Based on the general criteria, the following categorization of certain pesticides and pesticide groups is established. It may require up-dating with the development of new products.
- Non-naturally occurring plant growth regulators,
- Organochlorine pesticides,
- Persistent herbicides,
- All acaricides toxic to Phytoseiid mites,
Permitted with Restrictions*
The following categories compounds don’t fit in IPM schemes, however sometimes their use might be unavoidable, Guidelines must define clearly the restrictions and permitted indications (yellow list principle):
- Copper-based products: (maximum of 4 kg/ha of copper ion /year.
- Benzimidazole fungicides (maximum of 2 applications/year.
- Dithiocarbamate fungicides (maximum of 3 applications/year).
- IBE fungicides (maximum of 3 applications/year).
- Dicarboximide fungicides (not permitted anymore in Europe; maximum of 3 applications/year).
- Broad-spectrum insecticides, their use should be limited to the secondary pests or to the mandatory control of quarantine organisms (if not possible by others methods). Their eventual use must be justified by monitoring and use of a tolerance threshold.
- Synthetic pyrethroids must not be permitted wherever possible. However, as a short-term measure, whilst research is undertaken to identify more selective control methods, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides may be used on stone fruits in the following circumstances:
Maximum of 1 application/year in emergency situations, shortly before harvest, if no alternatives are available. In case of demonstrated damages provoked by Drosophila suzukii or Haliomorpha halys, and under same conditions as above, a maximum of 2 applications/yearis permitted as a specific short term measure. IP Guidelines which permit the use of pyrethroids must have an active research program to identify more favourable alternatives.
- Post-emergence applications of herbicides are permitted in any case only after harvest.
- Persistent herbicides with DT90<1 vegetation period (spring-autumn): the situations of their exceptional use must be clearly specified (e.g. in the first three years after planting, maximum of one dose-equivalent per annum). and the risk of residues in olive oil be monitored.
*The list of “non-permitted” and “Permitted with restrictions” still contains group of active ingredients no longer allowed in Europe; if these groups are still allowed outside Europe than these rules must be followed: