Gall-wasps of oaks (Quercus spp.) in Tunisia with a special attentionto Synophrus olivieri Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)
Abstract: Cynipid galls were collected between February-March and October 2009 in theKhroumirie Mountain in Northwestern Tunisia on Quercus suber, Q. faginea, Q. afares andQ. coccifera. Twenty of the 24 known Tunisian Cynipids species were recorded during this studywith 10 reported for the first time from Tunisia: Andricus burgundus, A. curvator,A. quercusradicis, Cynips disticha, C. quercus, Neuroterus anhracinus, N. minutulus, Plagiotrochusamenti, P. coriaceus and P. gallaeramulorum. A particular attention must be given totwo species: N. minutulus, whose very peculiar gall was known in central Europe on Quercuscerris, is mentioned here for the first time on Quercus suber in Tunisia and North Africa. Onanother hand, P. amenti could be considered as a potential pest for oak trees as its expansionshould induce economical losses for Tunisian cork industry. Finally, we identified for the firsttime in Tunisia several parasitoid Chalcidoidea obtained from Synophorus olivieri galls.