Entomopathogenic fungi, solitary bees and spiders in vineyards: How to promote their diversity and abundance for a sustainable viticulture
Abstract: The interaction between biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key factor for a productive and sustainable agriculture. Vineyards can provide habitats for a range of organisms; however, grapevine is an extremely intensively managed crop, with high frequencies of plant protection treatments both in conventional (integrated) and organic viticulture. Here, we assessed the effects of vineyard management system (integrated or organic viticulture), of vegetation cover within the vineyard as well as the effect of semi-natural habitats surrounding respective vineyards on diversity of soil entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), solitary bees and wasps and ground-dwelling spiders. Three taxa of EPF could be verified with only minor differences between management systems and no negative effect of fungicides on the presence of EPF. Overall, 15 solitary bee and 14 solitary wasp species were found in artificial trap-nests. Diversity and abundance of solitary bees was strongly related to the proximity to the next woody habitat. A total of 3505 spiders comprising 62 species from 17 families were caught in pitfall traps, with high densities of the dominant agrobiont species Pardosa agrestis. Densities of spiders other than P. agrestis increased with proximity to semi-natural habitats. Taken together, diversification of viticultural landscapes by introducing hedgerows, woodlots and permanent grassland as well as promoting organic viticulture can help to maintain biodiversity of potentially beneficial organisms and may thus contribute to the sustainability of viticulture.