Identification key to Q. ilex, Q. suber and Q. coccifera oak galls and relation with oak species from Quercus sections (Hym.: Cynipidae)


Abstract: Throughout the history of cynipids, 50 species that make galls on evergreen Quercus trees (Q. ilex, Q. coccifera and Q. suber) have been cited. All studied species belong to Cynipini (4 genera) and Synergini (2 genera). A total of 23 species (27 morph-galls) have been proved to be present in these hosts; the rest are either erroneous identifications or are pending confirmation. Most of them can be identified through the gall structure, without obtaining adults. The aim of this study is to present the identification key of galls in order to recognize the 23 species present in Q. ilex (14 species), Q. coccifera (10 species) and Q. suber (8 species), grouped into 6 genera (4 gall formers and 2 inquilines). Some aspects of their life cycle and some curious distributions are exposed. All galls are illustrated. A special mention to the inquiline species capable of deforming Cynipini galls is also given.

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