New strategies for phytoplasma vector control by semiochemicals
Abstract: Phytoplasmas are worldwide responsible for more than 700 different plant diseasesand have an important economic impact. Apple proliferation (AP), pear decline (PD) andEuropean stone fruit yellows (ESFY) cause severe crop losses in European fruit growingregions. Phloem feeding insects were identified as vectors, often one species transmitting aspecific phytoplasma. All investigated psyllid species use chemical cues for the identificationof their host plants during migration between different host plant species. The production ofplant volatiles was in some systems influenced by phytoplasma infections which indirectlyinfluenced the behavior of vector insects. For several vector insects species-specific attractiveand repellent compounds have been identified. Attractive compounds can be used in traps aslures for monitoring and mass trapping purposes. By combination of attractive compounds intraps and repellent compounds in dispensers these chemicals may be used in push-and-pullstrategies.