Existing and validated forecasting models for pests and diseases should be used and the use of adequate monitoring devices by groups of growers recommended.
Psila rosae: Monitoring with traps is recommended during the entire growth season.
Nematodes: Take population samples when problems are expected.
Agriotes spp. (wireworms, especially carrots, celeriac): Should be monitored (e.g. bait traps).
Cutworms and other lepidopterans: Populations should be monitored (e.g. sex pheromone traps and visual inspection) and forecasting models should be taken into account. Overhead irrigation is recommended against early instar larvae.
Alternaria and other leaf diseases: Existing and validated forecasting models should be applied.
Sclerotinia and other soil borne diseases: Excessive N should be avoided (e.g. by wider distances in or between the rows). Provide proper drainage. Good soil structure and balanced irrigation should be adopted as important elements to prevent soil born diseases (e.g. Pythium or Sclerotinia, Fusarium, Chalara).
Bacteria: Excessive N should be avoided (e.g. by wider distances in or between the rows). Provide proper drainage.