Abstract: Landscape ecology is a discipline that has shown an increasing interest to understand certain pest problems and their control by natural enemies in temperate climate. In Benin, in a very different climatic, social and economic context compared to Europe, this approach was carried out in two lowland rice cropping systems during the rainy season, with a specific focus on stem and cob borers. The landscape was mapped and studied regarding its composition and structure and pest species were identified. A high variability of infestation was observed in a context of relatively low pest pressure. This paper presents the preliminary results which still need to be analyzed thoroughly.