Abstract: Platypus cylindrus F. has been considered one of the main causes of cork oak trees decline and mortality in Portugal, in Morocco and recently in Algeria. However, in Tunisia, the insect behaves as secondary, attacking only weakened or dead trees. The aim of this work is to establish a synthesis of knowledge concerning the infestation and biology of the pinhole borer in Tunisia and to clarify the the relations between P. cylindrus and cork oak trees in Tunisian forests. The methodology is based on investigation, carried between 2010 and 2011, in the Tunisian cork oak region, complemented with literature reviews of previous works. The results showed that the insect distribution follows the distribution of host trees and P. cylindrus is active in spring and summer, between May and July. Observations indicate that the insect attacks appear to be more related to inappropriate cork removal than to tree phytosanitary status.