Conservation and classical biological control of Satsuma citrus pests in western Turkey


Abstract: Western part of Turkey is the second largest producer of Satsuma mandarin in Turkey for fresh consumption and export to Europe. Satsuma citrus is the host for many pests, mainly sucking insects belonging to order Hemiptera. Satsuma citrus mites, whiteflies, scale insects, and the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) are controlled by either native and/or introduced natural enemies, successfully established by several classical biological control studies over the last few decades. Conservation of natural enemies with high summer temperatures makes it unnecesary the need for insecticidal application for aphid pests. Only the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) cannot be suppressed without chemical control. There is no need to use any control measures for the European leaf roller Archips rosana L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and leafhoppers. The status of biological control, including classical and conservation strategies, against Satsuma citrus pests in western Turkey is reviewed. Overall, conservation of natural enemies seems to be an essential component of the management of pests in Satsuma citrus in Western Turkey, thus the most important step for using biological control lies in producers’ willingness to accept it and in training for increasing sensitivity to human and environment health.

Cookie Consent with Real Cookie Banner