Abstract: Cork oak decline is a general and worrying phenomenon in most Mediterraneancountries, but its importance varies from one country to another. This trend is very worrying inMorocco and Portugal but less marked in Tunisia. The exact origin and the specific causes of corkoak forest decline are very complex. It is a gradual process involving several factorssimultaneously or sequentially. The undeniable weakening of forest stands of the Mediterraneanregion is linked to the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors that cause, directly or indirectly, aprogressive decrease in tree health status. This reduces the tree defense capability and createsfavorable conditions for antagonistic biotic agents such as wood-boring insects and fungalpathogens. The present study aims at presenting the impact of wrong management on the declineof cork oak in different Mediterranean countries.