Abstract: A preliminary analysis of COI and COII (1875 bp) gene variability was carried out in Sardinian populations of the Green oak leaf roller Tortrix viridana. The aim of the study was to investigate the genetic structure and mitochondrial haplotype variation in populations associated with deciduous (Quercus pubescens) and evergreen (Q. suber and Q ilex) oaks. Forty-four haplotypes out of 87 individuals were found: three haplotypes showed a high frequency (23%, 16% and 10%) and were largely shared among populations. Hierarchical AMOVA showed no significant differentiation grouping populations for geographic areas or oak species, in spite of significant divergences structuring populations for different duration in egg development (early- vs late-hatching). However a high haplotype diversity (H = 0.94) and a low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.004) have been observed.