Monitoring of fruit pests in organic soft fruit plantationsand testing of biocontrol agents
Abstract: A survey in organic plantations of Japanese rose (Rosa rugosa) and sea buckthorn(Hippophae rhamnoides) pointed out the overwhelming presence of Rhagoletis alternateFallén and R. batava Hering (Diptera, Tephritidae), respectively, as well as of other fruit pests(Grapholita tenebrosana Duponchel was the most diffuse). Different methods to control thesepests, based on integrated pest management (IPM) approach, were tested. Mass trapping trialsof the fruit flies with lures designed for R. cerasi or Ceratitis capitata were carried out. Bothkinds of traps were effective in attracting the three Rhagoletis species. Extracts from neemtree or quassia, an essential oil from oranges, a Beauveria bassiana formulation as well as aproduct based on spinosad were used in the sea buckthorn plantation to control R. batava. Thedegree of efficacy differed between the products, ranging from 68% to 83%. Biologicalcontrol agents (BCAs) based on Bacillus thuringiensis or Cydia pomonella granulovirus(CpGV) were applied in a Japanese rose plantation to control Grapholita tenebrosana, andresulted in a satisfactory efficacy. It is concluded that for both crops, only the integration ofdifferent methods of control can provide an effective reduction of the fruit damage from thementioned pests.