• For apple scab forecasting models such as RIMpro, A-SCAB or CIMMET.
  • For Fire blight forecasting models such as RIMpro or Mary Blight to verify risk of infections during blossoming. 

Insect and mites 

  • Degree-days and phenology models (e.g. RIMpro, MRV, etc.) to adjust the mating disruption installation time and the need of reinforcement in key phenology times or the timing of other treatments; combined with other methods suitable for important pests.
  • Monitoring of predators and parasitoids (e.g. visual assessment, beating) to assess beneficial-pest ratio.
  • Visual assessment (e.g. aphid and mite in spring and summer; overwintering pests on branches, egg and mobile form counting of tetranychids).
  • Traps baited with food based attractants (e.g. Fruitfly, Tortricidae in orchards with mating disruption).
  • Use of pheromone or kairomone traps if available (e.g. Cydia pomonella and other pests).


  • Beating (e.g. Anthonomus spp., Rhynchites spp.).
  • Colored sticky traps (e.g. Hoplocampa spp.).
  • Halyomorpha halys – Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)
  • Early detection by using traps such as dark green pyramid traps or transparent sticky panel traps. Some lures are also available.
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