IPM: how to get from IPM concepts to successfully implemented IPM systems
Abstract: During more than 50 years of development, the concept of Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPM) has been described and summarized several times. One organisation which has achieved particular recognition for the development of IPM strategies is the IOBC (International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of noxious animals and plants). According to the IOBC definition “The objective of IPM as a strategic approach towards crop protection is to safeguard the quality and quantity of production whilst minimizing the impact of pesticide use on human health and the environment”. Similar definitions have been given elsewhere. Recently, with the Sustainable Use Directive (directive 2009/128/EC), IPM has become the standard European crop protection policy. This paper, after a brief description of the basics of IPM, deals with factors that might help to span the frequently-encountered gap between the often rich knowledge about agro-ecosystem functions and tools that might be useful in IPM and the successful compilation and integration of the range of measures aimed at achieving the objectives of IPM.