On the list of the most important known antagonist(s) of the key pests (“Passport”) at least two key groups or species of natural enemies must be identified (i.e. coccinellids, chrysopids, anthocorids, hymenoptera parasitoids or phytoseiids, ground-dwelling arthropods) and their protection from non-selective insecticides, acaricides or fungicides be declared important. 

Where important natural enemies are absent from olive-groves where the pest situation requires regular control measures (e.g. parasitoids of scale insects), they should be introduced, if available and effective.

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