Monitoring of pesticide residues in citrus fruits and soil properties under the framework of the developing of an integrated pest management strategy (IPMS) for the sustainable management for the control of medfly (Ceratitis capitata) LIFE BIODELEAR (LIFE13 ENV/GR/000414)
Abstract: LIFE BIODELEAR is 5-year project which foresees to the development of an Integrated Pest Management Strategy (IPMS) for the sustainable control of medfly (Ceratitis capitata) using the mass trapping technique with the novel no toxic attractant Biodelear. The implementation of LIFE BIODELEAR is being performed in the area of Campos, in the island of Chios, Greece, and foresees to a medfly protection strategy that is replicable and scalable with regards to intensively cultivated Mediterranean areas. Among the main objectives of the project is the elimination of insecticide use and the investigation of the effects of conventional and alternative cultivated practices, related to the protection from Med fly, on soil fertility and quality. During the first three years, 900 citrus fruit samples have been sampled according to Directive 91972/2003/EC. All samples have been analyzed with a multiresidue analytical method capable of analyzing 334 pesticides and 18 plant growth regulators. The main pesticides determined so far were the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and spirotetramat, while no residues of plant growth regulators were determined. In a total of four samplings both preparatory and confirmatory residue analysis has been achieved and the fingerprint of the experimental areas as far as pesticide residues are concerned has been depicted. In addition, soil samplings campaign took place in the pilot fields in the area of Campos, before the application of medfly attractants. Soil samples were collected at depth increments of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm. Samples were subjected to main physicochemical analysis. The results showed high concentrations of DTPA-Zn in surface soil (0-30 cm) as well as excess DTPA-Cu, particularly in soil depth 30-60 cm, indicating the use of copper-containing fungicidal sprays. The regular use of fungicides can potentially pose a risk to the environment, particularly if residues persist in the soil or migrate off-site and enter waterways. High levels of soluble anions (NO3-, Cl-, PO4-3 and SO4-2) were also registered in soil of citrus groves due to inappropriate nutrient management practices. Under the frame of LIFE BIODELEAR, the development of a sustainable IPMS foresees the decrease of pesticide residues, and in combination with soil quality indicators will contribute to the control of medfly due to the use of Biodelear attractant and finally to the recovery of citrus ecosystem services.