Use of mathematical models and DSSs to take decisions about when it is necessary to apply pesticides is strongly recommended.

Models and DSSs are available in many countries, provided by public institutions or private companies. Check for the accuracy and robustness, as well as for local validation, before their adoption is highly recommended.

When information from large-scale decision support tools (e.g., official warning systems, DSSs) is used, it is strongly recommended to adapt this information to local conditions, by accounting for site or weather variability or cultivar susceptibility sanitary status of the vineyard, previous pesticide sprays, etc.

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