Landscape structure as driver of avian-cross habitat spillover into agricultural matrices
Abstract: Cross-habitat spillover is an important ecological process influencing the provision of ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. We tested the effects of landscape structure (forest cover amount, edge density, and matrix type) on avian-cross habitat spillover and resource use within agricultural landscapes across 92 paired sampling sites (forest-matrix) in the range of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We found that spillover from the forest into matrix is facilitated when the matrix has a low contrast with forest (i. e. coffee plantations). Moreover, forest landscapes with many edges (forest-matrix interfaces) can enhance movement into the matrix. Finally, we demonstrate that most bird species that cross forest-pastures interfaces were forest-generalist species and that a substantial proportion of their diet was from C4 sources (grasslands) – which make them effective ecosystem service providers, especially in terms of pest control.