Based on the general criteria, the following categorization of certain pesticides and pesticide groups is established. It may require up-dating with the development of new products.
- Toxic, water polluting or very persistent herbicides (e.g. Diquat, Paraquat)*.
Permitted with Restrictions
The following categories of compounds don’t fit in IPM schemes, however sometimes might be unavoidable. Therefore restrictions are required (yellow list principle):
- Broad-spectrum pesticides: precise indication and only for strictly limited number of applications,
- Dithiocarbamate fungicides due to their average high or middle toxicity towards the auxiliaries,
- Sulphur (dosage must be limited to non-toxic levels so that predatory Phytoseiid mites are not affected),
- Fungicides and insecticides with high potential to develop resistance (maximum number of applications to be clearly defined),
- Copper (guidelines have to define the maximum amount in kg per ha and year, taking into account both effects against diseases and against symbiotic bacteria for Olive fly)
- Post-emergence applications of herbicides are permitted in any case only after harvest,
- In case of soil preparation under the canopy for harvest, the use of residual herbicides with medium persistence is permitted, but their application has to be restricted in early autumn to avoid residues on the dropped olive fruits,
- The use of growth regulators is not permitted, except for thinning of table olives or to help mechanical harvesting,
- Persistent herbicides with DT90<1 vegetation period (spring-autumn): the situations of their exceptional use must be clearly specified (e.g. in the first three years after planting, maximum of one dose-equivalent per annum). and the risk of residues in olive oil be monitored.
*The list of “non-permitted” and “Permitted with restrictions” still contains group of active ingredients no longer allowed in Europe; if these groups are still allowed outside Europe than these rules must be followed: