Existing and validated forecasting models for pests and diseases should be used and the use of adequate monitoring devices by groups of growers recommended.
Cutworms and other lepidoptera: Populations should be monitored (e.g. sex pheromone traps and visual inspection) and forecasting models should be taken into account.
Powdery mildew and Cercospora: Early monitoring recommended. Disinfection by aerated steam treatment.