Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Lamiaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
Abstract: In recent years essential oils of medicinal plants have received much attention as pestcontrol chemical agents. The discovery of active compounds that are less persistent will bebeneficial for both the environment and agricultural product consumers. Zataria multiflora is aplant belonging to the Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The essential oil of dried leaves andflowers were obtained by Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil wasanalyzed by GC- MS. Sixteen compounds representing 95.91% of total oil were identified. Themajor components in the oil were Thymol (30.72%) and Carvacrol (29.95%). Fumigant toxicityof essential oil from Z. multiflora was tested against adults, different ages of larvae and eggs. Theexperiments were carried out at 25 ± 1ºC and 65 ± 5% RH under dark condition. The essential oilshowed strong adulticidal, larvicidal and ovicidal activity. Probit analysis showed that the LC50values for adults were 8.81μl/l air, for 1, 7 and 14 days larvae were 8.47, 10.37, 13.36μl/l air andfor 1, 3 and 6 days eggs were 4.55, 3.63, 3.01μl/l air, respectively. On the basis of these LC50values, eggs were much more susceptible than adults and larvae. The essential oil Z. multifloramay be suitable as fumigants because of its high volatility and safety.