Based on the general criteria, the following categorisation of pesticides and pesticide groups is established. It may require up- dating with the development of new products.
The use of insecticides with a broad-spectrum. Only for secondary pests their use can be permitted if no other methods are available or when mandatory control of quarantine organisms is required. Their eventual use must be justified by monitoring and overtaking of a tolerance threshold:
- Pyrethroids and acaricides
- Organochlorine insecticides and acaricides
- Acaricides if safer alternatives exist
- All acaricides toxic to phytoseiid mites
- Toxic, water polluting or very persistent herbicides (e.g. Diquat, Paraquat).
Permitted with Restrictions
The following categories of compounds do not fit in IPM schemes, however they sometimes might be unavoidable. Therefore restrictions are required (yellow list principle):
- Broad-spectrum organophosphate and carbamate insecticides: precise indication and maximum number of applications,
- Dithiocarbamate fungicides due to their high or middle toxicity towards predatory mites,
- Sulphur dosage must be limited to non-toxic levels so that predatory phytoseiid mites are not affected,
- Fungicides and insecticides with high potential to develop resistance (maximum number of applications to be clearly defined),
- Copper (guidelines have to define the maximum amount in kg per ha and year),
- Persistent herbicides with DT90<1 vegetation period (spring-autumn): the situations of their exceptional use must be clearly specified (e.g. in the first three years after planting, maximum of one dose-equivalent per annum).