Evolution of chemical control on fungal diseases in pome fruits


Abstract: Economical and pomological factors have increased the sensitivity of modern orchardsfor fungal diseases. Different strategies must be integrated in the control measures to achieve asustainable production system. The disposal of modern fungicides with a high performance isonly one pillar in disease management. 75% of the pesticide use in apple production is relatedwith the control of fungal diseases, in which apple scab has a share of 70%. The availablefungicide families (classical protectants, demethylation inhibitors, anilino-pyrimidines,strobilurins) and the recent developed succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors must be positionedduring the growing season in relation with optimal biological and climatological circumstances.The combined use of fungicide families with complementary effects on different fungaldeveloping stages together with a limited number of treatments with one family per season mustprolong the lifetime of modern fungicide families. The flexibility in product choice, doses andquality care of the application over the different treatments must lead to a durable management ofapple diseases in the orchard. However, with the new regulation replacing Directive 91/414 andthe Framework Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides, products will disappear from theEuropean market which will give a new challenge in IPM strategies to control pest and diseases.Besides this agricultural approach, there is the pressure of environmental and consumer groupson supermarkets to reduce residues on fruits. The competition between retailers is an issue basedon residue levels which are much stronger then the legally MRL (Maximum Residue Limit)eventually combined with a maximum of active ingredients present on the fruit. The challengewill be how to manage pest and diseases in the post blossom period until harvest. Sanitation,optimal timing of spray treatments, adequate application techniques and resistance risk modifierswill under these prescriptions be the main tools to reach an integrated durable fruit productionstructure.

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