferation, fireblight). 
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