Insecticidal potential of a Turkish natural zeolite formulation enhanced with silica aerogel against confused flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for short- and long-term applications
Abstract: There were short- (7-28 days) and long-term (90 and 180 days) studies to evaluate Turkish zeolite toxicity to adult Tribolium confusum on two-row barley variety (Özdemir-05). The formulation contains natural unprocessed Turkish Zeolite (70%, w:w) from western side of Turkey enhanced with food grade silica aerogel (30%, w:w). Short-term studies got a control and 750 ppm dosage, total 250 adults in 10 replications at 24 °C and 60% R.H. on 50 g barley for each cup. Long-term applications cover a control, and 200 to 800 ppm dosages, total 250 adults in 10 replications at 25 °C and 55 ± 5% R.H. on 700 g barley. The outcome of the long-term applications suggests that Turkish zeolites has statistically significant effect on 90-day population management against T. confusum adults. There was statistical difference between two application times (90 and 180 days) of each dosage groups regarding survival of insects. Short-term studies with 750 ppm dosage suggest 100% population control after 3 weeks. In long-term studies of 90 days, the less number of adults noted with the more dosage that 81.6 adults found at 800 ppm level. However, there was no significant difference between the doses in the 180 days application that 545.7 adults recorded at 800 ppm dosage. It is estimated that the low efficacy of long-term storage condition is caused by the increase of relative humidity.