Use of mathematical models and regionally adapted Decision Support Systems (DSS) to take decisions about whether, when and where it is necessary to apply pesticides is strongly recommended.

When information from large-scale decision support tools (e.g., official warning systems, DSSs) is used, it is strongly recommended to adapt this information to local and farm conditions, by accounting for weather variability, pest distribution in the field, natural enemies, cultivar susceptibility, sanitary status of the orchard, previous pesticide sprays, etc.

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